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1.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809123

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) can cause intestinal infection in neonatal piglets through the nasal cavity. A process in which CD3+ T cells carry PEDV plays a key role. However, the modes through which PEDV bridles CD3+ T cells as a vehicle for migration to the intestinal epithelium have not been clarified. In this study, we first demonstrated that PEDV could survive in blood-derived CD3+ T cells for several hours, depending on the multiplicity of infection. In addition, PEDV preferentially survived in CD4+ T cells over CD8+ T cells. Moreover, viral transmission was mediated by cell-to-cell contact between mesenteric lymph-node-derived CD3+ T cells, but did not occur in blood-derived CD3+ T cells. Following an increase in gut-homing integrin α4ß7, blood-derived CD3+ T cells carrying PEDV migrated to the intestines via blood circulation and transferred the virus to intestinal epithelial cells through cell-to-cell contact in neonatal piglets. Our findings have significant implications for understanding PEDV pathogenesis in neonatal piglets, which is essential for developing innovative therapies to prevent PEDV infection.

2.
Acta Biomater ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831569

RESUMO

Bone regeneration is an interdisciplinary complex lesson, including but not limited to materials science, biomechanics, immunology, and biology. Having witnessed impressive progress in the past decades in the development of bone substitutes; however, it must be said that the most suitable biomaterial for bone regeneration remains an area of intense debate. Since its discovery, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) has been widely used in bone tissue engineering due to its good biocompatibility and adjustable biodegradability. This review systematically covers the past and the most recent advances in developing PLGA-based bone regeneration materials. Taking the different application forms of PLGA-based materials as the starting point, we describe each form's specific application and its corresponding advantages and disadvantages with many examples. We focus on the progress of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds, three-dimensional (3D) printed scaffolds, microspheres/nanoparticles, hydrogels, multiphasic scaffolds, and stents prepared by other traditional and emerging methods. Finally, we briefly discuss the current limitations and future direction of PLGA-based bone repair materials. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: : As a key synthetic biopolymer in bone tissue engineering application, the progress of PLGA-based bone substitute is impressive. In this review, we summarized the past and the most recent advances in the development of PLGA-based bone regeneration materials. According to the typical application forms and corresponding crafts of PLGA-based substitutes, we described the development of electrospinning nanofibrous scaffolds, 3D printed scaffolds, microspheres/nanoparticles, hydrogels, multiphasic scaffolds and scaffolds fabricated by other manufacturing process. Finally, we briefly discussed the current limitations and proposed the newly strategy for the design and fabrication of PLGA-based bone materials or devices.

3.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808275

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, has catastrophic impacts on the global pig industry. Owing to the lack of effective vaccines and specific therapeutic options for PEDV, it is pertinent to develop new and available antivirals. This study identified, for the first time, a salinomycin that actively inhibited PEDV replication in Vero cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, salinomycin significantly inhibited PEDV infection by suppressing the entry and post-entry of PEDV in Vero cells. It did not directly interact with or inactivate PEDV particles, but it significantly ameliorated the activation of Erk1/2, JNK and p38MAPK signaling pathways that are associated with PEDV infection. This implied that salinomycin inhibits PEDV replication by altering MAPK pathway activation. Notably, the PEDV induced increase in reactive oxidative species (ROS) was not decreased, indicating that salinomycin suppresses PEDV replication through a pathway that is an independent pathway of viral-induced ROS. Therefore, salinomycin is a potential drug that can be used for treating PEDV infection.

4.
Res Vet Sci ; 136: 310-317, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756379

RESUMO

Oral probiotics are used to induce immune responses in the intestines to protect against infection. However, oral probiotics may also affect immune responses in other mucosal tissues such as in the respiratory tract. To examine this possibility, we explored the potential of immunocytes to home to the respiratory system after oral administration of Bacillus subtilis. The results showed that B. subtilis could promote intestinal development and not cause pathological changes in the respiratory tract. Following the oral administration with B. subtilis, the number of IgA-secreting cells and CD3+ T cells not only significantly increased in the intestinal tracts but also in respiratory tracts (P < 0.01). Moreover, the levels of secretory IgA were significantly higher in the trachea, lungs, ileum, and jejunum after oral B. subtilis administration than in the control groups (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-5, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, B cell activating factor, and IgA-inducing protein increased following B. subtilis administration (P < 0.01) in the trachea, lungs, ileum, and jejunum. These data suggest that B. subtilis administration regulates the immune response not only in the intestine but also in the respiratory tract of piglets. Our work highlights a potentially new strategy for promoting respiratory mucosal immunity and may contribute to the design of vaccines with B. subtilis as a mucosal adjuvant.

