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1.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 12: 975-980, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819471

RESUMO

Background: Prior to 2015, clinical consultation was the only clinical service provided by clinical pharmacists in Changsha Second Hospital. Between 2015 and 2017, a train-the-trainer program was implemented to train clinical pharmacists to provide pharmaceutical care and to conduct clinical research. The objective of the study is to examine the impact on the clinical services provided by pharmacists after the implementation of the train-the-trainer program. Patients and methods: Between 2004 and 2014, all completed clinical consultation activities were tallied and summarized. The results from the tallied consultation activities were used as a baseline for clinical activities provided by pharmacists prior to the training. A structured training program was implemented between 2015 and 2017 to train clinical pharmacists to provide pharmaceutical care. After the implementation of the training program was completed, all clinical activities provided by pharmacists between January 2017 and December 2017 were documented in the clinical workload form. The clinical activities completed by each pharmacist were tallied and summarized. Results: Between 2004 and 2014, a total of 6569 (average 657 per year) pharmacy consultations were requested and completed from a total of 44 departments. In 2017, a total of 15,078 hrs of clinical activities were logged. The pharmacists completed 3481 consultations in 2017 (an increase of 430%), averaging 316 consultations for each pharmacist and 271.8 hr per pharmacist. Over 2000 hrs (of the 15,078 hrs) were spent on direct patient care by the pharmacists. Conclusion: This study shows that there was a 430% increase in clinical pharmacy consultation services provided by the clinical pharmacists after the implementation of the training program. This is directly related to the number of well-trained pharmacists available. After the implementation of the train-the-trainer program, the range of services as well as the number of clinical services and clinical hours spent on providing pharmaceutical care have significantly increased.

2.
J Org Chem ; 84(24): 16214-16221, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779304

RESUMO

A novel copper-catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of alkynes with nitrile oxides generated in situ from the coupling reaction of copper carbene and nitroso radical has been developed. The three-component reaction provides a simple and efficient method for the construction of isoxazoles in a highly regioselective manner in a single step. On the basis of the experimental results and density functional theory calculations, a catalytic cycle (CuI-CuII-Cu0-CuI) for this cascade cyclization reaction is proposed.

3.
Biomark Med ; 13(15): 1255-1261, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580146

RESUMO

Aim: The prognostic role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in bloodstream infection (BSI) deserves further investigation. Patients & methods: The NLR values were measured and compared in BSI patients and healthy controls. The receiver operating characteristic of NLR and cut-off values were measured in BSI patients and subgroups. Results: We have measured the NLR of study group with 2160 BSI patients and normal group with 2523 healthy controls, which was significantly high in study group (11.36 ± 21.38 vs 2.53 ± 0.86; p < 0.001) and the area under the curve was 0.834 (95% CI: 0.825-0.842; p < 0.001). The critical value of NLR for diagnosis of BSI was 3.09, with a sensitivity of 75.3%, and a specificity of 93.6%. Conclusion: NLR is an effective diagnostic indicator of including BSIs of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and fungus.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 373: 591-599, 2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952004

RESUMO

Humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) are dominating humic substances (HS) in soil. In this study, the effects of HA and FA addition (0.2%-1.5%) on arsenic (As) mobility and microbial community composition in paddy soil were investigated. FA significantly increased the concentrations of As (12-fold), iron (Fe; 20-fold), manganese (Mn; 3-fold) and acetic acid (3-fold) in soil porewater, and also caused significant enrichment of Desulfitobacterium (41-fold). Furthermore, the FA addition significantly increased the relative abundance of Bathyarchaeota (4-fold), a microorganism that is suggested to be important for FA degradation. In contrast, HA slightly increased As (1.2-fold) in porewater, had little effect on Fe, Mn and acetic acid, and 1.5% HA addition significantly decreased As in porewater at day 14 (45%). Both HA and FA addition promoted As methylation. HA increased dimethylarsenate concentration and FA increased monomethylarsenate concentration in porewater. These results highlight the contrasting effects of different (HA vs. FA) organic substances on As fate in paddy soil and advance our understanding of the associations among As, Fe and organic substances through microorganisms in paddy soil.

