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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126749, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390953

RESUMO

Although (-)-α-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) and (+)-γ-HBCDD are preferentially enriched in chickens, the key factors contributing to their selective bioaccumulation in hens and their potential biotransformation in developing chicken embryos remain unclear. Herein, in vivo and in ovo exposure experiments using hens and fertilized eggs were conducted to investigate the absorption, excretion, and biotransformation of HBCDDs in chickens. γ-HBCDD (76%) exhibited a higher absorption efficiency than α- (22%) and ß- (69%) HBCDDs. However, α-HBCDD was dominant in hen tissues, although γ-HBCDD accounted for >75% in the spiked feed. Moreover, chicken embryos biotransformed approximately 9.5% and 11.7% of absorbed α- and γ-HBCDDs, respectively, implying that diastereomer-selective elimination causes the predominance of α-HBCDD in hens. The concentration and enantiomer fraction (EF) of α-HBCDD in laid eggs were significantly positively correlated, suggesting enantioselective elimination. The EFs of α- and γ-HBCDDs varied between feces from the exposure and depuration periods, indicating the preferred excretion of (+)-α- and (-)-γ-HBCDDs. Furthermore, the enantioselective biotransformation of (-)-γ-HBCDD was confirmed in developing chicken embryos. These results show that excretion and biotransformation contribute to the diastereomer- and enantiomer-selective bioaccumulation of HBCDDs in chickens; The results may improve our understanding of the environmental fate and ecological risks of HBCDDs in biota.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Animais , Bioacumulação , Biotransformação , Embrião de Galinha , Feminino , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados , Estereoisomerismo
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150411, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563899

RESUMO

To assess the impacts of regulations and laws enhancing the management of e-waste in China, hair samples of local residents and dismantling workers in a former e-waste area in 2016 and 2019, five and eight years after the implementation of legislation and regulations in this area since 2011, respectively. The temporal changes in levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) in the hair samples were investigated. Besides, the levels of these organic contaminants in hair samples collected from the same area in 2009, 2011, and 2015 reported in previous studies were used as comparison. The highest median levels of Σ9PCBs (719 ng/g), Σ3Penta-BDEs (16.1 ng/g), and Σ3Octa-BDEs (8.46 ng/g) in hair were found in 2011, with a significant decrease trend was observed from 2011 to 2019 (p < 0.05). As for Deca-BDE, the levels reached the maximum in 2015 (133 ng/g), following by a significant decrease to 2016 (7.46 ng/g) and 2019 (2.61 ng/g) (p < 0.05). The median levels of Σ8OPFRs, also decreased significantly (p < 0.05) from 2015 (357 ng/g) to 2016 (264 ng/g) and 2019 (112 ng/g). Moreover, a significantly increasing trend was observed for the ratios of triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) and tris(2-chloropropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), two predominant OPFRs, to Deca-BDE from 2015 to 2019 (p < 0.01), suggesting a shift of "legacy" to "emerging" contaminants released from e-waste recycling in this area. The temporal changes in hair levels of typical organic contaminants in residents and dismantling workers indicated the effectiveness of the regulations on informal e-waste recycling activities and solid waste in China.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Retardadores de Chama , China , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Reciclagem
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 344(Pt B): 126227, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743995

RESUMO

Fungal pellet is an emerging material to collect oleaginous microalgae, but rare studies have noticed that harvested water is available resource for the next round of cultivation. To systematically optimize regrowth performances of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris, separated water after harvesting by fungi Aspergillus oryzae was prepared under different N/P ratios. The results showed that chlorophylls and enzymes were significantly affected by the proportion of N and P. Although nutrient deficiency was functioned as a stress factor to restrict carbohydrate and protein synthesis, lipid content was obviously increased by 12.69%. The percentage of saturated fatty acids associated with oxidation stability increased, while this part in fresh wastewater accounted for only 36.96%. The favorable biomass concentration (1.37 g/L) with the highest lipid yield (0.42 g/L) appeared in N/P of 6:1. More strikingly, suitable conditions could save 52.4% of cultivation costs. These experiments confirmed that reusing bioflocculated water could be effectively utilized for biodiesel production.

