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1.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432207

RESUMO

Photons that have a helical phase front, that is, twisted photons, can carry a discrete, in principle, unlimited, but quantized amount of orbital angular momentum (OAM). Hence, twisted single photons constitute a high-dimensional quantum system with information-processing abilities beyond those of two-level single-photon qubits. To date, the generation of single photons carrying OAM has relied on a non-linear process in bulk crystals, for example, spontaneous parametric down-conversion, which limits both the efficiency and the scalability of the source. Here, we present a bright solid-state source of single photons in an OAM superposition state with a single-photon purity of g(2)(0) = 0.115(1) and a collection efficiency of 23(4)%. The mode purity of the single-photon OAM states is further examined via projection measurements. Future developments of integrated quantum photonic devices with pure OAM states as an additional degree of freedom may enable high-dimensional quantum information processing.

2.
J Mol Evol ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433638

RESUMO

Variation in GC content is assumed to correlate with various processes, including mutation biases, recombination, and environmental parameters. To date, most genomic studies exploring the evolution of GC content have focused on nuclear genomes, but relatively few have concentrated on organelle genomes. We explored the mechanisms maintaining the GC content in angiosperm plastomes, with a particular focus on the hypothesis of phylogenetic dependence and the correlation with deletion mutations. We measured three genetic traits, namely, GC content, A/T tracts, and G/C tracts, in the coding region of plastid genomes for 1382 angiosperm species representing 350 families and 64 orders, and tested the phylogenetic signal. Then, we performed correlation analyses and revealed the variation in evolutionary rate of selected traits using RRphylo. The plastid GC content in the coding region varied from 28.10% to 43.20% across angiosperms, with a few non-photosynthetic species showing highly reduced values, highlighting the significance of functional constraints. We found strong phylogenetic signal in A/T tracts, but weak ones in GC content and G/C tracts, indicating adaptive potential. GC content was positively and negatively correlated with G/C and A/T tracts, respectively, suggesting a trade-off between these two deletion events. GC content evolved at various rates across the phylogeny, with significant increases in monocots and Lamiids, and a decrease in Fabids, implying the effects of some other factors. We hypothesize that variation in plastid GC content might be a mixed strategy of species to optimize fitness in fluctuating climates, partly through influencing the trade-off between AT → GC and GC → AT mutations.

3.
Redox Biol ; 40: 101859, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445067

RESUMO

Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major complication of liver surgery and transplantation. IRI leads to hepatic parenchymal cell death, resulting in liver failure, and lacks effective therapeutic approaches. Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) is a paracrine factor which is well-characterized with respect to its pro-proliferative effects during embryonic liver development and liver regeneration, but its role in hepatic IRI remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of FGF10 in liver IRI and identified signaling pathways regulated by FGF10. In a mouse model of warm liver IRI, FGF10 was highly expressed during the reperfusion phase. In vitro experiments demonstrated that FGF10 was primarily secreted by hepatic stellate cells and acted on hepatocytes. The role of FGF10 in liver IRI was further examined using adeno-associated virus-mediated gene silencing and overexpression. Overexpression of FGF10 alleviated liver dysfunction, reduced necrosis and inflammation, and protected hepatocytes from apoptosis in the early acute injury phase of IRI. Furthermore, in the late phase of IRI, FGF10 overexpression also promoted hepatocyte proliferation. Meanwhile, gene silencing of FGF10 had the opposite effect. Further studies revealed that overexpression of FGF10 activated nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and decreased oxidative stress, mainly through activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT pathway, and the protective effects of FGF10 overexpression were largely abrogated in NRF2 knockout mice. These results demonstrate the protective effects of FGF10 in liver IRI, and reveal the important role of NRF2 in FGF10-mediated hepatic protection during IRI.

