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1.
Opt Lett ; 47(20): 5373-5376, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240366

RESUMO

We present and demonstrate a method based on a periodic phase noise estimation in an optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) capable of a beyond 107 range-resolution-1 product (RRP) for the first time, which corresponds to 2.5 × improvement compared with the state-of-the-art. The moving average filter is employed to suppress the amplification of noise in the derivation process. Further, with the help of a third-order Taylor expansion, this method provides a highly precise estimation of periodic phase noise, which is the main factor impacting the performance of OFDR systems with medium-to-long measurement range combined with a submillimeter spatial resolution. A spatial resolution within 535 µm over the measurement range of 8 km is obtained. The proposed method offers a promising technique for fiber network monitoring and sensing applications.

2.
Opt Lett ; 47(18): 4810-4813, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107096

RESUMO

We propose a common-path interferometer (CPI) method to suppress the ambient and laser phase noise in frequency sweeping interferometry. The CPI realizes the multiplexing of the main and auxiliary interferometer to ensure the common-mode characteristic of the interference phase noise, which can be eliminated by signal mixing. In experiments, we obtain a dynamic range of up to 110 dB. Compared with the compensation method using a separated auxiliary interferometer, the CPI method improves the dynamic range by 10 dB and is immune to ambient noise. The proposed method enables high-precision distributed polarization measurements of optical fibers and devices.

3.
Opt Express ; 30(6): 9578-9589, 2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35299382

RESUMO

A kind of hybrid fiber interferometer consisting of a fiber Sagnac interferometer (FSI), a closed-cavity Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI), and an open-cavity FPI is proposed for generating combined-Vernier-effect. Through adjusting the polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) length of the FSI, the free spectral range (FSR) is tailored to be similar to that of the parallel-connected reference FPI for producing the first Vernier effect, of which the spectrum is used to match the sensing FPI spectrum for obtaining the second Vernier effect. Noticeable lower and upper spectral envelopes are achieved in the first and second Vernier effects, respectively, so called the combined-Vernier spectrum. Accessibly, the upper envelope is only sensitive to the refractive index (RI) owing to the characteristics of the open-cavity FPI, while the lower one is immune to the RI and employed to detect the temperature by taking advantage of the FSI. Most importantly, the sensitivities of RI and temperature can be significantly improved simultaneously without crosstalk. The experimental results show that the RI sensitivity is -19844.67 nm/RIU and the temperature sensitivity is -46.14 nm/°C, which can be used for high-precision temperature and RI simultaneous measurement.

4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(24)2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847409

RESUMO

Advanced chemometric analysis is required for rapid and reliable determination of physical and/or chemical components in complex gas mixtures. Based on infrared (IR) spectroscopic/sensing techniques, we propose an advanced regression model based on the extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm for quantitative chemometric analysis. The proposed model makes two contributions to the field of advanced chemometrics. First, an ELM-based autoencoder (AE) was developed for reducing the dimensionality of spectral signals and learning important features for regression. Second, the fast regression ability of ELM architecture was directly used for constructing the regression model. In this contribution, nitrogen oxide mixtures (i.e., N2O/NO2/NO) found in vehicle exhaust were selected as a relevant example of a real-world gas mixture. Both simulated data and experimental data acquired using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were analyzed by the proposed chemometrics model. By comparing the numerical results with those obtained using conventional principle components regression (PCR) and partial least square regression (PLSR) models, the proposed model was verified to offer superior robustness and performance in quantitative IR spectral analysis.

5.
Appl Opt ; 57(32): 9683-9689, 2018 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30461752

RESUMO

A dual Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) is described for simultaneous measurement of displacement and temperature. Two orthogonal polarization components of a beam are simultaneously transmitted in the interferometer. The sensing configuration contains a short PMF section, a lens, and a mirror. The lens can transmit the slow polarization component and reflect the fast polarization component. Each polarization component exhibits a unique phase shift in response to changes in displacement and temperature, forming a dual MZI. Experimental results show that the resolutions of displacement and temperature are 60 pm and 2×10-3°C, respectively, and measurement ranges of displacement and temperature can reach 20 cm and 70°C. The experimental result demonstrates that there is no crosstalk between displacement and temperature, and high repeatability is demonstrated experimentally. This sensor allows multiparameter measurement, high resolution, wide measurement range, and good repeatability, conferring good application potential.

6.
Opt Express ; 26(23): 29712-29723, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30469932

RESUMO

We present a high-resolution polarization crosstalk measurement method for polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) with considerable dispersion. The birefringence dispersion of the PMF severely degrades the spatial resolution of the distributed polarization crosstalk measurement. Conventional dispersion compensation methods are effective for modest birefringence dispersion coefficients (for instance, of 0.0014 ps/nm/km). We present an iterative matched filter (IMF) method to cope with the case of considerable birefringence dispersion. We measured the distributed polarization crosstalk of a PMF coil with a birefringence dispersion coefficient of 0.235 ps/nm/km. By applying the IMF method, we obtained a spatial resolution of 0.09 m at any position of the PMF (a maximum of 12.36 m without dispersion compensation).