5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(21): 12198-12207, 2018 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30338987

RESUMO

Biochar has the potential to influence methanogenesis which is a key component of global carbon cycling. However, the mechanisms governing biochar's influence on methanogenesis is not well understood, especially its effects on interspecies relationships between methanogens and anaerobic bacteria (e.g., Geobacteraceae). To understand how different types of biochar influence methanogenesis, biochars derived from rice straw (RB), wood chips (WB), and manure (MB) were added to the methanogenic enrichment culture system of a paddy soil. Compared to the nonbiochar control, RB and MB additions accelerated methanogenesis remarkably, showing 10.7 and 12.3-folds higher methane production rate, respectively; while WB had little effect on methanogenesis. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical methods, RB and MB also had higher redox-active properties or charging and discharging capacities than WB, and the functional groups, mainly quinones, on the biochar surface played an important role in facilitating methanogenesis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that electronic syntrophy did exist between methanogens and Geobacteraceae. RB and MB stimulate methanogenesis by facilitating direct interspecies electron transfer between methanogens and Geobacteraceae. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the effects of biochars from different feedstocks on methanogenesis and provide new evidence to the mechanisms of stimulating methanogenesis via biochar.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Etanol , Carvão Vegetal , Metano
6.
Environ Pollut ; 236: 598-608, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29433100

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) contamination is a global problem. Straw incorporation is widely performed in As contaminated paddy fields. To understand how straw and straw biochar incorporation affect As transformation and translocation in the soil-microbe-rice system, a pot experiment was carried out with different dosages of rice straw and straw biochar application. Results showed that both straw biochar and straw application significantly increased As mobility. Straw biochar mobilized As mainly through increasing soil pH and DOM content. Straw incorporation mainly through enhancing As release from iron (Fe) minerals and arsenate (As(V)) reduction to arsenite (As(III)). Straw biochar didn't significantly affect As methylation, while straw incorporation significantly enhanced As methylation, elevated dimethylarsenate (DMA) concentration in soil porewater and increased As volatilization. Straw biochar didn't significantly change total As accumulation in rice grains, but decreased As(III) accumulation by silicon (Si) inhibition. Straw incorporation significantly increased DMA, but decreased As(III) concentration in rice grains. After biochar application, dissolved As was significantly positively correlated with the abundance of Bacillus, indicating that Bacillus might be involved in As release, and As(III) concentration in polished grains was negatively correlated with Si concentration. The significant positive correlation between dissolved As with Fe and the abundance of iron-reducing bacteria suggested the coupling of As and Fe reduction mediated by iron-reducing bacteria. The significant positive correlation between DMA in rice grains and the abundance of methanogenic bacteria indicated that methanogenic bacteria could be involved in As methylation after straw application. The results of this study would advance the understanding how rice straw incorporation affects As fate in soil-microbe-rice system, and provide some guidance to straw incorporation in As contaminated paddy soil. This study also revealed a wealth of microorganisms in the soil environment that dominate As mobility and transformation after straw incorporation.


Assuntos
Arsênico/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Rizosfera , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Arseniatos , Arsênico/análise , Arsenitos , Ácido Cacodílico/metabolismo , Carvão Vegetal , Poluição Ambiental , Ferro/química , Metilação , Minerais/análise , Oryza/metabolismo , Estruturas Vegetais/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(3): 963-971, 2018 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29301078

RESUMO

Organic matter (OM), and dissolved organic matter (DOM), have a major influence upon biogeochemical processes; most significantly, the carbon cycle. To date, very few studies have examined the spatial heterogeneity of DOM in paddy soils. Thus, very little is known about the DOM molecular profiles and the key environmental factors that underpin DOM molecular chemodiversity in paddy soils. Here, Fourier-Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry was applied to unambiguously resolve 11 361 molecular formulas in 16 paddy soils; thereby elucidating the molecular characteristics of paddy soil DOM. Soil pH, iron complexing index (Fep/FeR) and C/N ratio were established to be key factors controlling DOM profiles. Polycyclic aromatics (derived from combustion) and polyphenols (derived from plants) increased with increasing pH, while polyphenols molecules, pyrogenic aromatics, and carboxylic compounds decreased with increasing iron complexing index. Patterns in molecular profiles indicated DOM in paddy soils to become more recalcitrant at higher soil C/N ratio and higher pH. Furthermore, plant-derived polyphenols and pyrogenic DOM were retained favorably by iron and the chemodiversity of DOM in paddy soil increased with increasing soil C/N ratios. This study provides critical information about DOM characteristics at a molecular level and will inform better global management of soil carbon in paddy soil ecosystems.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Carbono , Ciclo do Carbono , Ecossistema
8.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 1580, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28943882