4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 136: 111265, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450490

RESUMO

Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis is a highly effective strategy for cancer treatment. Human antigen R (HuR), an RNA-binding protein, is overexpressed in many cancers and regulates the mRNAs of multiple angiogenic factors by binding to the adenylate-uridylate-rich element in their 3' untranslated region. HuR protein has been demonstrated to be an important regulatory factor in macrophage-mediated angiogenesis, a process in which macrophages are critical for tumor progression. Muscone is a synthetic equivalent of musk, and recent studies have shown that it has a regulatory effect on angiogenesis. In this study, we synthesized five series of muscone derivatives and discovered that compound ZM-32 was effective in preventing HuR RRM1/2-Vegf-a mRNA complex formation. ZM-32 bound to HuR RRM1/2 protein with a KD value of 521.7 nmol/L. Furthermore, ZM-32 inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tubule formation, and suppressed the VEGF/VEGFR2/ERK1/2 signaling axis mediated by macrophages in vitro. We also demonstrated that ZM-32 effectively prevented the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells and inhibited the growth and angiogenesis of MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumors without any obvious toxicity in vivo. Mechanistically, exposure to ZM-32 influenced the mRNA stability of Vegf-a and Mmp9 in a HuR-dependent manner in both macrophages and MDA-MB-231 cells. Thus, in this study we identified a new muscone derivative, ZM-32, with anti-angiogenesis effects mediated via targeting HuR in breast cancer, that may become a potentially valuable lead compound for anti-cancer angiogenesis.

5.
Theranostics ; 11(6): 3000-3016, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33456585

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA modification, a dynamic and reversible process, is essential for tissue development and pathogenesis. However, the potential involvement of m6A in the regulation of cardiomyocyte (CM) proliferation and cardiac regeneration remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the essential role of m6A modification in heart regeneration during postnatal and adult injury. Methods and results: In this study, we identified the downregulation of m6A demethylase ALKBH5, an m6A "eraser" that is responsible for increased m6A methylation, in the heart after birth. Notably, ALKBH5 knockout mice exhibited decreased cardiac regenerative ability and heart function after neonatal apex resection. Conversely, forced expression of ALKBH5 via adeno-associated virus-9 (AAV9) delivery markedly reduced the infarct size, restored cardiac function and promoted CM proliferation after myocardial infarction in juvenile (7 days old) and adult (8-weeks old) mice. Mechanistically, ALKBH5-mediated m6A demethylation improved the mRNA stability of YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA-binding protein 1 (YTHDF1), thereby increasing its expression, which consequently promoted the translation of Yes-associated protein (YAP). The modulation of ALKBH5 and YTHDF1 expression in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes consistently yielded similar results. Conclusion: Taken together, our findings highlight the vital role of the ALKBH5-m6A-YTHDF1-YAP axis in the regulation of CMs to re-enter the cell cycle. This finding suggests a novel potential therapeutic strategy for cardiac regeneration.

6.
Exp Neurobiol ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462159

RESUMO

An increasing number of studies have recently indicated the important effects of gut microbes on various functions of the central nervous system. However, the underlying mechanisms by which gut microbiota regulate brain functions and behavioral phenotypes remain largely unknown. We therefore used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomic analysis to obtain proteomic profiles of the hippocampus in germ-free (GF), colonized GF, and specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice. We then integrated the resulting proteomic data with previously reported mRNA microarray data, to further explore the effects of gut microbes on host brain functions. We identified that 61 proteins were upregulated and 242 proteins were downregulated in GF mice compared with SPF mice. Of these, 124 proteins were significantly restored following gut microbiota colonization. Bioinformatic analysis of these significant proteins indicated that the glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathway and inflammation-related pathways were the most enriched disrupted pathways. This study provides new insights into the pathological mechanisms of gut microbiota-regulated diseases.

7.
Cell Death Differ ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462409

RESUMO

The DNA-PK maintains cell survival when DNA damage occurs. In addition, aberrant activation of the DNA-PK induces centrosome amplification, suggesting additional roles for this kinase. Here, we showed that the DNA-PK-p53 cascade induced primary cilia formation (ciliogenesis), thus maintaining the DNA damage response under genotoxic stress. Treatment with genotoxic drugs (etoposide, neocarzinostatin, hydroxyurea, or cisplatin) led to ciliogenesis in human retina (RPE1), trophoblast (HTR8), lung (A459), and mouse Leydig progenitor (TM3) cell lines. Upon genotoxic stress, several DNA damage signaling were activated, but only the DNA-PK-p53 cascade contributed to ciliogenesis, as pharmacological inhibition or genetic depletion of this pathway decreased genotoxic stress-induced ciliogenesis. Interestingly, in addition to localizing to the nucleus, activated DNA-PK localized to the base of the primary cilium (mother centriole) and daughter centriole. Genotoxic stress also induced autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy initiation or lysosomal degradation or depletion of ATG7 decreased genotoxic stress-induced ciliogenesis. Besides, inhibition of ciliogenesis by depletion of IFT88 or CEP164 attenuated the genotoxic stress-induced DNA damage response. Thus, our study uncovered the interplay among genotoxic stress, the primary cilium, and the DNA damage response.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462908

