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1.
Environ Res ; 187: 109624, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution exposure and influenza virus infection have been documented to be independently associated with reduced lung function previously. Influenza vaccination plays an important role in protecting against influenza-induced severe diseases. However, no study to date has focused on whether influenza vaccination may modify the associations between ambient air pollution exposure and lung function. METHODS: We undertook a cross-sectional study of 6740 children aged 7-14 years into Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) Study in China during 2012-2013. We collected information from parents/guardians about sociodemographic factors and influenza vaccination status in the past three years. Lung function was measured using portable electronic spirometers. Machine learning methods were used to predict 4-year average ambient air pollutant exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <1 µm (PM1), <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and <10 µm (PM10). Two-level linear and logistic regression models were used to assess interactions between influenza vaccination and long-term ambient air pollutants exposure on lung function reduction, controlling for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Ambient air pollution were observed significantly associated with reductions in lung function among children. We found significant interactions between influenza vaccination and air pollutants on lung function, suggesting greater vulnerability to air pollution among unvaccinated children. For example, an interaction (pinteraction = 0.002) indicated a -283.44 mL (95% CI: -327.04, -239.83) reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) per interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM1 concentrations among unvaccinated children, compared with the -108.24 mL (95%CI: -174.88, -41.60) reduction in FVC observed among vaccinated children. Results from logistic regression models also showed stronger associations between per IQR increase in PM1 and lung function reduction measured by FVC and peak expiratory flow (PEF) among unvaccinated children than the according ORs among vaccinated children [i.e., Odds Ratio (OR) for PM1 and impaired FVC: 2.33 (95%CI: 1.79, 3.03) vs 1.65 (95%CI: 1.20, 2.28); OR for PM2.5 and impaired PEF: 1.45 (95%CI: 1.12,1.87) vs 1.04 (95%CI: 0.76,1.43)]. The heterogeneity of the modification by influenza vaccination of the associations between air pollution exposure and lung function reduction appeared to be more substantial in girls than in boys. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that influenza vaccination may moderate the detrimental effects of ambient air pollution on lung function among children. This study provides new insights into the possible co-benefits of strengthening and promoting global influenza vaccination programs among children.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 264: 114731, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416425

RESUMO

Lindane, a lipophilic pollutant, may be toxic to organisms. To explore the toxic effects of lindane and the underlying mechanisms of this toxicity, the animal model Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) was exposed to lindane for 3 d at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.01-100 ng/L) and the physiological, biochemical, and molecular indices were evaluated. Subacute exposure to 10-100 ng/L of lindane caused adverse physiological effects on the development, reproduction, and locomotion behaviors in C. elegans. Exposure to 1-100 ng/L of lindane increased the accumulation of Nile red and blue food dye, which suggested high permeability of the intestine in nematodes. Lindane exposure also significantly influenced the expression of genes related to intestinal development (e.g., mtm-6 and opt-2). Moreover, reactive oxygen species production, lipofuscin accumulation, and expression of oxidation resistance genes (e.g., sod-5 and isp-1) were significantly increased in C. elegans exposed to 10-100 ng/L of lindane, which indicated that lindane exposure induced oxidative stress. According to Pearson correlation analyses, oxidative stress and intestinal damage were significantly correlated with the adverse physiological effects of lindane. Therefore, the adverse effects of lindane may have been induced by intestinal damage and oxidative stress, and mtm-6, opt-2, sod-5, isp-1, and mev-1 might play important roles in the toxicity of lindane.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 726: 138679, 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320865

RESUMO

To understand the toxicity and mechanism of polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) exposure, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) was exposed to various concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 µg/L) of PS-MPs, and the levels physiological, biochemical, and molecular parameters were measured as endpoints. Subacute exposure to 1-100 µg/L of PS-MPs resulted in adverse physiological effects in C. elegans, and PS-MPs were ingested and accumulated in the intestine of C. elegans. Exposure to 100 µg/L of PS-MPs significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipofuscin accumulation, and the expression oxidative stress-related genes, which suggests that PS-MPs exposure induced oxidative stress by ROS. In addition, exposure to 100 µg/L of PS-MPs caused a hyperpermeable state of the intestinal barrier and altered the expression of genes related to intestinal development, which indicates intestinal damage in C. elegans. According to Pearson correlation analyses, oxidative stress and intestinal damage were significantly correlated with adverse effects of PS-MPs in C. elegans. Therefore, it was speculated that the toxicity induced by PS-MPs resulted from the combination of oxidative stress and intestinal injury.

