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1.
Environ Pollut ; 305: 119306, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430310

RESUMO

Previous studies have indicated that outdoor light at night (LAN) is associated with a higher prevalence of overweight or obesity in adults. However, the association of LAN levels with overweight or obesity in children is still unknown. This study utilized data from the Seven Northeastern Cities study, which included 47,990 school-aged children and adolescents (ages 6-18 years). Outdoor LAN levels were measured using satellite imaging data. Weight and height were used to calculate age-sex-specific body mass index (BMI) Z-scores based on the World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards. Overweight status and obesity were defined using the Chinese standard. Information regarding socioeconomic status, sleep-related characteristics, and obesogenic factors were obtained using a questionnaire. A generalized linear mixed model examined the associations of outdoor LAN levels (in quartiles) with the outcomes of interest. Compared to children in the lowest quartile of outdoor LAN levels, children exposed to higher outdoor LAN levels had larger BMI Z-scores and higher odds of being overweight (including obesity) or obese, with the largest estimates in the third quartile [BMI Z-score: ß = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.18-0.33; overweight (including obesity): OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.25-1.56; obesity: OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.29-1.65]. There was a significant sex difference (Pinteraction<0.001) in the association of outdoor LAN levels with BMI Z-scores, and the association was stronger in males. Results remained robust following multiple sensitivity analyses and the adjustment of sleep-related characteristics, obesogenic factors, and environmental exposures. Our findings suggest that higher outdoor LAN levels are associated with larger BMI Z-scores and greater odds of overweight (including obesity) and obesity in school-aged children and adolescents. Further, the association between outdoor LAN levels and BMI Z-scores is stronger in males. Future studies with exposure assessments that consider both outdoor and indoor LAN exposures are needed.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Sono
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150411, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563899

RESUMO

To assess the impacts of regulations and laws enhancing the management of e-waste in China, hair samples of local residents and dismantling workers in a former e-waste area in 2016 and 2019, five and eight years after the implementation of legislation and regulations in this area since 2011, respectively. The temporal changes in levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) in the hair samples were investigated. Besides, the levels of these organic contaminants in hair samples collected from the same area in 2009, 2011, and 2015 reported in previous studies were used as comparison. The highest median levels of Σ9PCBs (719 ng/g), Σ3Penta-BDEs (16.1 ng/g), and Σ3Octa-BDEs (8.46 ng/g) in hair were found in 2011, with a significant decrease trend was observed from 2011 to 2019 (p < 0.05). As for Deca-BDE, the levels reached the maximum in 2015 (133 ng/g), following by a significant decrease to 2016 (7.46 ng/g) and 2019 (2.61 ng/g) (p < 0.05). The median levels of Σ8OPFRs, also decreased significantly (p < 0.05) from 2015 (357 ng/g) to 2016 (264 ng/g) and 2019 (112 ng/g). Moreover, a significantly increasing trend was observed for the ratios of triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) and tris(2-chloropropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), two predominant OPFRs, to Deca-BDE from 2015 to 2019 (p < 0.01), suggesting a shift of "legacy" to "emerging" contaminants released from e-waste recycling in this area. The temporal changes in hair levels of typical organic contaminants in residents and dismantling workers indicated the effectiveness of the regulations on informal e-waste recycling activities and solid waste in China.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Retardadores de Chama , China , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Reciclagem
3.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt D): 112397, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The widely used Air Quality Index (AQI) has been criticized due to its inaccuracy, leading to the development of the air quality health index (AQHI), an improvement on the AQI. However, there is currently no consensus on the most appropriate construction strategy for the AQHI. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the utility of AQHIs constructed by different models and health outcomes, and determine a better strategy. METHODS: Based on the daily time-series outpatient visits and hospital admissions from 299 hospitals (January 2016-December 2018), and mortality (January 2017-December 2019) in Guangzhou, China, we utilized cumulative risk index (CRI) method, Bayesian multi-pollutant weighted (BMW) model and standard method to construct AQHIs for different health outcomes. The effectiveness of AQHIs constructed by different strategies was evaluated by a two-stage validation analysis and examined their exposure-response relationships with the cause-specific morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Validation by different models showed that AQHI constructed with the BMW model (BMW-AQHI) had the strongest association with the health outcome either in the total population or subpopulation among air quality indexes, followed by AQHI constructed with the CRI method (CRI-AQHI), then common AQHI and AQI. Further validation by different health outcomes showed that AQHI constructed with the risk of outpatient visits generally exhibited the highest utility in presenting mortality and morbidity, followed by AQHI constructed with the risk of hospitalizations, then mortality-based AQHI and AQI. The contributions of NO2 and O3 to the final AQHI were prominent, while the contribution of SO2 and PM2.5 were relatively small. CONCLUSIONS: The BMW model is likely to be more effective for AQHI construction than CRI and standard methods. Based on the BMW model, the AQHI constructed with the outpatient data may be more effective in presenting short-term health risks associated with the co-exposure to air pollutants than the mortality-based AQHI and existing AQIs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Teorema de Bayes , China , Humanos , Morbidade , Material Particulado/análise
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126749, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390953