4.
Environ Res ; : 112397, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The widely used Air Quality Index (AQI) has been criticized due to its inaccuracy, leading to the development of the air quality health index (AQHI), an improvement on the AQI. However, there is currently no consensus on the most appropriate construction strategy for the AQHI. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the utility of AQHIs constructed by different models and health outcomes, and determine a better strategy. METHODS: Based on the daily time-series outpatient visits and hospital admissions from 299 hospitals (January 2016-December 2018), and mortality (January 2017-December 2019) in Guangzhou, China, we utilized cumulative risk index (CRI) method, Bayesian multi-pollutant weighted (BMW) model and standard method to construct AQHIs for different health outcomes. The effectiveness of AQHIs constructed by different strategies was evaluated by a two-stage validation analysis and examined their exposure-response relationships with the cause-specific morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Validation by different models showed that AQHI constructed with the BMW model (BMW-AQHI) had the strongest association with the health outcome either in the total population or subpopulation among air quality indexes, followed by AQHI constructed with the CRI method (CRI-AQHI), then common AQHI and AQI. Further validation by different health outcomes showed that AQHI constructed with the risk of outpatient visits generally exhibited the highest utility in presenting mortality and morbidity, followed by AQHI constructed with the risk of hospitalizations, then mortality-based AQHI and AQI. The contributions of NO2 and O3 to the final AQHI were prominent, while the contribution of SO2 and PM2.5 were relatively small. CONCLUSIONS: The BMW model is likely to be more effective for AQHI construction than CRI and standard methods. Based on the BMW model, the AQHI constructed with the outpatient data may be more effective in presenting short-term health risks associated with the co-exposure to air pollutants than the mortality-based AQHI and existing AQIs.

5.
Bioresour Technol ; 342: 126064, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600091

RESUMO

Sulfonamides (SAs) and heavy metals are frequently detected together in livestock wastewater. In this study, evaluations regarding their potentially adverse effects on microalgae and according removals were investigated. Results showed that the growth of C. vulgaris was inhibited by SAs and Cu. There was an obvious recovery period in photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm), indicating that the damage to the photosystem of microalgae was reversible. The co-existence of SAs and Cu significantly affected the biochemical characteristics, including the activities of antioxidant enzyme and the contents of photosynthetic pigments, proteins and polysaccharides. The addition of Cu obviously promoted the removal efficiencies of SMZ, SMX and SMM, which might be ascribed to the bridging effect of Cu in the bioadsorption of SAs. This study is conducive to understand the changes in the biochemical responses of microalgae under the combined impacts of SAs and Cu, and provides a new insight for the simultaneous removals.

6.
Innovation (N Y) ; 2(4): 100164, 2021 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622241

RESUMO

Multiple systematic reviews on greenspace and health outcomes exist, but the overall evidence base remains unclear. Therefore, we performed an umbrella review to collect and appraise all relevant systematic reviews of epidemiological studies on greenness exposure and health. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from inception to June 28, 2021, and screened references of relevant articles. Systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that examined the associations of greenness with any health outcome were included. Two independent investigators performed study selection and data extraction. We also evaluated the methodological quality of the included systematic reviews using the "Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews 2" checklist. A total of 40 systematic reviews and meta-analyses were included, of which most were cross-sectional studies conducted in high-income countries. Greenspace exposure was estimated with various objective and subjective parameters. Beneficial associations of greenspace with all-cause and stroke-specific mortality, CVD morbidity, cardiometabolic factors, mental health, low birth weight, physical activity, sleep quality, and urban crime were observed. No consistent associations between greenspace and other health outcomes (e.g., cancers) were observed. Most of the included systematic reviews and meta-analyses had one or more limitations in methodology. Our findings provide supportive evidence regarding the beneficial effects of greenspace exposure on some aspects of human health. However, the credibility of such evidence was compromised by methodological limitations. Better performed systematic reviews and meta-analyses as well as longitudinal designed primary studies are needed to validate this conclusion.