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate perinatal outcomes regarding clinical presentation in pregnancy and the vertical transmission potential of COVID-19. METHODS: Clinical records, laboratory findings, and chest computed tomography (CT) scans were retrospectively reviewed from 20 pregnant patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University and The Third Hospital of Wuhan, from Jan 20 to Mar 16, 2020, including three in the first-trimester, two in the second-trimester, and 15 in the third-trimester. Evidence of vertical transmission was assessed by testing for neonatal throat swab samples. The pathological changes of COVID-19 on the placenta is evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining. RESULTS: The most common symptoms of the pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection were fever and cough, which is comparable to the nonpregnant adults with COVID-19 infection. Nobody was transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) for treatment and there were no maternal and neonatal deaths. However, there was one case with induced abortions on first-trimester (due to pregnant woman's concerns about COVID-19), one diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy, no intrauterine fetal deaths during the study period. Delivery occurred in 15 patients in the third trimester. Their incidence of preterm birth was 20%. Three of the four preterm births were spontaneous. The average length of stay was 20.77 days. No neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected. There were two placentas found with acute chorioamnionitis, one showed normal placenta morphology. CONCLUSION: In this case series study, COVID-19 had no short-term adverse effect on pregnant women except premature birth. The vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 did not occur in our study.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24245, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429828

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junctions that leads to fluctuating weakness and disabling fatigability. Due to difficulty in breathing caused by weakness of the respiratory muscles, patients with MG are more susceptible to pneumonia and other respiratory infections. As many patients with MG are given immunosuppressive therapy, this makes them more prone to infections. However, coinfection with 3 pathogens is very rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: Here, we report the case of a 41-year-old gentleman with MG who was receiving long-term steroid therapy. He presented with a cough with pale brown expectoration that occurred without obvious inducement, severe pain in the scapula, as well as swelling and weakness of both legs. Despite undergoing treatment, but his symptoms did not improve, prompting two additional hospital admissions over a period of several months. DIAGNOSIS: Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed, revealing the presence of Pneumocystis jirovecii , Nocardia brasiliensis, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). N brasiliensis was identified by positive modified acid-fast Kinyoun staining as well as a positive colony culture identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry from the BAL sample. MTB was confirmed using GeneXpert, and due to the limitations of the culture conditions, methenamine silver stain was used to confirm Pneumocystis jirovecii. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay of the BAL samples also confirmed these pathogens. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was transferred to a designated tuberculosis hospital and received anti-infective and anti-TB treatment. OUTCOMES: During treatment at the designated hospital, the patient developed gastrointestinal bleeding and impaired liver function. One month later, he developed multiple organ failure, consolidation of the left lower lung, and pan-drug resistant bacteremia. He refused further treatment and was discharged. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, physicians should be aware of the predisposition of MG patients to co-infections, especially patients with metabolic disorders, to avoid inadequate treatment and poor patient outcomes. Due to the limitations of culture conditions, NGS should be considered as a new technique for identifying pathogens.

10.
Int Heart J ; 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455985

RESUMO

High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is increased in the myocardium under pressure overload (PO) and is involved in PO-induced cardiac remodeling. The mechanisms of the upregulation of cardiac HMGB1 expression have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, a mouse transverse aortic constriction (TAC) model was used, and an angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor inhibitor (losartan) or Ang II type 2 (AT2) receptor inhibitor (PD123319) was administrated to mice for 14 days. Cardiac myocytes were cultured and treated with Ang II for 5 minutes to 48 hours conditionally with the blockage of the AT1 or AT2 receptor. TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy was observed at 14 days after the operation, which was partially reversed by losartan, but not by PD123319. Similarly, the upregulated HMGB1 expression levels observed in both the serum and myocardium induced by TAC were reduced by losartan. Elevated cardiac HMGB1 protein levels, but not mRNA or serum levels, were significantly decreased by PD123319. Furthermore, HMGB1 expression levels in culture media and cardiac myocytes were increased following Ang II treatment in vitro, positively associated with the duration of treatment. Similarly, Ang II-induced upregulation of HMGB1 in vitro was inhibited by both losartan and PD123319. These results suggest that upregulation of HMGB1 in serum and myocardium under PO, which are partially derived from cardiac myocytes, may be induced by Ang II via the AT1 and AT2 receptors. Additionally, amelioration of PO-induced cardiac hypertrophy following losartan treatment may be associated with the reduction of HMGB1 expression through the AT1 receptor.