RESUMO

Although (-)-α-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) and (+)-γ-HBCDD are preferentially enriched in chickens, the key factors contributing to their selective bioaccumulation in hens and their potential biotransformation in developing chicken embryos remain unclear. Herein, in vivo and in ovo exposure experiments using hens and fertilized eggs were conducted to investigate the absorption, excretion, and biotransformation of HBCDDs in chickens. γ-HBCDD (76%) exhibited a higher absorption efficiency than α- (22%) and ß- (69%) HBCDDs. However, α-HBCDD was dominant in hen tissues, although γ-HBCDD accounted for >75% in the spiked feed. Moreover, chicken embryos biotransformed approximately 9.5% and 11.7% of absorbed α- and γ-HBCDDs, respectively, implying that diastereomer-selective elimination causes the predominance of α-HBCDD in hens. The concentration and enantiomer fraction (EF) of α-HBCDD in laid eggs were significantly positively correlated, suggesting enantioselective elimination. The EFs of α- and γ-HBCDDs varied between feces from the exposure and depuration periods, indicating the preferred excretion of (+)-α- and (-)-γ-HBCDDs. Furthermore, the enantioselective biotransformation of (-)-γ-HBCDD was confirmed in developing chicken embryos. These results show that excretion and biotransformation contribute to the diastereomer- and enantiomer-selective bioaccumulation of HBCDDs in chickens; The results may improve our understanding of the environmental fate and ecological risks of HBCDDs in biota.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Animais , Bioacumulação , Biotransformação , Embrião de Galinha , Feminino , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados , Estereoisomerismo
5.
Environ Int ; 147: 106318, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387882

RESUMO

Several studies suggest that organochlorine exposure can affect male reproductive functions, causing poor semen quality, endocrine disruption, or dysregulation of thyroid hormones. This study uses multiple linear regression (MLR) models to analyze the correlation between male reproductive functions and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congeners or p,p'-DDE levels in serum, semen, and indoor dust samples. Multiple comparisons were all adjusted using the false discovery rate (FDR). The results revealed that the PCB congener levels in seminal plasma were significantly associated with the quality parameters of human semen (i.e., sperm count, morphology, and motility) and thyroid hormones after adjusting for covariates, e.g., associations of the sperm concentration with levels of CB105 (ß = -0.323, 95% CI: -0.561, -0.085, p = 0.009), CB44 (ß = 0.585, 95% CI: 0.290, 0.880, p < 0.001), and CB66 (ß = -0.435, 95% CI: -0.728, -0.143, p = 0.004) in the seminal plasma were observed. Correlations between serum pollutants levels and the semen quality, reproductive hormones, or thyroid hormones were also observed. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the quantification of PCBs in seminal plasma can better describe male reproductive disorders than that in serum or dust. Organochlorine exposure measured in serum or dust, especially in seminal plasma, was associated with semen quality, as well as reproductive and thyroid hormones, thus suggesting that the impacts of persistent pollutants on male reproductive health require further investigation.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , China , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Análise do Sêmen
6.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127807, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763577