4.
Environ Pollut ; 262: 114260, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114330

RESUMO

A substantial increase in the usage of organophosphate esters (OPEs) as flame retardants and plasticizers in rubbers, textiles, upholstered furniture, lacquers, plastics, building materials and electronic equipment has resulted in their increasing concentrations in the environment over time. However, little is known about the concentrations and fate of OPEs and their metabolites (mOPEs) in biota, including chicken eggs. The aim of this study was to understand the spatial variation in the concentrations in chicken eggs and the partitioning between yolk and albumin. In total, 153 chicken eggs were purchased across Australia and analysed for 9 OPEs and 11 mOPE. Most of the compounds were found to be deposited in egg yolk, where diphenyl phosphate (DPHP, 3.8 ng/g wet weight, median) and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP, 1.8 ng/g wet weight, median) were predominant mOPE and OPE, respectively. Moreover, no spatial differences in concentrations of OPEs and mOPEs in eggs purchased from different locations were found in this study. Although comparable levels of ∑OPEs were detected in egg yolk and albumin, much higher concentrations of ∑mOPEs were found in yolk than albumin. Meanwhile, a negative correlation (R2 = 0.964, p = 0.018) was found between the molecular mass of analytes and partitioning coefficient of Cyolk/Cyolk+albumin (defined as chemical concentration in egg yolk divided by the sum of chemical concentrations in both yolk and albumin). These results indicate that n-octanol/water partition coefficients (log KOW) may not be a crucial factor in the distribution of OPEs and mOPEs between egg yolk and albumin, which is important in understanding distribution of emerging organic contaminants in biota.

5.
Environ Int ; 138: 105666, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203811

RESUMO

Typical halogenated persistent organic pollutants (Hal-POPs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), are a group of ubiquitous organic pollutants with an endocrine disrupting effect. This study evaluated the accumulation and congener profiles of Hal-POPs in the bodies of men who live/work in areas of South China where electronic wastes are collected and managed, especially in their semen samples. The results show that the detection frequency and serum concentrations of Hal-POP congeners within the high-exposure group (HEG) were higher than those of the low-exposure group (LEG). Furthermore, an identical trend was observed for the seminal plasma concentrations of Hal-POPs. The distribution characteristics, such as their mean, median, and discrete values, of PBDE congeners in serum and semen samples from the same subjects were consistent with each other. However, the distribution characteristics of PCB congeners in serum samples were different from those in semen samples. BDE153 was one of the most abundant congeners found in the serum and semen samples; hence, it can be identified as an indicator PBDE congener. Further research is needed to explore the mechanism of Hal-POPs distribution in human semen and serum samples.

6.
Environ Int ; 137: 105555, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059142

RESUMO

The detrimental effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) on several physiological systems have been reported, but the association of PFASs with eye, one of the most sensitive and exposed organ, has never been explored. To investigate the association between eye diseases including visual impairment (VI) and PFASs isomers, a cross-sectional stratified study was conducted in 1202 Chinese population, aged 22-96 years, from Shenyang, China. A standard protocol including Snellen vision chart, slit-lamp microscopy and direct ophthalmoscopy was used to examine eye diseases/conditions relating to anterior and posterior segment of eyes. In addition, we measured the blood concentrations of 19 linear and branched PFASs at one-time point. Results indicated that blood levels of PFASs were significantly higher in eye disease group than normal group. PFASs exposure were positively associated with both combined eye diseases and individual eye diseases. Among other PFASs, linear perfluorooctane sulfonate (n-PFOS; odds ratio [OR] = 3.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.50, 4.56), branched perfluorooctane sulfonate (Br-PFOS; OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.72, 2.93) and linear perfluorooctanoic acid (n-PFOA; OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.37) significantly increases the odds of VI. Vitreous disorder was adversely associated with long-chain PFASs exposure. For example, perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA; OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.51, 2.29) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA; OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.36) showed the most significant association. In conclusion, this study suggests higher serum PFASs levels were associated with increase odds of VI and vitreous disorder in Chinese adults.