11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 255: 117546, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436262

RESUMO

An amphiphilic polymer of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starch microparticles (SMPs) was synthesized and used to stabilize emulsions. The effects of the degree of substitution (DS) on the physicochemical properties of OSA-modified SMPs and the stability of OSA-modified SMP-stabilized emulsions during a three-step in vitro digestion model were studied. The results showed that OSA esterification acted on the surface of SMPs and that the hydrophobicity of SMPs improved with increasing DS. In addition, the emulsion stability during storage and the changes in ionic strength were enhanced by increasing DS. Moreover, a higher DS also led to smaller oil droplets and more OSA-modified SMPs retained during intestinal digestion. Most importantly, the encapsulation efficiency and the bioaccessibility of curcumin in the emulsion during intestinal digestion were both enhanced significantly with the increase of DS.

12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 210: 111876, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418158

RESUMO

Evidence has shown that miRNAs could play a role in dental fluorosis, but there is no study has investigated the global expression miRNA profiles of fluoride-exposed enamel organ. In this study, we analysed the differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs between fluoride-treated and control enamel organ for the first time and found several candidate miRNAs and signaling pathways worthy of further research. Thirty Wistar rats were randomly distributed into three groups and exposed to drinking water with different fluoride contents for 10 weeks and during the gestation. The three groups were a control group (distilled water), medium fluoride group (75 mg/L NaF), and high fluoride group (150 mg/L NaF). On the embryonic day 19.5, the mandible was dissected for histological analysis, and the enamel organ of the mandibular first molar tooth germ was collected for miRNA sequencing (miRNA-seq) and quantitative real-time PCR analysis (qRT-PCR). Typical dental fluorosis was observed in the incisors of the prepregnant rats. In addition to the disorganized structure of enamel organ cells, 39 DE miRNAs were identified in the fluoride groups compared with the control group, and good agreement between the miRNA-seq data and qRT-PCR data was found. The functional annotation of the target genes of 39 DE miRNAs showed significant enrichment in metabolic process, cell differentiation, calcium signaling pathway, and mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) signaling pathway terms. This study provides a theoretical reference for an extensive understanding of the mechanism of fluorosis and potential valuable miRNAs as therapeutic targets in fluorosis.

13.
Analyst ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393565

RESUMO

We developed a "signal-on" self-powered biosensing strategy by taking full advantage of both photoelectrochemical biofuel cells (PBFCs) and metal-organic framework (MOF)-controlled release behavior for ultrasensitive microRNA assay. PBFC-based self-powered sensors have the unique characteristics of non-requirement of external power sources, simple fabrication process, miniature size, good anti-interference ability and low cost. Furthermore, based on the target microRNA-induced release of the electron donor ascorbic acid and the high catalytic ability of the biocathode to catalyse the oxygen reduction reaction, photo-driven self-powered biosensors for ultrasensitive microRNA detection were successfully realized. The as-proposed signal-on biosensor not only provides a simple and effective strategy, but also possesses the merits of a wide dynamic concentration response range and high sensitivity for microRNA detection, with a limit of detection down to 0.16 fM.

14.
Clin Interv Aging ; 16: 119-127, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469279

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to examine the relationship between physical performance and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Chinese older adults. Methods: The sample comprised 956 relatively healthy and aged ≥65 years old Chinese community-dwelling participants (mean age, 72.56 ± 5.43 years; 56.8% female), which did not include those with dementia, severe cognitive impairment, mental illness etc. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale were used for the initial classification of patients with MCI. Physical performance was measured via hand grip, Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT), and 4-m walking speed. Results: The physical performance (grip strength, TUGT, and 4-m walking speed) correlated with MCI. The grip strength [odds ratio (OR) = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-0.99] and 4-m walking speed (OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.10-0.64) correlated negatively with MCI, while TUGT (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.03-1.13) and MCI correlated positively. Conclusion: The physical performance (grip strength, TUGT, and 4-m walking speed) correlated with MCI. Further analysis showed that the grip strength was associated with overall cognition, time orientation, recall, and language, while TUGT and 4-m walking speed were associated with overall cognition and various cognitive domains, except recall.