RESUMO

Human hair has been identified as a non-invasive alternative matrix for assessing the human exposure to specific organic contaminants. In the present study, a solvent-saving analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 8 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 3 hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs), 12 phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs), and 4 emerging PFRs (ePFRs) has been developed and validated for the first time. Hair sample preparation protocols include precleaning with Milli-Q water, digestion with HNO3/H2O2 (1:1, v/v), liquid-liquid extraction with hexane:dichloromethane (4:1, v/v), and fractionation and cleanup on a Florisil cartridge. The method was validated by using two levels of spiked hair samples of 3 replicates for each spiking group. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.12-22.4 ng/g for all analytes, average values of accuracies were ranging between 88 and 115%, 82-117%, 81-128%, and 81-95% for PBDEs, HBCDDs, PFRs, and ePFRs, respectively; and precision was also acceptable (RSD < 20%) for all analytes. Eventually, this method was applied to measure the levels of the targeted analytes in hair samples of e-waste dismantling workers (n = 14) from Qingyuan, South China. Median values ranged between 3.00 and 18.1 ng/g for PBDEs, 0.84-4.04 ng/g for HBCDDs, 2.13-131 ng/g PFRs, and 1.49-29.4 ng/g for ePFRs, respectively. PFRs/ePFRs constitute the major compounds in human hair samples, implying the wide use of PFRs/ePFRs as replacements of PBDEs and HBCDDs, as well the potential high human exposure risks of PFRs/ePFRs. Overall, this work will allow to a comprehensive assessment of human exposure to multiple groups of FRs using hair as a non-invasive bioindicator.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/análise , Cabelo/química , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Fósforo/análise
7.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 22(8): 1710-1717, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667371

RESUMO

Human nails have been increasingly used as a biomarker for human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In the present study, the fingernails of e-waste-dismantling workers from Longtang town, Qingyuan city, rural residents from Shijiao town, Qingyuan city, and urban residents from Guangzhou city, respectively, were collected from South China to monitor the human burdens of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs). The median concentrations of in the nails of the e-waste-dismantling workers, and urban and rural residents were 412, 129, and 82.1 ng g-1, respectively, and the median concentrations of were 108, 8.4, and 22.1 ng g-1, respectively. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs in the nails of e-waste-dismantling workers were significantly higher as compared to those for urban and rural residents (p < 0.05), implying the continuous and greater exposure to these chemicals in the e-waste recycling areas. BDE 209 (92-98%) was the major congener of PBDEs and CB 52 (26-51%) was the main congener of PCB in nail samples. However, no significant gender difference was observed for PBDE and PCB levels in nails from all three investigated areas, and no significant correlation was found between their levels and the age of the participants. The enantiomer fractions (EFs) of CBs 95 and 132 indicated that the external sources (e.g. dust and/or air) were the primary sources for CBs 95 and 132 in human nails from the e-waste area, while the contribution from the internal sources (e.g. serum) could be in a small percentage. The results of this study indicate that human nails can be used as a proper indicator of human exposure to PCBs and PBDEs, and further studies are needed by a comprehensive investigation of the relationships between the PCB and PBDE levels in the nails and serum and/or other internal tissues.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Unhas , Bifenilos Policlorados , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Humanos
8.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt B): 114440, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244121

RESUMO

Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) is an emerging organic pollutant and a commonly used brominated flame retardant that has received much attention owing to its toxicity. Although TBBPA is ubiquitously detected in atmospheric particulate matter and dust, few studies have investigated the sub-chronic inhalation exposure to TBBPA. To further understand the excretion characteristics and tissue accumulation of TBBPA after inhalation exposure, we used the rat model to conduct a sub-chronic inhalation exposure study. Male rats were administered with different doses of aerosol TBBPA (12.9, 54.6, 121.6, and 455.0 mg/m3). TBBPA was found in the excretion (feces and urine) and all the target tissues (lung, liver, heart, thymus gland, spleen, testicles, muscles, kidneys, brain and serum). Feces were the main route of excretion, which contributed 19.18% to 72.54% (urine <0.10%). TBBPA excretion through feces following inhalation administration was much higher than that following oral and dermal exposure, thereby indicating lower bioavailability of TBBPA under inhalation exposure. Liver and serum showed higher levels of TBBPA compared with those of other tissues, thereby suggesting tissue-specific accumulation of TBBPA in rats. Owing to the relative non-invasiveness of serum sampling and greatest TBBPA concentration among the tissues, serum is a suitable matrix for estimation of TBBPA bioaccumulation after inhalation exposure.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/química , Retardadores de Chama , Bifenil Polibromatos/análise , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Fezes/química , Exposição por Inalação , Masculino , Ratos
9.
Environ Int ; 138: 105666, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203811