7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(3): 159, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016688

RESUMO

Antibiotic contamination attracts growing concerns because of their deleterious effects on the ecosystem and human health. In this study, 43 antibiotics in wastewater from a variety of sources and water of the Yangtze River in Chongqing City in western China were measured. Thirty compounds were detected, and their concentrations were highest in leachates from the municipal solid waste treatment facilities (landfills and incineration plants) with total concentrations of 3584-57,106 ng/L. The total concentrations in influents of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were comparable (401-7994 ng/L versus 640-8945 ng/L). The concentrations in raw sewage from swine farms (with a total of 10,219-39,195 ng/L) and poultry farms (1419-36,027 ng/L) were noticeably higher than those from other farms (54.0-5516 ng/L). Fluoroquinolones were the dominant antibiotics contributing over 50% in all the sources, and sulfonamides and imidazole fungicides contributed 3.2-34%, whereas tetracyclines and macrolides had minor contributions. The overall antibiotic removal rates were highest in solid waste treatment facilities (88% on average), comparable between municipal and industrial WWTPs (61%), and lowest in animal farms (39%). The mass loads to the investigated municipal WWTPs via influent wastewater ranged from 7.80 to 1531 kg/year (53.2-2482 µg/day per capital). The influent mass loads to the industrial WWTPs and farms were 3.7-50 kg/year and 0.9-5437 g/year, respectively. We estimated that the mass inventories of antibiotics from these sources to the environment via effluent discharges were approximately 2044 kg for municipal WWTPs, 61 kg for industrial WWTPs, and 34 kg for animal farms in the whole city. Antibiotic concentrations in the Yangtze River water were substantially low (< 492 ng/L, with a mean of 57.8 ng/L) suggesting dissipation during the movement.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , China , Cidades , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Suínos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126067, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041069

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) pollution and its potential environmental risks have drawn increasing concerns in recent years. Among which, microbeads in personal care and cosmetic products has becoming an emerging issue for their abundance as well as the knowledge gaps in their precise environmental behaviors in freshwater. The present study investigated the sorption process of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), the most widely applied and frequently encountered flame retardant in aquatic environments, on two sources of polyethylene (PE) particles (pristine PE particles and microbeads isolated from personal care and cosmetic products). Significantly enhanced adsorption capacity of microbeads was observed with up to 5-folds higher than the pristine PE particles. The sorption efficiency was also governed by solution pH, especially for the cosmetic-derived microbeads, indicating the strong adsorption of TBBPA on PE was dominated by both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Additionally, combined effects on redox status of zebrafish were evaluated with two environmental relevant concentrations of PE particles (0.5 and 5 mg L-1) using integrated biomarker response (IBR) index through a 14-d exposure. Co-exposure induced significant antioxidative stress than either PE or TBBPA alone when exposed to 0.5 mg L-1 of MPs. After 7-d depuration, the IBR value for combination treatments [TBBPA + PE (L)] was 3-fold compared with that in MP-free groups, indicating the coexistence might exert a prolonged adverse effects on aquatic organisms. These results highlight the probability of risk from microbead pollution in freshwater, where toxic compounds can be adsorbed on microbeads in a considerable amount resulting in potential adverse effects towards aquatic organisms.

9.
Hypertension ; 75(2): 347-355, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838909

RESUMO

Evidence on the associations between airborne particulates of diameter ≤1 µm (PM1) and airborne particulates of diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and childhood blood pressure (BP) is scarce. To help to address this literature gap, we conducted a study to explore the associations in Chinese children. Between 2012 and 2013, we recruited 9354 children, aged 5 to 17 years, from 62 schools in 7 northeastern Chinese cities. We measured their BP with a mercury sphygmomanometer. We used a spatiotemporal model to estimate daily ambient PM1 and PM2.5 exposures, which we assigned to participants' home addresses. Associations between particulate matter exposure and BP were evaluated with generalized linear mixed regression models. The findings indicated that exposure to each 10 mg/m3 greater PM1 was significantly associated with 2.56 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.47-3.65) higher systolic BP and 61% greater odds for hypertension (odds ratio=1.61 [95% CI, 1.18-2.18]). PM1 appears to play an important role in associations reported between PM2.5 exposure and BP, and we found that the ambient PM1/PM2.5 ratio (range, 0.80-0.96) was associated with BP and with hypertension. Age and body weight modified associations between air pollutants and BP (P<0.01), with stronger associations among younger (aged ≤11 years) and overweight/obese children. This study provides the first evidence that long-term exposure to PM1 is associated with hypertension in children, and that PM1 might be a leading contributor to the hypertensive effect of PM2.5. Researchers and policy makers should pay closer attention to the potential health impacts of PM1.