7.
Environ Int ; 157: 106848, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467876

RESUMO

Indoor dust has been used as a proxy for estimating human indoor pollutant exposure risks, yet source identification remains challenging. This study tentatively investigated whether quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) of dust, could be applied to indicate sources and their respective contributions for a major class of indoor organic pollutants organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs). We observed significant correlations between OPFR concentrations and lipid content (p < 0.05) in house dusts. Using 15 signature fatty acids (FAs) in various indoor sources and the QFASA model, we found that clothing (39.1% in Australia and 36.5% in China) was the predominant contributing vector of dust OPFR followed by cooking oil and pet hair. Among these sources, clothing materials were proposed to be important vectors introducing organic pollutants to the indoor environment. Our QFASA contribution estimation analyses allowed for accurate prediction of most OPFR concentrations in clothing, validating our findings that clothing materials may serve as important carrier for OPFRs in indoor migration. This is the first study attempting to identify sources of organic pollutants using QFASA in an indoor setting and will provide important insight into the transfer of organic pollutants in indoor environment.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Ambientais , Retardadores de Chama , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ácidos Graxos , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Humanos , Organofosfatos/análise
8.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117893, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385133

RESUMO

Health risks of typical benzene series and halocarbons (BSHs) in a densely populated area near a large-scale chemical industrial park were investigated. Ambient and indoor air and tap water samples were collected in summer and winter; and the concentration characteristics, sources, and exposure risks of typical BSH species, including five benzene series (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m,p-xylene) and five halocarbons (dichloromethane, trichloromethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachloromethane, and tetrachloroethylene), were analysed. The total mean concentrations of BSHs were 53.32 µg m-3, 36.29 µg m-3, and 26.88 µg L-1 in indoor air, ambient air, and tap water, respectively. Halocarbons dominated the total BSHs with concentrations relatively higher than those in many other industrial areas. Industrial solvent use, industrial processes, and vehicle exhaust emissions were the principal sources of BSHs in ambient air. The use of household products (e.g., detergents and pesticides) was the principal source of indoor BSHs. Inhalation is the primary human exposure route. Ingestion of drinking water was also an important exposure route but had less impact than inhalation. Lifetime non-cancer risks of individual and cumulative BSHs were below the threshold (HQ = 1), indicating no significant lifetime non-cancer risks in the study area. However, tetrachloromethane, benzene, trichloromethane, ethylbenzene, and trichloroethylene showed potential lifetime cancer risk. The cumulative lifetime cancer risks exceeded the tolerable benchmark (1 × 10-4), indicating a lifetime cancer risk of BSHs to residents near the chemical industry park. This study provides valuable information for the management of public health in chemical industrial parks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Benzeno , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Benzeno/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Tolueno/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
9.
Environ Res ; 202: 111641, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health effects of greenness perceived by residents at eye level has received increasing attention. However, the associations between eye-level greenness and respiratory health are unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between exposure to eye-level greenness and lung function in children. METHODS: From 2012 to 2013, a total of 6740 school children in seven cities in northeast China were recruited into this cross-sectional study. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), and maximum mid expiratory flow rate (MMEF) were measured to evaluate lung function and to define lung impairment. Eye-level greenness was extracted from segmented Tencent Map street view images, and a corresponding green view index (GVI) was calculated. Higher GVIs mean more greenness coverage. Mixed-effects logistic regressions were used to estimate the health effects on lung impairment per interquartile range (IQR) increase in GVI. Linear regressions were used to estimate the associations between GVI and lung function. The health effects of ambient air pollutants were also assessed, including particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <1.0 µm (PM1), <2.5 µm (PM2.5), <10 µm (PM10) as well as nitrogen dioxide (NO2). RESULTS: An increase of GVI800m was associated with lung impairment in FEV1, FVC, PEF and MMEF, with ORs ranging from 0.68 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.79) to 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.93). The associations between an IQR increase of GVI800m and FEV1 (48.15 ml, 95% CI: 30.33-65.97 ml), FVC (50.57 ml, 95% CI: 30.65-70.48 ml), PEF (149.59 ml/s, 95% CI: 109.79-189.38 ml/s), and MMEF (61.18 ml/s, 95% CI: 31.07-91.29 ml/s) were significant, and PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 were found to be mediators of this relationship. CONCLUSION: More eye-level greenness was associated with better lung function and reduced impairment. However, eye-level greenness associations with lung function became non-significant once lower particulate matter air pollution exposures were considered.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Pulmão/química , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(15): 10578-10588, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296597