RESUMO

Alkaline stress (high pH) severely damages root cells, and consequently, inhibits rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling growth. In this study, we demonstrate the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in root cells under alkaline stress. Seedlings of two rice cultivars with different alkaline tolerances, 'Dongdao-4' (moderately alkaline-tolerant) and 'Jiudao-51' (alkaline-sensitive), were subjected to alkaline stress simulated by 15 mM sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). Alkaline stress greatly reduced seedling survival rate, shoot and root growth, and root vigor. Moreover, severe root cell damage was observed under alkaline stress, as shown by increased membrane injury, malondialdehyde accumulation, and Evan's Blue staining. The expression of the cell death-related genes OsKOD1, OsHsr203j, OsCP1, and OsNAC4 was consistently upregulated, while that of a cell death-suppressor gene, OsBI1, was downregulated. Analysis of the ROS contents revealed that alkaline stress induced a marked accumulation of superoxide anions ([Formula: see text]) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in rice roots. The application of procyanidins (a potent antioxidant) to rice seedlings 24 h prior to alkaline treatment significantly alleviated alkalinity-induced root damage and promoted seedling growth inhibition, which were concomitant with reduced ROS accumulation. These results suggest that root cell damage, and consequently growth inhibition, of rice seedlings under alkaline stress is closely associated with ROS accumulation. The antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase increased under alkaline stress in the roots, probably in response to the cellular damage induced by oxidative stress. However, this response mechanism may be overwhelmed by the excess ROS accumulation observed under stress, resulting in oxidative damage to root cells. Our findings provide physiological insights into the molecular mechanisms of alkalinity-induced damage to root cells, and will contribute to the improvement of alkaline stress tolerance in rice plants.

9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 144: 507-513, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28675864

RESUMO

Iris lactea var. chinensis (I. lactea var. chinensis) is tolerant to accumulations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). In this study, the transcriptome of I. lactea var. chinensis was investigated under Cd or Pb stresses. Using the gene ontology database, 31,974 unigenes were classified into biological process, cellular component and molecular function. In total, 13,132 unigenes were involved in enriched Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways, and the expression levels of 5904 unigenes were significantly changed after exposure to Cd or Pb stresses. Of these, 974 were co-up-regulated and 1281 were co-down-regulated under the two stresses. The transcriptome expression profiles of I. lactea var. chinensis under Cd or Pb stresses obtained in this study provided a resource for identifying common mechanisms in the detoxification of different heavy metals. Furthermore, the identified unigenes may be used for the genetic breeding of heavy-metal tolerant plants.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Iris (Planta)/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Iris (Planta)/genética , Iris (Planta)/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(25): 16108-15, 2016 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27285289

RESUMO

In this work, the lightweight and scalable organic macromolecule graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with enriched polysulfide adsorption sites of pyridinic-N was introduced to achieve the effective functionalization of separator at the molecular level. This simple method overcomes the difficulty of low doping content as well as the existence of an uncontrolled form of nitrogen heteroatom in the final product. Besides the conventional pyridinic-N-Li bond formed in the vacancies of g-C3N4, the C-S bond was interestingly observed between g-C3N4 and Li2S, which endowed g-C3N4 with an inherent adsorption capacity for polysulfides. In addition, the microsized g-C3N4 provided the coating layer with good mechanical strength to guarantee its restriction function for polysulfides during long cycling. As a result, an excellent reversible capacity of 840 mA h g(-1) was retained at 0.5 C after 400 cycles for a pure sulfur electrode, much better than that of the cell with an innocent carbon-coated separator. Even at a current density of 1 C, the cell still delivered a stable capacity of 732.7 mA h g(-1) after 500 cycles. Moreover, when further increasing the sulfur loading to 5 mg cm(-2), an excellent specific capacity of 1134.7 mA h g(-1) was acquired with the stable cycle stability, ensuring a high areal capacity of 5.11 mA h cm(-2). Besides the intrinsic adsorption ability for polysulfides, g-C3N4 is nontoxic and mass produced. Therefore, a scalable separator decorated with g-C3N4 and a commercial sulfur cathode promises high energy density for the practical application of Li-S batteries.