RESUMO

Typical halogenated persistent organic pollutants (Hal-POPs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), are a group of ubiquitous organic pollutants with an endocrine disrupting effect. This study evaluated the accumulation and congener profiles of Hal-POPs in the bodies of men who live/work in areas of South China where electronic wastes are collected and managed, especially in their semen samples. The results show that the detection frequency and serum concentrations of Hal-POP congeners within the high-exposure group (HEG) were higher than those of the low-exposure group (LEG). Furthermore, an identical trend was observed for the seminal plasma concentrations of Hal-POPs. The distribution characteristics, such as their mean, median, and discrete values, of PBDE congeners in serum and semen samples from the same subjects were consistent with each other. However, the distribution characteristics of PCB congeners in serum samples were different from those in semen samples. BDE153 was one of the most abundant congeners found in the serum and semen samples; hence, it can be identified as an indicator PBDE congener. Further research is needed to explore the mechanism of Hal-POPs distribution in human semen and serum samples.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Sêmen/química
10.
Environ Int ; 135: 105365, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental studies show that chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESA 6:2 and 8:2), one of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) used as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) alternatives, are reproductive toxicants in vivo and in vitro. However, the associations between gestational exposure to Cl-PFESAs and birth outcomes are unknown. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA in maternal serum and birth outcomes. METHODS: We measured four PFAS, including 6:2 Cl-PFESA, 8:2 Cl-PFESA, PFOS, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in third-trimester maternal serum collected from 372 mother-child dyads participating in the Guangzhou Birth Cohort Study. Characteristics of mothers and infants were gathered from medical records and by interviewer-administered questionnaires. RESULTS: PFOS was the most abundant PFAS in maternal serum (median: 7.15 ng/mL), followed by 6:2 Cl-PFESA (median: 2.41 ng/mL). Greater maternal serum levels of all PFAS alternatives were significantly associated with lower birth weight, adjusted for confounding variables. For example, each ln-ng/mL greater concentration of 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA was associated with a 54.44 g [95% confidence interval (CI): -95.66, -13.22] and 21.15 g (95% CI: -41.44, -0.86) lower birth weight, respectively. Greater continuous maternal serum 6:2 Cl-PFESA (OR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.73, 4.15) and PFOS (OR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.24, 3.32) were also associated with higher risks for preterm birth, adjusted for confounders, with a possible threshold effect at the highest quartile of 6:2 Cl-PFESA. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we report associations between maternal serum 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA concentrations and adverse birth outcomes. Our findings suggest that PFOS alternatives may be reproductive toxicants in human populations and should be considered with caution before widespread use. Given the preliminary nature of our results, additional epidemiological and toxicological investigations are needed to more definitively assess the risks.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Caprilatos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ácidos Sulfônicos
11.
Chemosphere ; 198: 266-273, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421738