10.
Environ Int ; 135: 105365, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental studies show that chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESA 6:2 and 8:2), one of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) used as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) alternatives, are reproductive toxicants in vivo and in vitro. However, the associations between gestational exposure to Cl-PFESAs and birth outcomes are unknown. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA in maternal serum and birth outcomes. METHODS: We measured four PFAS, including 6:2 Cl-PFESA, 8:2 Cl-PFESA, PFOS, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in third-trimester maternal serum collected from 372 mother-child dyads participating in the Guangzhou Birth Cohort Study. Characteristics of mothers and infants were gathered from medical records and by interviewer-administered questionnaires. RESULTS: PFOS was the most abundant PFAS in maternal serum (median: 7.15 ng/mL), followed by 6:2 Cl-PFESA (median: 2.41 ng/mL). Greater maternal serum levels of all PFAS alternatives were significantly associated with lower birth weight, adjusted for confounding variables. For example, each ln-ng/mL greater concentration of 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA was associated with a 54.44 g [95% confidence interval (CI): -95.66, -13.22] and 21.15 g (95% CI: -41.44, -0.86) lower birth weight, respectively. Greater continuous maternal serum 6:2 Cl-PFESA (OR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.73, 4.15) and PFOS (OR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.24, 3.32) were also associated with higher risks for preterm birth, adjusted for confounders, with a possible threshold effect at the highest quartile of 6:2 Cl-PFESA. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we report associations between maternal serum 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA concentrations and adverse birth outcomes. Our findings suggest that PFOS alternatives may be reproductive toxicants in human populations and should be considered with caution before widespread use. Given the preliminary nature of our results, additional epidemiological and toxicological investigations are needed to more definitively assess the risks.

11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(2): 1075-1081, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859494

RESUMO

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is known to pose potential risk to human health, but the effects of tar level remain to be clarified. In the present study, ETS samples from two cigarette types with different tar levels in a 72.5 m3 room were collected for measurement of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Urine samples of volunteers participating in smoking events were collected and analyzed for eight hydroxyl-PAHs. The concentrations, compositions, and particle size distribution patterns of PAHs from higher-tar and lower-tar cigarettes were similar, while the emission factors of PAHs from higher-tar cigarettes were lower than those from lower-tar cigarettes. Furthermore, the change in the concentrations of PAH metabolites in urine samples before and after smoking was not attributed to tar level. Assuming that a single cigarette was smoked in a 100 m3 room, the estimated average inhalation cancer risks for different age groups from exposure to PAHs in ETS were below 1.0 × 10-6, but potential risks should not be overlooked, especially considering that only inhaled particle-bound PAHs in ETS were included in this assessment. Apparently, reduced tar levels would not necessarily lead to lowered risk of exposure to PAHs. Kicking the habit is perhaps the best choice to minimize any potential health risk.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Fumaça , Fumar , Tabaco
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(12): e1917862, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851349