11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 80: 220-5, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24811677

RESUMO

Steviol glycosides, extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert) Bertoni, are calorie-free sugar substitute of natural origin with intensely sweet (Boileau et al., 2012). Stevioside and rebaudioside A are the two main kinds of the diterpenic glycosides. We analyzed the concentration of stevioside and rebaudioside A in Stevia leaves of about 500 samples (hybrid progenies) and discovered a mutation plant "Z05" with very low levels of rebaudioside A. Because UGT76G1, a uridinediphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferases, is responsible for the conversion from stevioside to rebaudioside A (Richman et al., 2005), so mutation identification was done by sequencing the candidate gene, UGT76G1. In this study molecular analysis of two strains revealed a heterozygotic nonsense mutation of c.389T > G (p.L121X) in UGT76G1. Meanwhile, we found some amino acid substitutions significant change the protein structure. And the difference of enzyme activity between two strains proved the lack of functionality of UGT76G1 of the mutation "Z05". So the nonsense mutation and amino acid substitution mutation resulted in the low levels of rebaudioside A.


Assuntos
Diterpenos de Caurano/metabolismo , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Stevia/enzimologia , Stevia/metabolismo , Difosfato de Uridina/metabolismo , Códon sem Sentido , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Mutação , Stevia/genética
12.
Am J Chin Med ; 42(2): 337-47, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24707866

RESUMO

Several studies demonstrate that estradiol can prevent arterial calcification. However, little is known regarding the effect of puerarin, a phytoestrogen extracted from Radix Puerariae, on arterial calcification. The aim of the present study was to determine whether puerarin reduced osteoblastic differentiation of calcifying vascular smooth muscle cells (CVSMCs). The CVSMCs were isolated from mice aorta and treated with different concentrations of puerarin. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin secretion and Runx2 expression were determined. To examine whether estrogen receptors (ERs) PI3K and Akt play a role in this effect, ICI182789, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002, or the Akt inhibitor, 1L-6-hydroxymethyl-chiro-inositol 2-(R)-2-O-methyl-3-O-octadecylcarbonate (HIMO) was used. Our results showed puerarin could inhibit ALP activity, osteocalcin secretion and Runx2 expression in CVSMCs. Puerarin could induce the activation of Akt. Furthermore, pretreatment of ICI182780, LY294002, HIMO could abolish the effect of puerarin on ALP activity in CVSMCs. Our experiment demonstrated that puerain could attenuate the osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs through the ER/PI3K-Akt signal pathway.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Osteoblastos/citologia , Fitoestrógenos/farmacologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/citologia , Aorta/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Isoflavonas/isolamento & purificação , Isoflavonas/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/fisiologia , Fitoestrógenos/isolamento & purificação , Fitoestrógenos/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/fisiologia , Pueraria/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Calcificação Vascular/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Ecotoxicology ; 22(6): 1033-42, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23771790

RESUMO

The effect of citric acid (CA) and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the growth, anatomical structure, physiological responses and lead (Pb) accumulation of Iris lactea var. chinensis seedling growing in Pb mine tailings for 30 days were studied. Results showed that the dry weights (DW) of roots decreased significantly under both levels of CA. The DWs of leaves and roots treated with 2 mmol/kg EDTA decreased significantly and were 23 and 54 %, respectively, lower than those of the control. The tolerant indexes of I. lactea var. chinensis under all treatments of organic acids were lower than control. The root tip anatomical structure was little affected under the treatments of 2 mmol/kg CA and 2 mmol/kg EDTA compared with control. However, the formation of photosynthesizing cells was inhibited by the treatment of 2 mmol/kg EDTA. The concentrations of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total carotenoids in the leaves treated with 2 mmol/kg EDTA significantly decreased. Higher CA level and lower EDTA level could trigger the synthesis of ascorbic acid and higher level of EDTA could trigger the synthesis of glutathione. CA and EDTA could promote Pb accumulation of I. lactea var. chinensis and Pb concentration in the leaves and roots at 2 mmol/kg EDTA treatment increased significantly and reached to 160.44 and 936.08 µg/g DW, respectively, and 1.8 and 1.6 times higher than those of the control. The results indicated that I. lactea var. chinensis could be used to remediate Pb tailing and the role of EDTA in promoting Pb accumulation was better than CA did.