RESUMO

Chronic exposure to low levels of heavy metals threatens human health. However, few studies evaluated the health effects and spatial distributions of chronic exposure to heavy metals in metropolitan residents throughout mainland China using unified sampling methods and evaluation indicators at the national level. Here, the concentrations and spatial distributions of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Sb, Pb, and Hg) in the hair of 1202 metropolitan residents from mainland China were analyzed, and differences in age and sex were evaluated. Most target metals exhibited higher concentrations in the hair of residents from South Central China. Generally, male hair had higher As and Se concentrations, whereas female hair had higher Cd and Pb levels (p < 0.05). A significant pairwise correlation existed between most metals in hair, especially Cd-Pb (r = 0.638, p < 0.05). The Se/heavy metal molar ratio is used as an indicator to assess the detoxification ability. The results demonstrated that protecting metropolitan residents in South Central China from heavy metals in their daily life is crucial, particularly for Hg, Pb, and Cr with Se/(Hg, Pb, or Cr) molar ratios < 1. This is the first study to comprehensively consider the antagonistic effects of Se and heavy metals using the molar ratio of Se/heavy metals to evaluate health implications and propose health management policies for metropolitan residents in China.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Masculino , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco
11.
Environ Res ; 200: 111434, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urban greenness may protect against obesity, but very few studies have assessed 'street view' (SV) greenness metrics, which may better capture people's actual exposure to greenness compared to commonly-used satellite-derived metrics. We aimed to investigate these associations further in a Chinese adult study. METHODS: Our analysis included 24,845 adults in the 33 Chinese Community Health Study in 2009. SV images from Tencent Map, segmented by machine learning algorithms, were used to determine the average proportion of green vegetation in SV images at community level in 800m road network buffer. Sensitivity analyses were performed with an alternative buffer size. Overall greenness was assessed as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in 800 m buffer. We used predicted PM2.5 and monitored NO2 as proxies of air pollution. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were regressed on SV greenness by generalized linear mixed models, with adjustment for covariates. Mediation analyses were performed to assess the mediation effects of air pollution. RESULTS: Each interquartile range (IQR = 3.6%) increase in street view greenness was associated with a 0.15 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.22, -0.09) decrease in BMI and 0.23 cm (95% CI: -0.35, -0.11) reduction in HC, and was associated with 7% lower odds of overweight (OR = 0.93, 95% CI:0.90, 0.96) and 18% lower odds of obesity (OR = 0.82, 95% CI:0.76, 0.89). Similar effect estimation was observed compared with commonly-used NDVI measures. PM2.5 and NO2 mediated 15.5% and 6.1% of the effects of SV greenness with BMI, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest beneficial associations between community-level SV greenness and lower body weight in Chinese adults. The effects were observed in women but not in men. Air pollution may partially mediate the association. These findings may have implications to support efforts to promote greening in urban areas.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Saúde Pública , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia
12.
Environ Pollut ; 287: 117642, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182383