RESUMO

Importance: Few studies have investigated the association between greenness and childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective: To evaluate the association between greenness surrounding schools or kindergartens and symptoms of ADHD in children. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cross-sectional study was performed between April 2012 and January 2013 in 7 cities in northeastern China. This analysis included 59 754 children (aged 2-17 years) from 94 schools and kindergartens, who had resided in the study area for 2 years or longer. Data were analyzed from April 15, 2019, to October 10, 2019. Exposures: Greenness surrounding each child's school or kindergarten was estimated using 2 satellite image-derived vegetation indexes: the normalized difference vegetation index and the soil-adjusted vegetation index. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) scales were used to measure ADHD symptoms (9 inattention symptoms and 9 hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms). Parents or guardians rated the frequency of each of 18 ADHD symptoms during the preceding 6 months. Children with 6 or more symptoms of either inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity were defined as having ADHD symptoms. Generalized linear mixed models were applied to estimate the association between greenness and ADHD symptoms. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 59 754 study participants was 10.3 (3.6) years, and 29 494 (49.4%) were girls. A total of 2566 participants (4.3%) had ADHD symptoms. Greenness levels differed substantially across schools and kindergartens. The normalized difference vegetation index within 500 m of a school or kindergarten ranged from -0.09 to 0.77. Greater greenness levels were associated with lower odds of ADHD symptoms. In covariate-adjusted models, a 0.1-unit increase in normalized difference vegetation index or soil-adjusted vegetation index within 500 m of a school or kindergarten was significantly associated with lower odds of ADHD symptoms (odds ratios, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.83-0.91] and 0.80 [95% CI, 0.74-0.86], respectively; P < .001 for both). The associations were robust in a series of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that there may be a beneficial association between school-based greenness and ADHD symptoms in Chinese children. Future longitudinal and mechanistic studies are needed to confirm the findings of this cross-sectional analysis and further explore potential mechanisms of this association.

13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 185: 109690, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563749

RESUMO

Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) are the third most highly produced brominated flame retardants (BFRs) all over the world. Based on the current research status of HBCDs, zebrafish were exposed to three dietary concentrations of HBCDs (0, 10, 100, 400 ng/g) for 56 days, and followed by clean food for 28 days. In order to investigate the enrichment and purification of HBCDs in zebrafish, HBCD enantiomers in zebrafish were determined using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). To investigate the effects of long-term exposure of HBCDs on thyroid dysfunction and oxidative stress in zebrafish, the concentrations of thyroid hormone (T3, T4, FT3 and FT4) and the activities of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured. RT-PCR was used to reveal the molecular mechanism of HBCDs' influence on thyroid hormone in zebrafish. The result of UPLC-MS/MS showed that there were three main reasons for the existence of α-HBCD as the major isomer in the organism. HBCDs had significant inhibitory effect on T3 and T4 in liver of adult zebrafish after 56 days' exposure. Compared with the control group, the ratio of T3 and T4was significantly higher in the medium and high concentration group. The content of FT3 and FT4 in the liver tissue of zebrafish increased first and then decreased with the increase of exposure concentration. With the increase of exposure concentration, the content of MDA in zebrafish liver decreased firstly and then increased. The activity of SOD and CAT in zebrafish liver showed the opposite trend with MDA. And the concentration of GSH in liver decreased gradually, which showed a significant dose-effect relationship. HBCDs exposure has an inhibitory effect on thyroid hormone receptor gene (TRß) and adrenocorticotropin-releasing hormone gene (Crh) in zebrafish.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/toxicidade , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Exposição Dietética/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estereoisomerismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo
14.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt A): 105160, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Greater levels of serum per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are known to be associated with higher uric acid which itself leads to a number of chronic diseases. However, whether this association varies across PFAS isomers which recently have been found to be associated with human health remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To address this research gap, we explored isomer-specific associations between serum PFAS and uric acid in Chinese adults. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of associations between serum PFAS isomer and serum uric acid in 1612 participants from the Isomer of C8 Health Project. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression models to analyze serum isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and other PFASs as continuous and categorical predictors of uric acid, adjusted for confounders. The association was also stratified by kidney function stage based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (GF-1, GF-2, GF-3a, and GF-3b/4). RESULTS: We found positive associations between serum PFAS isomer concentrations and uric acid. Uric acid levels were greater for each log-unit increase in branched PFOA (ß = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.40), linear PFOA (ß = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.26), branched PFOS (ß = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.17) and linear PFOS (ß = 0.06, 95% CI: -0.01, 0.14) concentration. The associations between PFAS and uric acid showed an inverted 'U' shaped pattern across kidney function stages. For example, uric acid level was greater with each log-unit increase in total-PFOA among GF-1 (ß = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.37), this relationship was greater in GF-3a (ß = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.89) and decreased in GF-3b/4 (ß = -0.22, 95% CI: -0.83, 0.39). We also found the odds of hyperuricemia increased linearly with increasing branched PFOA in quartiles (odds ratio = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.86, 3.85 at the highest quartile). CONCLUSION: We report novel results in which PFAS associations with uric acid varied according to isomer and adult kidney function. Besides, our findings are consistent with previous epidemiologic studies in finding a positive association between serum PFAS concentrations and serum uric acid, especially for PFOA. Our results indicate that more research is needed to more clearly assess the impact of PFAS isomers on human health, which will help to refine regulation policies for PFAS.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Caprilatos/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/sangue , Isomerismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Úrico/química
15.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 909-917, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351299