15.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 82: 24-28, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227684

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) and affective symptoms are highly prevalent in Parkinson's Disease (PD). In early PD, SCC prevalence and its affective correlates, using recommended Movement Disorders Society (MDS) Level II Criteria to define the underlying cognitive impairment, has not been previously explored. METHODS: We recruited 121 participants with early PD from two tertiary hospitals in Singapore. The presence of SCC was defined using a Non-Motor Symptoms Scale Domain-5 Score ≥1. Comprehensive neuropsychological testing was conducted with Mild Cognitive Impairment (PD-MCI) defined using recommended MDS Level II Criteria. Affective symptoms were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Apathy Scale (AS). Analysis using multivariable linear regression model was performed. RESULTS: In our early PD cohort, SCC prevalence independent of underlying cognitive status was 38.8%. Prevalence of SCC in cognitively impaired and cognitively normal participants was 10.7% and 28.1% respectively (р = 0.241). In cognitively normal PD participants, multivariable linear regression analysis revealed that SCC was significantly associated with anxiety (ß = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.09-0.79, p = 0.014), depression (ß = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.10-0.59, p = 0.006) and apathy (ß = 0.32, 95% CI = 1.15-5.98, p = 0.004). Such an association was not found in cognitively impaired PD participants. CONCLUSION: SCC is highly prevalent even in early PD. Its implications in early PD differ depending on underlying cognitive status. SCC in cognitively impaired participants underestimates the true prevalence of PD-MCI. In contrast, SCC in cognitively normal participants is suggestive of an underlying affective disorder.

16.
Environ Pollut ; 270: 116209, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360069

RESUMO

In the present work, we propose a novel algorithm to determine the scattering coefficient of OA by evaluating the relationships of the MSEs for primary organic aerosol (POA) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) with their mass concentrations at three distinct sites, i.e. an urban site, a rural site, and a background site in China. Our results showed that the MSEs for POA and SOA increased rapidly as a function of mass concentration in low mass loading. While the increasing rate declined after a threshold of mass loading of 50 µg/m3 for POA, and 15 µg/m3 for SOA, respectively. The dry scattering coefficients of submicron particles (PM1) were reconstructed based on the algorithm for POA and SOA scattering coefficient and further verified by using multi-site data. The calculated dry scattering coefficients using our reconstructing algorithm have good consistency with the measured ones, with the high correlation and small deviation in Shanghai (R2 = 0.98; deviations: 2.9%) and Dezhou (R2 = 0.90; deviations: 4.7%), indicating that our algorithms for OA and PM1 are applicable to predict the scattering coefficient of OA and Submicron particle (PM1) in China.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 758: 143665, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293090

RESUMO

Bacterial strains of the Bacillus cereus group produce various toxins that cause diarrheal and emetic food poisoning. In this study, five main oyster farming areas and 15 fishing ports in Taiwan were examined for the status of B. cereus group bacteria inhabiting seawater and shellfish. On average, bacteria of the B. cereus group were detected in 32.6% of the seawater samples (n = 89) and 2.5% of the oysters (n = 81) in the oyster farming areas and in 7.9% of the seawater samples (n = 202) and 0.68% of the shellfish products (n = 292) in fishing ports. To trace the potential source of B. cereus group bacteria in intertidal oyster farming areas, we simultaneously explored their terrestrial river basins. In total, 44 B. cereus group strains were purified and cultured from water and shellfish for the analysis of virulence genes, panC gene typing, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) fingerprinting. The enterotoxin-coding genes nheABC, hblCDA, entFM, cytK-1, and cytK-2 were detected in 70.4%, 84.1%, 97.7%, 72.7%, and 75% of the total isolates, among which 40.9% carried all these genes. According to panC gene analysis, the dominant isolates belonged to the panC group IV. In antibiotic susceptibility tests, most B. cereus group isolates were resistant to ampicillin (97.7%) and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (100%). The percentage of multidrug resistant B. cereus group isolates was 34.6%. Finally, the 44 B. cereus group isolates were classified into 43 types and categorized into five clusters using ERIC-PCR fingerprinting. The B. cereus group isolates from different oyster farming areas were concentrated within the two main clusters; however, those from river basins displayed a wide genetic diversity, indicating the presence of multiple sources of B. cereus group bacteria in river basins.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Enterotoxinas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus cereus/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterotoxinas/análise , Enterotoxinas/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Variação Genética , Prevalência , Frutos do Mar , Taiwan/epidemiologia
18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(1): 234-241, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372475