5.
J Med Chem ; 64(7): 3794-3812, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769811

RESUMO

The structures of melatonin and ferulic acid were merged into tertiary amide-based histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibitors to develop multi-target-directed inhibitors for neurodegenerative diseases to incorporate antioxidant effects without losing affinity and selectivity at HDAC6. Structure-activity relationships led to compound 10b as a hybrid molecule showing pronounced and selective inhibition of HDAC6 (IC50 = 30.7 nM, > 25-fold selectivity over other subtypes). This compound shows comparable DPPH radical scavenging ability to ferulic acid, comparable ORAC value to melatonin and comparable Cu2+ chelating ability to EDTA. It also lacks neurotoxicity on HT-22 cells, exhibits a pronounced immunomodulatory effect, and is active in vivo showing significantly higher efficacy in an AD mouse model to prevent both Aß25-35-induced spatial working and long-term memory dysfunction at lower dose (0.3 mg/kg) compared to positive control HDAC6 inhibitor ACY1215 and an equimolar mixture of the three entities ACY1215, melatonin and ferulic acid, suggesting potentially disease-modifying properties.

7.
Cancer Discov ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727309

RESUMO

Immunotherapies targeting aspects of T cell functionality are efficacious in many solid tumors, but pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains refractory to these treatments. Deeper understanding of the PDAC immune ecosystem is needed to identify additional therapeutic targets and predictive biomarkers for therapeutic response and resistance monitoring. To address these needs, we quantitatively evaluated leukocyte contexture in 135 human PDACs at single-cell resolution by profiling density and spatial distribution of myeloid and lymphoid cells within histopathologically-defined regions of surgical resections from treatment-naïve and presurgically (neoadjuvant)-treated patients and biopsies from metastatic PDAC. Resultant data establishes an immune atlas of PDAC heterogeneity, identifies leukocyte features correlating with clinical outcomes, and through an in silico study, provides guidance for use of PDAC tissue microarrays to optimally measure intratumoral immune heterogeneity. Atlas data has direct applicability as a reference for evaluating immune responses to investigational neoadjuvant PDAC therapeutics where pre-therapy baseline specimens are not available.

8.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation may promote initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer, but no studies have examined the association between inflammation in the period before diagnosis and pancreatic cancer survival. METHODS: We prospectively examined the association of prediagnostic plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 2 with survival among 492 participants from 5 large US prospective cohort studies who developed pancreatic cancer. Using an empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score, we evaluated whether long-term proinflammatory diets were associated with survival among 1153 patients from 2 of the 5 cohorts. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios for death with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: Higher prediagnostic levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 2 were individually associated with reduced survival (Ptrend = .03, .01, and .04, respectively). Compared to patients with a combined inflammatory biomarker score of 0 (all 3 markers levels below medians), those with a score of 3 (all 3 markers levels above medians) had a hazard ratio for death of 1.57 (95% confidence interval = 1.16 to 2.12; Ptrend = .003), corresponding to median overall survival times of 8 versus 5 months. Patients consuming the most proinflammatory diets (EDIP quartile 4) in the prediagnostic period had a hazard ratio for death of 1.34 (95% confidence interval = 1.13 to 1.59; Ptrend = .01), compared to those consuming the least proinflammatory diets (EDIP quartile 1). CONCLUSION: Prediagnostic levels of inflammatory biomarkers and long-term proinflammatory diets were inversely associated with pancreatic cancer survival.

9.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 26, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597007

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) primarily infects neonatal piglets causing catastrophic effects on the global pig farming industry. PEDV infects piglets through the nasal cavity, a process in which dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role. However, neonatal piglets have fewer nasal DCs. This study found that subepithelial CD3+ T cells mediated PEDV invasion through the nasal cavity in neonatal piglets. PEDV could replicate in the nasal epithelial cells (NECs) isolated from the nasal cavity of neonatal piglets. Infection of NECs with PEDV could induce antiviral and inflammatory cytokines at the late stage. The infected NECs mediated transfer of virus to CD3+ T cells distributed in the subepithelial of the nasal cavity via cell-to-cell contact. The infected CD3+ T cells could migrate to the intestine via blood circulation, causing intestinal infection in neonatal piglets. Thus, the findings of this study indicate the importance of CD3+T cells in the dissemination of PEDV from the nasal cavity to the intestinal mucosa in neonatal piglets.