RESUMO

Previous studies have confirmed that house dust is one of the main sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure, and also indicated that PBDEs might affect human semen quality. The aim of this study was to explore the association between PBDEs concentration in house dust and the semen quality of male resident. Results showed that the semen qualities of the residents living around the e-waste dismantling workshops for a long time (3-17years) at the e-waste areas in South China significantly decreased, and the DNA damage of sperms were aggravated. The adjusted correlation analysed by multiple linear regression model showed that the sperm concentration and count both had negative correlation with BDE47 level in semen (ß = -0.295, 95%CI: -0.553∼-0.036; ß = -0.400, 95%CI: -0.708∼-0.092, respectively). In addition, the sperm progressive motility [(A+B)%] and sperm viability both had negative correlation with BDE100 level in dust (ß = -0.360, 95%CI: -0.680∼-0.040; ß = -0.114, 95% CI: -0.203∼-0.025, respectively). And there were significant linear positive correlation between PBDE congener (e.g. BDE28, 47, 153) concentrations in dust and in paired semen samples (rs = 0.367-0.547, p < 0.05). This study suggested that exposure to PBDEs from house dust might have adverse effects on human semen quality. But the results need to be confirmed in further studies with a large-scale sampling, and find out more direct and convincing evidence.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poeira/análise , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , China , Dano ao DNA , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Análise do Sêmen , Espermatozoides/química , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Environ Int ; 102: 138-144, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28245931

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the primary toxicants released by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling, but their adverse effects on people working in e-waste recycling or living near e-waste sites have not been studied well. In the present study, the serum concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and hydroxylated PCBs, the circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs), and the mRNA levels of seven TH-regulated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes of e-waste recycling workers were analyzed. The associations of the hormone levels and gene expression with the exposure to these contaminants were examined using multiple linear regression models. There were nearly no associations of the TH levels with PCBs and hydroxylated PCBs, whereas elevated hormone (T4 and T3) levels were associated with certain lower-brominated BDEs. While not statistically significant, we did observe a negative association between highly brominated PBDE congeners and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the e-waste workers. The TH-regulated gene expression was more significantly associated with the organohalogen compounds (OHCs) than the TH levels in these workers. The TH-regulated gene expression was significantly associated with certain PCB and hydroxylated PCB congeners. However, the expression of most target genes was suppressed by PBDEs (mostly highly brominated congeners). This is the first evidence of alterations in TH-regulated gene expression in humans exposed to OHCs. Our findings indicated that OHCs may interfere with TH signaling and/or exert TH-like effects, leading to alterations in related gene expression in humans. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms of action and associated biological consequences of the gene expression disruption by OHCs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Exposição Ocupacional , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Reciclagem , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , China , Resíduo Eletrônico , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0172337, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28264061

RESUMO

This study synthesized the wheat straw biochar-supported nanoscale zerovalent iron (BC-nZVI) via in-situ reduction with NaBH4 and biochar pyrolyzed at 600°C. Wheat straw biochar, as a carrier, significantly enhanced the removal of trichloroethylene (TCE) by nZVI. The pseudo-first-order rate constant of TCE removal by BC-nZVI (1.079 h-1) within 260 min was 1.4 times higher and 539.5 times higher than that of biochar and nZVI, respectively. TCE was 79% dechlorinated by BC-nZVI within 15 h, but only 11% dechlorinated by unsupported nZVI, and no TCE dechlorination occurred with unmodified biochar. Weakly acidic solution (pH 5.7-6.8) significantly enhanced the dechlorination of TCE. Chloride enhanced the removal of TCE, while SO42-, HCO3- and NO3- all inhibited it. Humic acid (HA) inhibited BC-nZVI reactivity, but the inhibition decreased slightly as the concentration of HA increased from 40 mg∙L-1 to 80 mg∙L-1, which was due to the electron shutting by HA aggregates. Results suggest that BC-nZVI was promising for remediation of TCE contaminated groundwater.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Água Subterrânea , Ferro , Tricloroetileno , Triticum , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Ânions/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Água Subterrânea/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Triticum/química
14.
Chemosphere ; 169: 534-541, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27898326