RESUMO

Previous studies of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in receiving water bodies of typical industrial parks under the low-carbon development mode are scarce. In the present study, 18 PFASs were analyzed in surface water and sediment samples of the inland river basin in Longgang District in 2017. The ΣPFAS concentrations in surface water (drought and rainy periods) and sediment ranged from 15.17 to 948.50 ng/L, 11.56-561.14 ng/L, and 1.07-28.94 ng/g dw, respectively. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) were the dominant pollutants in surface water, with maximum concentrations of 867.68 ng/L, 288.28 ng/L, and 245.09 ng/L, respectively. Meanwhile, PFOS, perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA), PFBS, and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were the major PFASs in the sediment samples, with maximum concentrations of 9.83 ng/g dw, 11.86 ng/g dw, 5.30 ng/g dw, and 5.23 ng/g dw, respectively. In addition, PFOA and PFOS resulted from similar sources in sediment and surface water samples (P < 0.05). The risk quotient value (RQ) results showed that the control of PFOS in the treatment of pollutants in the inland river basin of Longgang District deserves more attention.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 419: 126482, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186424

RESUMO

Microplastics are ubiquitous in all environments and exert toxic effects in various organisms. However, the neurotoxicity and underlying mechanisms of long-term exposure to MPs aged under UV radiation remain largely unclear. In this study, Caenorhabditis elegans was treated with 0.1-100 µg/L virgin and aged polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) for 10 d, with locomotion behavior, neuronal development, neurotransmitter content, and neurotransmission-related to gene expression as endpoints. Using locomotion behavior as an endpoint, chronic exposure to aged PS-MPs at low concentrations (1 µg/L) caused more severe neurotoxicity than that to virgin PS-MPs. In transgenic nematodes, exposure to 10-100 µg/L aged PS-MPs significantly influenced the fluorescence intensity and percentage of worms with neurodegeneration of dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and serotonergic neurons compared with control. Further investigations showed that the content of glutamate, serotonin, and dopamine was significantly influenced in nematodes chronically exposed to 100 µg/L of aged PS-MPs. Similarly, neurotransmission-related gene (e.g., eat-4, dat-1, and tph-1) expression was also altered in nematodes. These results indicate that aged PS-MPs exert neurotoxicity owing to their effects on dopamine, glutamate, and serotonin neurotransmission. This study provides insights into the underlying mechanisms and potential risks of PS-MPs after UV radiation.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Dopamina , Ácido Glutâmico , Plásticos , Poliestirenos , Serotonina , Transmissão Sináptica , Raios Ultravioleta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
14.
Environ Pollut ; 283: 117078, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839621

RESUMO

Chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonates (Cl-PFESAs), are ubiquitous alternatives to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a widely used poly- and perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS). Despite in vivo and in vitro evidence of metabolic toxicity, no study has explored associations of Cl-PFESAs concentrations with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a human population. To help address this data gap, we quantified 32 PFAS, including 2 PFOS alternative Cl-PFESAs (6:2 and 8:2 Cl-PFESAs) in serum from 1228 adults participating in the cross-sectional Isomers of C8 Health Project in China study. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of MetS and its various components were estimated using individual PFAS as a continuous or categorical predictor in multivariate regression models. The association between the overall mixture of PFAS and MetS was examined using probit Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR-P). Greater serum PFAS concentrations were associated with higher odds of MetS and demonstrated a statistically significant dose-response trend (P for trend < 0.001). For example, each ln-unit (ng/mL) increase in serum 6:2 Cl-PFESA was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.85). MetS was also 2.26 (95% CI: 1.59, 3.23) times more common in the highest quartile of serum 6:2 Cl-PFESA concentration than the lowest, and particularly high among women (OR = 6.41, 95% CI: 3.65, 11.24). The BKMR-P analysis showed a positive association between the overall mixture of measured PFAS and the odds of MetS, but was only limited to women. While our results suggest that exposure to Cl-PFESAs was associated with MetS, additional longitudinal studies are needed to more definitively address the potential health concerns of these PFOS alternatives.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia
15.
Environ Int ; 153: 106548, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of maternal exposure to ambient air pollution on congenital heart defects (CHD) has been mixed and are still relatively limited in developing countries. We aimed to investigate the association between maternal exposure to air pollution and CHD in China. METHOD: This longitudinal, population-based, case-control study consecutively recruited fetuses with CHD and healthy volunteers from 21 cities, Southern China, between January 2006 and December 2016. Residential address at delivery was linked to random forests models to estimate maternal exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 1 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm, and ≤10 µm as well as nitrogen dioxides, in three trimesters. The CHD cases were evaluated by obstetrician, pediatrician, or cardiologist, and confirmed by cardia ultrasound. The CHD subtypes were coded using the International Classification Diseases. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between air pollutants and CHD and its subtypes. RESULTS: A total of 7055 isolated CHD and 6423 controls were included in the current analysis. Maternal air pollution exposures were consistently higher among cases than those among controls. Logistic regression analyses showed that maternal exposure to all air pollutants during the first trimester was associated with an increased odds of CHD (e.g., an interquartile range [13.3 µg/m3] increase in PM1 was associated with 1.09-fold ([95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.18]) greater odds of CHD). No significant associations were observed for maternal air pollution exposures during the second trimester and the third trimester. The pattern of the associations between air pollutants and different CHD subtypes was mixed. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal exposure to greater levels of air pollutants during the pregnancy, especially the first trimester, is associated with higher odds of CHD in offspring. Further longitudinal well-designed studies are warranted to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(8): 5065-5075, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764049