Assuntos
Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Iris (Planta)/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/análogos & derivados , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila A , Iris (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mineração , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
14.
J Proteome Res ; 11(8): 4338-50, 2012 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22800120

RESUMO

Early findings propose that impaired neurotransmission in the brain plays a key role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Recent advances in understanding its multiple etiologies and pathogenetic mechanisms provide more speculative hypotheses focused on even broader somatic systems. Using a targeted tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based metabolomic platform, we compared metabolic signatures consisting of monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitter (NT) metabolites in plasma/urine simultaneously between first-episode neuroleptic-naïve schizophrenia patients (FENNS) and healthy controls before and after a 6-week risperidone monotherapy, which suggest that the patient NT profiles are restoring during treatment. To detect and identify potential biomarkers associated with schizophrenia and risperidone treatment, we also performed a combined ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic profiling of the same samples, indicating a further deviation of the patients' global metabolic profile from that of controls. The NTs and their metabolites together with the 32 identified biomarkers underpin that metabolic pathways including NT metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, antioxidant defense system, bowel microflora and endocrine system are disturbed in FENNS. Among them, pregnanediol, citrate and α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) were significantly associated with symptomatology of schizophrenia after Bonferroni correction and may be useful biomarkers for monitoring therapeutic efficacy. These findings promise to yield valuable insights into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and may advance the approach to treatment, diagnosis and disease prevention of schizophrenia and related syndromes.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Risperidona/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/sangue , Esquizofrenia/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Multivariada , Risperidona/farmacologia , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 22(5): 1247-54, 2011 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21812302

RESUMO

Based on the 1961-2009 weather data from 21 meteorological stations in Ningxia, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal variation trend of regional agricultural climate resources in Ningxia, Northwest China. In 1961-2009, the air temperature in Ningxia increased gradually from south to north, with the mean annual temperature increased by 0.4 degrees C x (10 a)(-1) , while the annual precipitation in most regions decreased gradually, with a decrement 4.26 mm x (10 a)(-1). Both the frost-free period and the duration of crop growth season prolonged. The regions with > or = 10 degrees C accumulated temperature being > or = 3200 degrees C x d extended southwardly, and thereby, the regions adaptive for planting mid and late rice increased. In 2001-2009, most regions were adaptive for plating winter wheat, and the whole Ningxia was adaptive for plating spring wheat. In the southern mountain regions, the region with mean temperature in July being < or = 20 degrees C decreased gradually, and accordingly, the regions adaptive for planting potato decreased.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/métodos , China , Chuva , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online ; 67(Pt 4): m469, 2011 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21753984

RESUMO

The title compound, [Ni(C(15)H(24)NSi)(2)], is a homoleptic metal-η(3)-aza-allyl centrosymmetric complex containing two aza-allyl ligands bound in an η(3)-manner to an Ni(II) atom located on a center of symmetry. The overall coordination about the Ni(II) atom is square-planar. The C and N atoms of the aza-allyl group are sp(2)-hybridized. The uneven Ni-C and Ni-N distances [2.045 (5)/2.060 (6) and 1.916 (5) Å] are influenced by a steric hindering effect from the nearby benzene ring.