RESUMO

In this study, Ni/Fe nanoparticles supported by biochar to stimulate the reduction of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) in groundwater remediation was investigated. In order to enhance the reactivity of ZVI (zero valent iron) nanoparticles, surface modification of ZVI was performed using nickel and biochar. The removal efficiency of 1,1,1-TCA increased from 42.3% to 99.3% as the biochar-to-Ni/Fe mass ratio increased from 0 to 1.0. However a higher biochar-to-Ni/Fe ratio showed little difference in the 1,1,1-TCA degradation efficiency. In the presence of Ni, atomic hydrogen generated by ZVI corrosion could be absorbed in the metal additive's lattice and then produce a hydride-like species (H) that represented the primary redox-active entity. The effects of various factors were evaluated, including pH, humic acid (HA) and inorganic matters (Cl-, CO32-, HCO3-, NO3- and SO42-). The degradation of 1,1,1-TCA was greatly affected by pH. The presence of Cl-, CO32-, HCO3- and SO42- had negligible effects, but NO3- and HA showed a significant inhibitory effects on 1,1,1-TCA degradation. In conclusion, biochar supported Ni/Fe nanoparticles could be highly effective for 1,1,1-TCA degradation.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Ferro/química , Nanopartículas/química , Níquel/química , Tricloroetanos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Cromatografia Gasosa , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Água Subterrânea/química , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Oxirredução
15.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 29(4): 295-9, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27241741

RESUMO

The present study determined the thyroid hormone interference of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, and the derived-reference dose (RfD) of different endpoint effects on mammals based on experimental results and data collection. Based on repeated exposure toxicity tests on mammals and extensive research, the present study used BMDS240 Software to derive a benchmark dose, and analyzed the accuracy and uncertainty, and similarity with other studies. Test results on triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) demonstrated that all the indicators presented a non-monotonous dose-effect relationship clearly, except TSH in male rats exposed to 0-1000 mg/kg BW per day. Therefore, RfDs were derived from different critical effects. In summary, RfD for mammals in the present study was found to be 0.6 mg/kg per day.


Assuntos
Bifenil Polibromatos/toxicidade , Tireotropina/metabolismo , Tiroxina/metabolismo , Tri-Iodotironina/metabolismo , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo
16.
Environ Res ; 148: 177-183, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27078091

RESUMO

Hair is a promising, non-invasive, human biomonitoring matrix that can provide insight into retrospective and integral exposure to organic pollutants. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in hair and serum samples from university students in Guangzhou, China, and compared the PFR concentrations in the female hair segments using paired distal (5~10cm from the root) and proximal (0~5cm from the root) samples. PFRs were not detected in the serum samples. All PFRs except tricresyl phosphate (TMPP) and tri-n-propyl phosphate (TPP) were detected in more than half of all hair samples. The concentrations of total PFRs varied from 10.1 to 604ng/g, with a median of 148ng/g. Tris(chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tri(2-ethylexyl) phosphate (TEHP) were the predominant PFRs in hair. The concentrations of most PFRs in the distal segments were 1.5~8.6 times higher than those in the proximal segments of the hair (t-test, p<0.05), which may be due to the longer exposure time of the distal segments to external sources. The values of log (PFR concentrations-distal/PFR concentrations-proximal) were positively and significantly correlated with log KOA of PFRs (p<0.05, r=0.68), indicating that PFRs with a higher log KOA tend to accumulate in hair at a higher rate than PFRs with a lower log KOA. Using combined segments of female hair, significantly higher PFR concentrations were observed in female hair than in male hair. In contrast, female hair exhibited significantly lower PFR concentrations than male hair when using the same hair position for both genders (0-5cm from the scalp). The controversial results regarding gender differences in PFRs in hair highlight the importance of segmental analysis when using hair as an indicator of human exposure to PFRs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Cabelo/química , Organofosfatos/análise , Adulto , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(3): 1579-86, 2016 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26757157

RESUMO

Hair is increasingly used as a biomarker for human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, the internal and external sources of hair POPs remain a controversial issue. This study analyzed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human hair and serum from electronic waste recycling workers. The median concentrations were 894 ng/g and 2868 ng/g lipid in hair and serum, respectively. The PCB concentrations in male and female serum were similar, while concentrations in male hair were significantly lower than in female hair. Significant correlations between the hair and serum PCB levels and congener profiles suggest that air is the predominant PCB source in hair and that hair and blood PCB levels are largely dependent on recent accumulation. The PCB95, 132, and 183 chiral signatures in serum were significantly nonracemic, with mean enantiomer fractions (EFs) of 0.440-0.693. Nevertheless, the hair EFs were essentially racemic (mean EFs = 0.495-0.503). Source apportionment using the Chemical Mass Balance model also indicated primary external PCB sources in human hair from the study area. Air, blood, and indoor dust are responsible for, on average, 64.2%, 27.2%, and 8.79% of the hair PCBs, respectively. This study evidenced that hair is a reliable matrix for monitoring human POP exposure.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Reciclagem , China , Poeira/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 67(1): 42-9, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24859046