RESUMO

Existing evidence is scarce concerning the various effects of different PM sizes and chemical constituents on blood lipids. A panel study that involved 88 healthy college students with five repeated measurements (440 blood samples in total) was performed. We measured mass concentrations of particulate matter with diameters ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤1.0 µm (PM1.0), and ≤0.5 µm (PM0.5) as well as number concentrations of particulate matter with diameters ≤ 0.2 µm (PN0.2) and ≤0.1 µm (PN0.1). We applied linear mixed-effect models to assess the associations between short-term exposure to different PM size fractions and PM2.5 constituents and seven lipid metrics. We found significant associations of greater concentrations of PM in different size fractions within 5 days before blood collection with lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A (ApoA1) levels, higher apolipoprotein B (ApoB) levels, and lower ApoA1/ApoB ratios. Among the PM2.5 constituents, we observed that higher concentrations of tin and lead were significantly associated with decreased HDL-C levels, and higher concentrations of nickel were associated with higher HDL-C levels. Our results suggest that short-term exposure to PM in different sizes was deleteriously associated with blood lipids. Some constituents, especially metals, might be the major contributors to the detrimental effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Lipídeos , Material Particulado/análise
17.
J Hazard Mater ; 414: 125408, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647619

RESUMO

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most extensively used brominated flame retardants and is universally detected in the environment. However, information related to its transgenerational toxicity is sparse. Using zebrafish as a study model, adult fish were exposed to TBBPA at different concentrations (0, 3, 30, or 300 µg/L) for 42 d and then, the exposed adults were spawned in TBBPA-free water. The neurobehavior of adults and larval offspring was evaluated, and the levels of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, dopamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid) were quantified in larvae and embryos. Our results showed that TBBPA was detected in embryo and the locomotor activity of larval offspring was significantly reduced, suggesting that TBBPA can transfer to offspring and result in neurotoxicity in larval offspring. Furthermore, a reduction in T3 levels was observed in both the larvae and embryos. We also found a significantly decreased content of dopamine in larval offspring, accompanied by downregulated mRNA expression of rdr2b and drd3. Our results demonstrated that TBBPA can be transferred to offspring embryos, and subsequently induce neurotoxicity in larval offspring by affecting the amount of T3 transferred from the parents to embryos and the production of dopamine in larvae.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Bifenil Polibromatos , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Larva , Bifenil Polibromatos/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra
18.
Thorax ; 76(9): 880-886, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632767