17.
Curr Ther Res Clin Exp ; 69(2): 142-9, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24692793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clozapine has been associated with metabolic adverse events (AEs) (eg, elevated body weight, blood glucose concentrations, cholesterol, triglycerides [TG]), all of which have deleterious effects on health and medication compliance. However, little focus has been directed toward finding a suitable experimental model to study the metabolic AEs associated with clozapine. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of clozapine administration for 28 days on body weight, glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, plasma lipids, and insulin in C57BL/6 mice. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were grouped and treated with clozapine 2 or 10 mg/kg or vehicle intraperitoneally QD for 28 days. Body weight was assessed on days 0 (baseline), 7, 14, 21, and 28, and glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, insulin (calculated by insulin resistance index [IRI]), and plasma lipids (including total cholesterol, TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were assessed on day 29. RESULTS: Sixty 10-week-old, male C57BL/6 mice were included in the study and were divided into 3 groups (20 mice per group). The body weight significantly decreased in the clozapine 10-mg-treated group on days 14, 21, and 28 compared with the vehicle group (mean [SD] body weight: 21.61 [1.05] vs 22.79 [1.11], 22.53 [1.05] vs 24.17 [1.24], and 22.21 [1.07] vs 24.99 [1.39] g, respectively; all, P < 0.05). In the clozapine 10-mg/kg group, blood glucose concentrations significantly increased 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after glucose administration compared with the vehicle group (mean [SD]: 6.67 [1.25], 25.34 [5.85], 12.68 [3.39], and 7.52 [1.45] mmol/L, respectively, vs 4.61 [0.78], 21.54 [6.55], 11.46 [3.46], and 6.55 [1.42] mmol/L, respectively; all P < 0.05). The clozapine 10-mg/kg group also had significant increases in plasma insulin concentrations compared with the vehicle group (12.70 [5.27] vs 7.62 [4.54] µIU/mL; P < 0.05) and IRI (3.01 [1.26] vs 1.51 [0.96]; P < 0.05). Plasma HDL-C concentration also significantly decreased in the clozapine 10-mg/kg group compared with the vehicle group (1.23 [0.25] vs 1.47 [0.16]; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Clozapine 10 mg/kg was associated with significant decreases in body weight and significant increases in fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance in these male C57BL/6 mice.

18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 18(9): 2111-6, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18062322

RESUMO

A solution culture experiment was conducted to examine the effects of Zn (1-100 mg x L(-1)) on the growth, Cd accumulation, and antioxidant enzyme activities of Iris lactea var. chinensis under Cd stress (10 mg x L(-1)). The results showed that after the addition of Zn, the Cd content changed a little in shoots, but increased significantly in roots, with a trend of rising first and dropping then. When treated with 1 mg Zn x L(-1), the Cd content in roots was the highest, being 51.4% higher than the control. When the Zn concentration was higher than 1 mg x L(-1), the Cd content in roots decreased to some extent, but was still higher than the control. Low concentration (1-10 mg x L(-1)) Zn increased the shoot biomass and leaf chlorophyll content, but decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content. At 10 mg Zn x L(-1), the chlorophyll a and b contents went up to the maximum, being 5.21% and 22.27% higher than the control, respectively, while the MDA content decreased by 25.46%, indicating that low concentration Zn could alleviate Cd damage. With increasing Zn concentration, the alleviation effect of Zn on Cd damage decreased gradually. When the Zn concentration was 100 mg x L(-1), I. lactea var. chinensis was damaged most seriously, with the biomass and chlorophyll content reduced and MDA content increased significantly. Within the ranges of test Cd and Zn concentrations, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) had an increasing trend, suggesting that SOD and POD played an important antioxidant protective role for Cd or Zn-Cd stressed I. lactea var. chinensis.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Iris/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Zinco/toxicidade , Adaptação Fisiológica , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/metabolismo , Iris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Iris/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
19.
Ecotoxicology ; 16(8): 557-63, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17701346

RESUMO

Seedlings of Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) Koidz. and I. tectorum Maxim. were subjected to 0-160 mg l(-1) Cd in hydroponic system and harvested after 42 days to determine effects on root and shoot dry mass. A subset of 16-day-old seedlings was exposed to 1000 mg l(-1) Cd to characterize sub-cellular localization of Cd in root cells. The Cd contents in the shoots of I. lactea var. chinensis reached 529 microg g(-1 )dry weight (dw) at 80 mg l(-1) Cd treatment and in the shoots of I. tectorum reached 232 microg g(-1) dw at 40 mg l(-1) Cd treatment, without showing signs of visible toxicity. The Cd contents in the shoots of both two test species exceeded 100 microg g(-1), the critical value of Cd hyperaccumulator. The indices of tolerance (ITs) of I. lactea var. chinensis were higher than those of I. tectorum under 10-160 mg l(-1)Cd stress. Sub-cellular localization of Cd in root cells was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Cd deposits were found in the cell walls, in the cytoplasm and on the inner surface of xylem vessels in the root tip of I. lactea var. chinensis and I. tectorum. A few cells in the root tip of I. tectorum were necrotic. The results showed that the tolerance and accumulation of Cd by I. lactea var. chinensis were higher than those of I. tectorum, suggesting that I. lactea var. chinensis has potential application in phytoremediation.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Iris (Planta)/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Iris (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Iris (Planta)/ultraestrutura , Raízes de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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