RESUMO

Perchlorate is used widely in fireworks, and, if ingested, it has the potential to disrupt thyroid function. The concentrations of perchlorate in water and soil samples and in urine samples of women of reproductive age from Liuyang, the largest fireworks production area in China, were investigated. The results showed that the average perchlorate concentrations in groundwater, surface water, farmland soil, and urine samples of women from the fireworks production area were significantly greater than those from the control area. The health risk of perchlorate ingested through drinking water was assessed based on the mode recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The values of hazard quotient of river water and groundwater in the fireworks production area were much greater than the safe level (=1), which indicates that adverse health effects may result from perchlorate when these sources of water are used as drinking water. These results indicated that the environment of the fireworks production area has been polluted by perchlorate and that residents were and are facing greater exposure doses of perchlorate. Fireworks production enterprises may be a major source of perchlorate contamination.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Substâncias Explosivas/urina , Água Subterrânea/análise , Percloratos/urina , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adulto , China , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Substâncias Explosivas/análise , Feminino , Água Doce/química , Humanos , Percloratos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
19.
Environ Pollut ; 188: 118-23, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24583391

RESUMO

Contamination of organohalogen pollutants (OHPs), including dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in three metropolises of China, Beijing, Wuhan, and Guangzhou, and a reference rural site were determined using terrestrial residential passerine species as bioindicator. DDTs dominated in Wuhan whereas flame retardants dominated in Guangzhou and Beijing. No geographical variation was found for PCB levels but it exhibited different homologue profiles among different sites which could be attributed to different dietary sources of birds. Industry characteristics of the sampling location contributed to the geographical differences in the occurrence and contamination profile of OHPs. The transformation of traditional agriculture characterized contamination profiles to industry characterized profiles in Beijing and Guangzhou implicates significantly environmental concern on the flame retardants contamination in non-hot-spot regions of China.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Passeriformes/metabolismo , Animais , China , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , DDT/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 48(1): 791-6, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24320081

RESUMO

Human hair has been widely used as a bioindicator for human persistent organic pollutants (POPs) exposure, but studies on the sources of hair POPs and the relationship between hair and body burden are limited. This study analyzed the possible source apportionment of hair PBDEs and examined the relationship between PBDE concentrations in paired hair and serum from e-waste recycling workers. Using the ratio of BDE 99/47 and BDE 209/207 as indices, we calculated that only 15% of the highly brominated congeners (nona- and deca-BDE congeners) comes from exogenous (external) exposure for both female and male hair, but an average of 64% and 55% of the lower-brominated congeners (tetra- to penta-BDE congeners) come from exogenous exposure for female and male hair, respectively. The higher contribution of exogenous exposure for less-brominated congeners could be related to their relatively lower log KOW and higher volatility than higher-brominated congeners, which make them more readily to evaporate from dust and then to be adsorbed on hair. Higher hair PBDE levels and higher exogenous exposure of less-brominated congeners in females than in males can be attributed to a longer exogenous exposure time for females than males. Significant positive relationships were found in tri- to hepta-BDE congeners (BDE 28, 47, 66, 85, 100, 153, 154, and 183) (R = 0.36-0.55, p < 0.05) between hair and serum, but this relationship was not found for octa- to deca-BDE. Difference in the half-lives between highly brominated congeners and less-brominated congeners could be a reason. This result also implied that we should treat the results of correlation analyses between hair and other organs cautiously.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico/efeitos adversos , Cabelo/química , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , China , Poeira/análise , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Bifenil Polibromatos/análise , Bifenil Polibromatos/sangue , Reciclagem
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