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is growing interest in the impact of greenness exposure on airway diseases, but the impact of greenness on lung function in children is limited. We aimed to investigate the associations between greenness surrounding schools and lung function in children and whether these associations are modified by air pollution exposure. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2013, a cross-sectional survey and spirometry were performed among 6740 school children. Lung function patterns were determined as obstructive forced expiratory volume 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC <0.8) or restrictive (FEV1/FVC ≥0.8 but FVC <80% of predicted). School greenness was defined by Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and soil-adjusted vegetation index. Nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and particular matter concentrations were assessed using a spatiotemporal model and national monitoring data. Two-level generalised linear models were used to investigate associations and interactions. RESULTS: Overall, an IQR in NDVI within 500 m was associated with higher FEV1 (+57 mL 95% CI 44 to 70) and FVC (+58 mL 95% CI 43 to 73). NDVI was similarly associated with 25% reduced odds of spirometric restriction (OR: 0.75, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.86). However, among children exposed to the highest compared with the lowest quartile of particulate matter, increasing NDVI was paradoxically associated with lower -40 mL FVC (95% CI -47 to -33, p interaction <0.05). DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that, in this study population, greening urban areas may promote lung health in low-moderate pollution areas but not in high air pollution areas. If the findings are replicated in other moderate-to-high pollution settings, this highlights a need to have a flexible green policy.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Plantas , Testes de Função Respiratória , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
19.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129642, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465611

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs), emerging environmental contaminants, exhibit multiple toxicities in organisms. However, the transgenerational neurotoxicity of MPs has received little attention. Caenorhabditis elegans has been used as a model organism for studying transgenerational toxicity. In this study, the transgenerational neurotoxicity and oxidative stress of MPs were investigated over five generations (F0-F4) of C. elegans. The parental generation (F0) was exposed to polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) at concentrations of 0.1-100 µg/L, and subsequent generations (F1-F4) were cultured under toxicant-free conditions. The results indicated that exposure to PS-MPs at concentrations of 10-100 µg/L significantly decreased head thrash and body bends in nematodes, and this reduction was also observed in subsequent generations (F1-F2). This suggested that neurotoxicity induced by PS-MPs can be transferred from the parent to subsequent generations. Maternal exposure to 100 µg/L PS-MPs significantly enhanced ROS production and lipofuscin accumulation in subsequent generations (F1-F2), indicating that the induction of oxidative stress plays an important role in the transgenerational neurotoxicity in C. elegans. Moreover, maternal exposure to PS-MPs resulted in the transgenerational upregulation of genes related to oxidative stress (clk-1, ctl-1, sod-3, sod-4, and sod-5) in the F1-F3 generations, which indicated that these genes may be involved in regulating transgenerational neurotoxicity in C. elegans.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans , Microplásticos , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Plásticos , Poliestirenos/toxicidade
20.
Environ Int ; 147: 106318, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387882

RESUMO

Several studies suggest that organochlorine exposure can affect male reproductive functions, causing poor semen quality, endocrine disruption, or dysregulation of thyroid hormones. This study uses multiple linear regression (MLR) models to analyze the correlation between male reproductive functions and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congeners or p,p'-DDE levels in serum, semen, and indoor dust samples. Multiple comparisons were all adjusted using the false discovery rate (FDR). The results revealed that the PCB congener levels in seminal plasma were significantly associated with the quality parameters of human semen (i.e., sperm count, morphology, and motility) and thyroid hormones after adjusting for covariates, e.g., associations of the sperm concentration with levels of CB105 (ß = -0.323, 95% CI: -0.561, -0.085, p = 0.009), CB44 (ß = 0.585, 95% CI: 0.290, 0.880, p < 0.001), and CB66 (ß = -0.435, 95% CI: -0.728, -0.143, p = 0.004) in the seminal plasma were observed. Correlations between serum pollutants levels and the semen quality, reproductive hormones, or thyroid hormones were also observed. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the quantification of PCBs in seminal plasma can better describe male reproductive disorders than that in serum or dust. Organochlorine exposure measured in serum or dust, especially in seminal plasma, was associated with semen quality, as well as reproductive and thyroid hormones, thus suggesting that the impacts of persistent pollutants on male reproductive health require further investigation.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , China , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Análise do Sêmen
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