Assuntos
Complexo CD3/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Cavidade Nasal/fisiologia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/fisiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cavidade Nasal/virologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247367, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617590

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the specimen type that has high positivity and its proper sampling time for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing to promote diagnostic efficiency. All SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis in Zhoushan City were followed up for viral shedding in respiratory tract specimens and faecal samples. Positivity was analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively by proper statistical approaches with strong testing power. Viral shedding in respiratory tract and faecal specimens was prolonged to 45 and 40 days after the last exposure, respectively. The overall positive rate in respiratory tract specimens was low and relatively unstable, being higher in the early-to-mid stage than in the mid-to-late stage of the disease course. Compared with respiratory tract specimens, faecal samples had a higher viral load, higher overall positive rate, and more stable positivity in different disease courses and varied symptomatic status. Faecal specimens have the potential ability to surpass respiratory tract specimens in virus detection. Testing of faecal specimens in diagnosis, especially for identifying asymptomatic carriers, is recommended. Simultaneously, testing respiratory tract specimens at the early-to-mid stage is better than testing at the mid-to-late stage of the disease course. A relatively small sample size was noted, and statistical approaches were used to address it. Information was missing for both specimen types at different stages of the disease course due to censored data. Our research extends the observed viral shedding in both specimen types and highlights the importance of faecal specimen testing in SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. Healthcare workers, patients, and the general public may all benefit from our study findings. Disposal of sewage from hospitals and residential areas should be performed cautiously because the virus sheds in faeces and can last for a long time.


Assuntos
/métodos , Fezes/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo de Espécimes , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(4): 757-764, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes increases risk of developing colorectal cancer, but the association of preexisting diabetes with colorectal cancer survival remains unclear. METHODS: We analyzed survival by diabetes status at cancer diagnosis among 4,038 patients with colorectal cancer from two prospective U.S. cohorts. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall and cause-specific mortality, with adjustment for tumor characteristics and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: In the first 5 years after colorectal cancer diagnosis, diabetes was associated with a modest increase in overall mortality in women (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.00-1.49), but not in men (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.62-1.12; P heterogeneity by sex = 0.04). Beyond 5 years, diabetes was associated with substantially increased overall mortality with no evidence of sex heterogeneity; in women and men combined, the HRs were 1.45 (95% CI, 1.09-1.93) during >5-10 years and 2.58 (95% CI, 1.91-3.50) during >10 years. Compared with those without diabetes, patients with colorectal cancer and diabetes had increased mortality from other malignancies (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.18-2.67) and cardiovascular disease (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.29-2.91). Only women with diabetes for more than 10 years had increased mortality from colorectal cancer (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.01-1.76). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with colorectal cancer, preexisting diabetes was associated with increased risk of long-term mortality, particularly from other malignancies and cardiovascular disease. IMPACT: Our findings highlight the importance of cardioprotection and cancer prevention to colorectal cancer survivors with diabetes.

12.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The high incidence of osteopathy among patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) has garnered increased attention over recent years. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence and risk factors for osteopathy in Chinese patients with CP. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of CP patients from a large center in China; patients were recruited between 31 January 2017 and 31 January 2018. Bone density and laboratory tests, including bone-related biochemical, inflammatory, and hormone parameters, were assessed prospectively. Differences between patients with and without osteopathy were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate associations between variables. RESULTS: In total, 104 CP patients were enrolled in this study (68.3% idiopathic and 31.7% alcoholic). According to the M-ANNHEIM classification, 87.5% of the patients were at an early stage (0-II). Osteopenia was diagnosed in 30.8% of patients and osteoporosis in 5.8%; thus, a total of 36.5% of patients presented with osteopathy. In multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for osteopathy in CP patients were age (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.00-1.08; P = 0.030), BMI (OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.58-0.89; P = 0.003), and PTH (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.93-1.00; P = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to report the prevalence of osteopathy in Chinese patients with CP. It found that age and low BMI are significant risk factors for osteopathy. Low PTH (but within the normal range) showed a weak association with osteopathy, which warrants further exploration.