7.
Appl Opt ; 56(16): 4598-4605, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29047588

RESUMO

We propose an effective and promising method to extend the continuous range of the optical delay line in white light interferometry. The method adopts the combination of switchable fixed delays and a continuous-scanning stage laid in one arm of the interferometer. Moreover, a fiber ring constructed by a fiber coupler is employed in the other arm to achieve self-calibration and improve the delay precision, voiding the use of a specialized measurement instrument. The range-extension method maintains the original performances of the stage just through the process of orderly copying and jointing. The setup with 16 parallel fixed delay paths is experimentally demonstrated. The insertion loss of the optical delay line will not increase as the range extension and keeps an average of 1.45 dB with a fluctuation of ±0.15 dB(3σ) over a delay range of 37.2 m without a blind zone. In addition, the delay precision as a function of the port number of the optical switch does not deteriorate and remains at a level of 10.21 µm with a standard deviation of 0.08 µm. The loss and delay precision features enable the proposed structure to be extended without limitation, which is particularly significant for practical applications.

8.
Appl Opt ; 56(20): 5614-5619, 2017 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29047702

RESUMO

We propose a dual-channel measurement system for evaluating the optical path symmetry of an interferometric fiber optic gyro (IFOG) coil. Utilizing a bidirectional distributed polarization measurement system, the forward and backward transmission performances of an IFOG coil are characterized simultaneously by just a one-time measurement. The simple but practical configuration is composed of a bidirectional Mach-Zehnder interferometer and multichannel transmission devices connected to the IFOG coil under test. The static and dynamic temperature results of the IFOG coil reveal that its polarization-related symmetric properties can be effectively obtained with high accuracy. The optical path symmetry investigation is highly beneficial in monitoring and improving the winding technology of an IFOG coil and reducing the nonreciprocal effect of an IFOG.

9.
Appl Opt ; 56(24): 6873-6880, 2017 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29048027

RESUMO

Measurement error for the polarization extinction ratio (PER) of a multifunctional integrated optic chip (MFIOC) utilizing white light interferometry was analyzed. Three influence factors derived from the all-fiber device (or optical circuit) under test were demonstrated to be the main error sources, including: 1) the axis-alignment angle (AA) of the connection point between the extended polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) and the chip PMF pigtail; 2) the oriented angle (OA) of the linear polarizer; and 3) the birefringence dispersion of PMF and the MFIOC chip. Theoretical calculations and experimental results indicated that by controlling the AA range within 0°±5°, the OA range within 45°±2° and combining with dispersion compensation process, the maximal PER measurement error can be limited to under 1.4 dB, with the 3σ uncertainty of 0.3 dB. The variations of birefringence dispersion effect versus PMF length were also discussed to further confirm the validity of dispersion compensation. A MFIOC with the PER of ∼50 dB was experimentally tested, and the total measurement error was calculated to be ∼0.7 dB, which proved the effectiveness of the proposed error reduction methods. We believe that these methods are able to facilitate high-accuracy PER measurement.

10.
Opt Express ; 24(15): 16247-57, 2016 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27464078

RESUMO

This paper presents a method to improve the dynamic range of white light interferometer (WLI) based polarization mode coupling (PMC) measurement system beyond 100 dB. The limitation of interference beat noise is overcame by analyzing in detail the inherent noises that have impacts on the detection sensitivity. An improved PMC measurement system and method are proposed for testing ultra-high polarization extinction ratio (PER) of polarization-related devices. The method can improve dynamic range dramatically through eliminating interference beat noise and enhancing the tested interference intensity simultaneously, which are verified theoretically and experimentally. In addition, a Y-junction with ~80 dB PER of LiNbO3 chip corresponding to a weak signal is tested as an application example. The results demonstrate that the high PER interferogram can be identified clearly and steadily with standard deviation 0.9 dB (3σ) @ ~80 dB. This proposed method is highly beneficial in fabrication and evaluation for polarization devices with ultra-high PER.

11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 16(3)2016 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27011191

RESUMO

The high-order interference (HOI)-The interferogram introduced by polarization mode couplings (PMC) of multiple perturbations-Will cause misjudgment of the realistic coupling points in polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) which is tested with a white light interferometer (WLI) with large dynamic range. We present an optical path tracking (OPT) method for simplifying the analysis of HOI, and demonstrate the enhancement and suppression conditions for the HOIs. A strategy is proposed to readily identify HOI by altering the spliced angle between polarizers' pigtails and the PMF under test. Moreover, a PMF experiment with two perturbation points, for simplicity, is given as an example. As a result, all the characteristic interferograms including HOIs can be distinguished through just four measurements. Utilizing this identification method, we can estimate the realistic coupling points in PMFs and distinguish them from the interference signals including numerous HOIs.

12.
Opt Express ; 24(2): 1587-97, 2016 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26832536

RESUMO

A white light temporal interferometric technique for measurement of the quasi-distributed birefringence dispersion (BD) in a polarization maintain (PM) device with high accuracy based on weighted least square (WLS) method is presented. It is verified theoretically and experimentally that the accuracy of WLS method and the conventional ordinary least square (OLS) method both are proportional to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of interferogram, whereas the WLS method holds a higher scaling factor because it is more suitable for heteroscedastic model that has unequal error variance. The experiment results show a repeatability of ~4.6 × 10(-5) ps/nm @ 1550 nm with WLS method for 100 sets of data, and ~4.3 × 10(-4) ps/nm with OLS method, for an interferogram with SNR of 30 dB. Besides, WLS method without iterative operation is carried out by using power spectrum of interferogram as weight value. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated by distinguishing the quasi-distributed BD of every part for a packaged Y-waveguide with two 1m-long PM pigtails.

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