RESUMO

Planktonic fungi are important components of aquatic ecosystems, and analyses of their community composition and function have far-reaching significance for the ecological management and maintenance of the Danjiangkou reservoir. The composition and function of the planktonic fungal community in the surface water layer of the Danjiangkou Reservoir in October 2019 was investigated using Illumina MiSeq sequencing combined with FUNGuild analyses. According to the results, the reservoir community is primarily composed of 6 phyla 213 genera, with Ascomycota and Basidiomycota being the dominant phyla. The water quality monitoring results for the Danjiangkou Reservoir met the Grade Ⅰ or Ⅱ water quality standards for the Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB 38382-2002). A redundancy analysis (RDA) of the planktonic fungal community and environmental factors showed that TN, TP, T, ORP, and TLI are important factors influencing the distribution of planktonic fungi. The Spearman correlation analysis showed that Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Lodderomyces, and Acremonium were significantly correlated with physical and chemical water quality parameters. FUNGuild was used to predict the nutritional and functional groups of planktonic fungi, and the results showed that pathotrophs, saprotrophs, and pathotroph-saprotrophs were the major components. The pathotroph composition analysis showed that the proportions of plant pathogens and animal pathogens in the Heijizui samples were significantly higher than those observed in the other monitoring sites. The community composition, function, and influencing factors of the planktonic fungi community in the Danjiangkou Reservoir were investigated and indicated that it is potentially at ecological risk and more attention needs to be paid to planktonic fungi in the biological monitoring of water quality.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Plâncton , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Fungos/genética , Qualidade da Água
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 757: 143766, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243507

RESUMO

Organic particle dynamics in the surface ocean plays a critical part in the marine carbon cycle. Aggregation of marine organic particles drives their downward transport to support various marine organisms on their transit to the sediments. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from various microbes are a major contributor to the oceanic organic particle pool. The stickiness of EPS is expected to play a determining role in the aggregation process of particles; however, stickiness parameters are usually indirectly estimated through data fitting without direct assessment. Here a magnetic tweezer method was developed to quantitatively assess the stickiness of three model EPS produced by: Amphora sp., (diatom), Emiliania huxleyi (coccolithophore), and Sagittula stellata (bacteria), under different in vitro environmental conditions (salinity or EDTA complexed cations) and surface matrices (EPS-EPS and bare glass). Our results showed the stickiness of three microbial EPS decreasing for S. stellata > E. huxleyi > Amphora sp., in line with their decreasing protein-to-carbohydrate (P/C) ratios (related to their relative hydrophobicity). The data not only emphasize the importance of hydrophobicity on EPS stickiness, but also demonstrates that salinity and the nature of the substrate surface can influence the stickiness. Furthermore, we investigated stickiness between various types of EPS, and the observed selective stickiness of EPS between species may shed light on the interactions among heterogeneous marine microorganisms. Overall, this newly developed system provides a platform to assess the EPS stickiness to advance our understanding of the aggregation and sedimentation process of organic particles that are critical for the fate of organic carbon as well as for biofilm formation and microbial colonization of surfaces in the ocean.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Rhodobacteraceae , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Fenômenos Magnéticos
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(1): 477-484, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372501

RESUMO

Ammonia volatilization emissions constitute the main pathway of nitrogen loss from paddy systems. Present control technologies are based on reducing the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied. However, ratio of nitrogen loss through ammonia volatilization emissions has not changed, and it has become a bottleneck for promoting nitrogen use efficiency. Therefore, in order to study the effects of film materials on ammonia volatilization emissions, a two-year field plot experiment was carried out with agricultural waste powder and amphipathic molecule materials spread on surface water after nitrogen fertilizer application in paddy system. The results showed that film materials could reduce nitrogen loss through ammonia volatilization by 19%-31% in the paddy season, and this part of nitrogen was accumulated in soil or assimilated by paddy tissue. The ammonium concentration and pH in the surface water and film materials were the major control factors of ammonia volatilization emissions with nitrogen fertilizer application. Moreover, further reductions in ammonia volatilization emissions could be achieved by film materials after reducing nitrogen fertilizer application. Differences in the effect mechanisms of the film materials provide flexible options for practical agricultural production to meet demands.

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