13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 172: 263-269, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453254

RESUMO

In insects, the cytochrome P450 CYP6B family plays key roles in the detoxification of toxic plant substances. However, the function of CYP6 family genes in degrading plant toxicants in Tribolium castaneum, an extremely destructive global storage pest, have yet to be elucidated. In this study, a T. castaneum CYP gene, TcCYP6BQ7, was characterized. TcCYP6BQ7 expression was significantly induced after exposure to essential oil of the plant Artemisia vulgaris (EOAV). Spatiotemporal expression profiling revealed that TcCYP6BQ7 expression was higher in larval and adult stages of T. castaneum than in other developmental stages, and that TcCYP6BQ7 was predominantly expressed in the brain and hemolymph from the late larval stage. TcCYP6BQ7 silencing by RNA interference increased larvae mortality in response to EOAV from 49.67% to 71.67%, suggesting that this gene is associated with plant toxicant detoxification. Combined results from this study indicate that the CYP6 family gene TcCYP6BQ7 likely plays a pivotal role in influencing the susceptibility of T. castaneum to plant toxicants. These findings may have implications for the development of novel therapeutics to control this agriculturally important pest.

14.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(1): 625-640, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583421

RESUMO

Lipid deposition caused by the disorder of renal lipid metabolism is involved in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) is a key transcription factor in high glucose-induced cellular fat synthesis. At present, the regulation and mechanism of ChREBP on fat metabolism in diabetic kidneys are still unclear. In this study, we showed that lack of ChREBP significantly improved renal injury, inhibited oxidative stress, lipid deposition, fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) expression, as well as the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in diabetic kidneys. Meanwhile, ChREBP deficiency upregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), carnitine palmitoyltransferaser 1A (CPT1A) and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1) in diabetic kidneys. In vitro, knockdown of ChREBP attenuated lipid deposition, mTORC1 activation, and expression of FASN and ACC, increased PPARα, CPT1A, and ACOX1 expression in HK-2 cells and podocytes under high glucose (HG) conditions. Moreover, HG-induced lipid deposition, increased expression of FASN and ACC and decreased expression of PPARα, CPT1A, and ACOX1 were reversed by rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTORC1, in HK-2 cells. These results indicate that ChREBP deficiency alleviates diabetes-associated renal lipid accumulation by inhibiting mTORC1 activity and suggest that reduction of ChREBP is a potential therapeutic strategy to treat DN.

15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262135

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While abundant myeloid cell populations in the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) microenvironment have been postulated to suppress anti-tumor immunity, the composition of these populations, their spatial locations, and how they relate to patient outcomes are poorly understood. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To generate spatially-resolved tumor and immune cell data at single cell resolution, we developed two quantitative multiplex immunofluorescence assays to interrogate myeloid cells (CD15, CD14, ARG1, CD33, HLA-DR) and macrophages [CD68, CD163, CD86, interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), MRC1 (CD206)] in the PDAC tumor microenvironment. Spatial point pattern analyses were conducted to assess the degree of co-localization between tumor cells and immune cells. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess associations with patient outcomes. RESULTS: In a multi-institutional cohort of 305 primary PDAC resection specimens, myeloid cells were abundant, enriched within stromal regions, highly heterogeneous across tumors, and differed by somatic genotype. High densities of CD15+ARG1+ immunosuppressive granulocytic cells and M2-polarized macrophages were associated with worse patient survival. Moreover, beyond cell density, closer proximity of M2-polarized macrophages to tumor cells was strongly associated with disease-free survival, revealing the clinical significance and biologic importance of immune cell localization within tumor areas. CONCLUSIONS: A diverse set of myeloid cells are present within the PDAC tumor microenvironment and are distributed heterogeneously across patient tumors. Not only the densities but also the spatial locations of myeloid immune cells are associated with patient outcomes, highlighting the potential role of spatially-resolved myeloid cell subtypes as quantitative biomarkers for PDAC prognosis and therapy.