RESUMO

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a nonregulated brominated flame retardant with a high production volume, and it is applied in a wide variety of consumer products. TBBPA is ubiquitous in abiotic matrices, wildlife and humans around the world. This paper critically reviews the published scientific data concerning the disposition, metabolism or kinetics and toxicity of TBBPA in animals and humans. TBBPA is rapidly absorbed and widely distributed among tissues, and is excreted primarily in the feces. In rats, TBBPA and its metabolites have limited systemic bioavailability. TBBPA has been detected in human milk in the general population. It is available to both the developing fetus and the nursing pups following maternal exposure. It has been suggested that TBBPA causes acute toxicity, endocrine disruptor activity, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity in animals. Cell-based assays have shown that TBBPA can induce reactive oxygen species in a concentration-dependent manner, and it promotes the production of inflammatory factors such as TNF α, IL-6, and IL-8. Cells exposed to high levels of TBBPA exhibit seriously injured mitochondria and a dilated smooth endoplasmic reticulum. This review will enhance the understanding of the potential risks of TBBPA exposure to ecological and human health.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Bifenil Polibromatos/toxicidade , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Disponibilidade Biológica , Fezes , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Halogenação , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Ratos
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 180: 742-748, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152988

RESUMO

Little data are available on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine fish associated with oil and gas activities from the South China Sea (SCS). Twenty-one wild marine fish species from the northern South China Sea were collected for analysis of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The total concentration of the PAHs (∑16PAHs) ranged from 199 to 606 ng·g-1 d.w., indicating moderate contamination. PAHs in fish species found in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) were significantly higher than those from the Yachen (YC) gas fields (p < 0.05). Planktivorous fish exhibited significantly higher concentrations of PAHs than carnivorous and omnivorous fish (p < 0.05). The PAHs were dominated by three ring compounds. Source identification analyses indicated that the PAH pollution originated from petroleum inputs. The cancer and non-cancer risk assessments concluded that the probable risk associated with the intake of PAHs via fish consumption is minimal. Long-term monitoring is necessary to determine the ecological impacts of PAHs associated with oil and gas activities.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , China , Humanos , Petróleo/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
J Environ Manage ; 245: 216-222, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154167

RESUMO

In order to understand multi-generational effects and changes of stress response by hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) exposure, the animal model Caenorhabditis elegans was chosen for toxicity study. Multiple endpoints, including the physiological levels (growth, reproduction, and locomotion behaviors), stress-related gene expressions, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and degree of cell apoptosis, were evaluated on exposed nematodes and their progeny. Prolonged exposure to HBCD at concentrations of 2 nM-200 nM caused adverse physiological effects in the parental generation (F0), and these effects were also observed in the offspring under HBCD-free conditions (F1). HBCD-induced toxicities could be transferred from parent to offspring. The integrated gene expressions profiles showed that exposure to HBCD at concentrations of 20-200 nM resulted in obvious changes in stress-related gene expressions, which were more increased in F0 generation than in F1 generation. The increased expressions were pronounced in several genes related to oxidative stress and cell apoptosis, e.g., hsp-16.2, hsp-16.48, sod-1, sod-3 and cep-1 genes. Exposure to 200 nM of HBCD could significantly increase ROS production and degree of cell apoptosis in the F0 and F1 generations. Therefore, it was speculated that HBCD exposure induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis, which resulted in the adverse physiological effects. This finding is helpful for understanding the multi-generational effects and evaluating the potential risk of HBCD.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados , Animais , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
18.
J Environ Manage ; 245: 223-229, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154168