16.
Cell Rep ; 33(11): 108493, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326793

RESUMO

Few therapies target the loss of tumor suppressor genes in cancer. We examine CRISPR-SpCas9 and RNA-interference loss-of-function screens to identify new therapeutic targets associated with genomic loss of tumor suppressor genes. The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) ATPases VPS4A and VPS4B score as strong synthetic lethal dependencies. VPS4A is essential in cancers harboring loss of VPS4B adjacent to SMAD4 on chromosome 18q and VPS4B is required in tumors with co-deletion of VPS4A and CDH1 (E-cadherin) on chromosome 16q. We demonstrate that more than 30% of cancers selectively require VPS4A or VPS4B. VPS4A suppression in VPS4B-deficient cells selectively leads to ESCRT-III filament accumulation, cytokinesis defects, nuclear deformation, G2/M arrest, apoptosis, and potent tumor regression. CRISPR-SpCas9 screening and integrative genomic analysis reveal other ESCRT members, regulators of abscission, and interferon signaling as modifiers of VPS4A dependency. We describe a compendium of synthetic lethal vulnerabilities and nominate VPS4A and VPS4B as high-priority therapeutic targets for cancers with 18q or 16q loss.

17.
J Phys Chem A ; 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347306

RESUMO

The valence-shell excitations of hydrogen sulfide have been studied by fast electron impact at a collision energy of 1.5 keV and an energy resolution of about 70 meV. By analyzing the variations of intensity and shape of the feature in the range of 5.0-7.5 eV at different scattering angles, the excitation energy of 5.85 ± 0.01 eV and the line width of 0.80 ± 0.01 eV of the 3b21A2 state have been determined. The generalized oscillator strengths of the valence-shell excitations in the energy range of 5.0-9.2 eV of hydrogen sulfide have been determined from the measured spectra. The corresponding optical oscillator strengths have been obtained by extrapolating the generalized oscillator strengths to the limit of zero squared momentum transfer. The integral cross sections have also been systematically determined from the threshold to 5000 eV by means of the BE-scaling method. The presently obtained oscillator strengths and integral cross sections have significant applications in the studies of planetary atmospheres and interstellar gases.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356183

RESUMO

While crystalline covalent organic frameworks (COFs) linked by C-C bonds are highly desired in synthetic chemistry, it remains a formidable challenge to synthesize. Efforts to generate C-C single bonds in COFs via de novo synthesis usually afford amorphous structures rather than crystalline phases. We demonstrate here that C-C single bond-based COFs can be prepared by direct reduction of C═C bond-linked frameworks via crystal-to-crystal transformation. By Knoevenagel polycondensation of chiral tetrabenzaldehyde of dibinaphthyl-22-crown-6 with 1,4-phenylenediacetonitrile or 4,4'-biphenyldiacetonitrile, two olefin-linked chiral COFs with 2D layered tetragonal structure are prepared. Reduction of olefin linkages of the as-prepared CCOFs produces two C-C single bond linked frameworks, which retains high crystallinity and porosity as well as high chemical stability in both strong acids and bases. The quantitative reduction is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared and cross-polarization magic angle spinning 13C NMR spectroscopy. Compared to the pristine structures, the reduced CCOFs display blue-shifted emission with enhanced quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes, while the parent CCOFs exhibit higher enantioselectivity than the reduced analogs when be used as fluorescent sensors to detect chiral amino alcohols via supramolecular interactions with the built-in crown ether moieties. This work provides an attractive strategy for making chemically stable functionalized COFs with new linkages that are otherwise hard to produce.

19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(45): 7173-7190, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut tryptophan (Trp) metabolites are produced by microbiota and/or host metabolism. Some of them have been proven to promote or inhibit colorectal cancer (CRC) in vitro and animal models. We hypothesized that there is an alteration of gut Trp metabolism mediated by microbiota and that it might be involved in the pathogenesis of cancer in patients with CRC. AIM: To investigate the features of Trp metabolism in CRC and the correlation between fecal Trp metabolites and gut microbiota. METHODS: Seventy-nine patients with colorectal neoplastic lesions (33 with colon adenoma and 46 with sporadic CRC) and 38 healthy controls (HCs) meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Their demographic and clinical features were collected. Fecal Trp, kynurenine (KYN), and indoles (metabolites of Trp metabolized by gut microbiota) were examined by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Gut barrier marker and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) mRNA were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The gut microbiota was detected by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Correlations between fecal metabolites and other parameters were examined in all patients. RESULTS: The absolute concentration of KYN [1.51 (0.70, 3.46) nmol/g vs 0.81 (0.64, 1.57) nmol/g, P = 0.036] and the ratio of KYN to Trp [7.39 (4.12, 11.72) × 10-3 vs 5.23 (1.86, 7.99) × 10-3, P = 0.032] were increased in the feces of patients with CRC compared to HCs, while the indoles to Trp ratio was decreased [1.34 (0.70, 2.63) vs 2.46 (1.25, 4.10), P = 0.029]. The relative ZO-1 mRNA levels in patients with CRC (0.27 ± 0.24) were significantly lower than those in HCs (1.00 ± 0.31) (P < 0.001), and the relative IDO1 mRNA levels in patients with CRC [1.65 (0.47-2.46)] were increased (P = 0.035). IDO1 mRNA levels were positively associated with the KYN/Trp ratio (r = 0.327, P = 0.003). ZO-1 mRNA and protein levels were positively correlated with the indoles/Trp ratio (P = 0.035 and P = 0.009, respectively). In addition, the genera Asaccharobacter (Actinobacteria) and Parabacteroides (Bacteroidetes), and members of the phylum Firmicutes (Clostridium XlVb, Fusicatenibacter, Anaerofilum, and Anaerostipes) decreased in CRC and exhibited a positive correlation with indoles in all subjects. CONCLUSION: Alteration of fecal Trp metabolism mediated by microbiota is associated with intestinal barrier function and tissue Trp metabolism, and may be involved in the pathogenesis of CRC.