RESUMO

A two-step screening and prioritization approach of the chemical hazard to derive water quality criteria for the protection of human health in China was developed. Seventy-five potential candidate chemicals were identified in Step 1, and then were screened and scored in Step 2, based on three characteristics: detection frequency, toxicity, and human exposure. Substances with a score above 900 were considered the proposed candidates. Using this approach, 18 chemicals were successfully identified, and ranked in the following order: zinc, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, trichloromethane, arsenic, cadmium, gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), copper, benzo[a]pyrene, lead, benzene, fluoranthene, mercury, beta-HCH, anthracene, p,p'-DDT, and alpha-HCH. Additional chemical contaminants, including thallium, antimony, chromium (VI), and nitrobenzene, suggested by the Ministry of Environmental Protection for consideration during the development of the water quality criteria, brought the final number of proposed candidates to 22. These candidates belong to different groups: nine metals, four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four pesticides, two phthalic acid esters, one halogenated hydrocarbon, and two monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This list of pollutants will provide guidance when selecting the substances to be considered during the development of water quality criteria for the protection of human health in China.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Qualidade da Água
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 176: 364-369, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959350

RESUMO

Direct immersion solid phase microextraction (DI-SPME) coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is of significant research interest because of its low solvent consumption, simple design, and efficient, sensitive, fast performance. In this work, a combination of these two methods (DI-SPME-LC-MS) for the determination of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in water was developed. Important factors, which included temperature, stirring rate, salt concentration, pH value and adsorption time, were evaluated in for the optimization of solid phase microextraction (SPME) method. The method was developed using spiked natural waters in a concentration range of 0.1-10 ng mL-1, and showed notable linearity with regression coefficients ranging between 0.992 and 0.999. The limits of detection varied from 0.01 to 0.04 ng mL-1 (at S/N = 3) and relative standard deviation (RSD < 11%) were obtained showing that the precision of the method was reliable. Recoveries were in relatively high levels for both analytes and ranged from 88% to 108%. Moreover, in comparison with the performance time of traditional sample pretreatment methods such as solid-phase extraction (SPE), accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), DI-SPME-LC-MS takes only approximately 35 min to perform. The optimized method was successfully applied for monitoring concentrations of TBBPA and HBCD in water.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise , Bifenil Polibromatos/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Calibragem , Limite de Detecção , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(9): 4784-4793, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955330

RESUMO

Despite numerous studies on the contamination of organophosphate triesters (tri-OPEs) in indoor environments, organophosphate diesters (di-OPEs) have rarely been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate whether di-OPEs coexist with tri-OPEs in house dust collected from Guangzhou ( n = 30), South China and the city of Carbondale ( n = 17) located in the Midwestern United States (U.S.). Median concentrations of bis(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEP), bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPP), bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (BEHP), bis(2-methylphenyl phosphate) (BMPP), and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) were determined to be 15.9, < LOQ, 33.6, 654, 9.5, and 605 ng/g in South China house dust, and 1580, 90.6, 234, 867, 4.0, and 6500 ng/g in Midwestern U.S. dust, respectively. The total concentrations of di-OPEs (referred to ΣdiOPEs) constituted an average of 22.9% and 21.3% of the total concentrations of tri-OPEs in dust from these two locations, respectively. Median concentration ratios of DPHP and BEHP to their respective tri-OPEs (i.e., TPHP and TEHP) were determined to be 1.1 and 1.0 in South China dust and 3.7 and 1.4 in Midwestern U.S. dust, respectively, indicating possible commercial applications for these two di-OPEs. Correlative analyses reveal chemical- and region-specific relationships between di-OPEs and their respective tri-OPEs, suggesting that the relative importance of different sources (e.g., direct commercial use, impurity in tri-OPE formulas, and tri-OPE degradation) could vary for different di-OPEs. Our findings demonstrate wide occurrences of di-OPEs in an indoor environment from the studied locations and raise concerns on human exposure to dust associated di-OPEs. Future studies are needed to explore more possible di-OPEs in indoor environments and elucidate their sources, human exposure pathways, and toxicokinetics.


Assuntos
Poeira , Retardadores de Chama , China , Cidades , Ésteres , Humanos , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Organofosfatos
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