20.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(46): 7299-7311, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most common chronic liver diseases in the world. In our early clinical data and questionnaire analysis of NAFLD, it was found that the body mass index of some patients did not meet the diagnostic criteria for overweight or obesity. The consumption of high-temperature-processed foods such as fried food, hot pot and barbecue is closely related to the occurrence of nonobese NAFLD. Reducing the intake of this kind of food can reduce disease severity and improve prognosis. AIM: To explore the untargeted metabolomics characteristics of nonobese nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Sprague-Dawley rats induced by high-temperature-processed feed. METHODS: Fifty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: The control group received a standard diet; the nonfried soybeans (NDFS) group received 60% NDFS and 40% basic feed and the dry-fried soybeans (DFS) group received 60% DFS and 40% basic feed. Six rats were sacrificed at week 4, 8, and 12 in each group. The food intake, body weight, Lee's index, liver index, serological index and hepatic histopathology were assessed. Untargeted metabolomics characteristics were used to analyze the changes in liver metabolites of rats at week 12. Correlations between metabolites and pathology scores between the DFS and control groups and between the DFS and NDFS groups were analyzed. We selected some of the metabolites, both within the pathway and outside of the pathway, to explain preliminarily the difference in liver pathology in the three groups of rats. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in the food intake, body weight, Lee's index or serological index between the DFS group and the control group (P > 0.05). At week 8 and week 12, the steatosis scores in the DFS group were significantly higher than those in the other two groups (P < 0.05). At week 12, the liver index of the DFS group was the lowest (NDFS group vs DFS group, P < 0.05). The fibrosis score in the DFS group was significantly higher than those in the other two groups (P < 0.05). The correlation analysis of the liver pathology score and differential metabolites in the DFS and NDFS groups showed that there were 10 strongly correlated substances: Five positively correlated substances and five negatively correlated substances. The positively correlated substances included taurochenodeoxycholate-3-sulfate, acetylcarnitine, 20a,22b-dihydroxycholesterol, 13E-tetranor-16-carboxy-LTE4 and taurocholic acid. The negatively correlated substances included choline, cholesterane-3,7,12,25-tetrol-3-glucuronide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, lysoPC [16:1 (9Z)] and glycerol 3-phosphate. The correlation analysis of the liver pathology score and differential metabolites in the DFS and control groups showed that there were 13 strongly correlated substances: Four positively correlated substances and 9 negatively correlated substances. The positively correlated substances included 4-hydroxy-6-eicosanone, 3-phosphoglyceric acid, 13-hydroxy-9-methoxy-10-oxo-11-octadecenoic acid and taurochenodeoxycholate-3-sulfate. The negatively correlated substances included lysoPC [16:1(9Z)], S-(9-hydroxy-PGA1)-glutathione, lysoPC [20:5 (5Z, 8Z, 11Z, 14Z, 17Z)], SM (d18:1/14:0), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, 5,10-methylene-THF, folinic acid, N-lactoyl-glycine and 6-hydroxy-5-methoxyindole glucuronide. CONCLUSION: We successfully induced liver damage in rats by using a specially prepared high-temperature-processed feed and explored the untargeted metabolomics characteristics.

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