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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 902, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060300

RESUMO

Electric fields can transform materials with respect to their structure and properties, enabling various applications ranging from batteries to spintronics. Recently electrolytic gating, which can generate large electric fields and voltage-driven ion transfer, has been identified as a powerful means to achieve electric-field-controlled phase transformations. The class of transition metal oxides provide many potential candidates that present a strong response under electrolytic gating. However, very few show a reversible structural transformation at room-temperature. Here, we report the realization of a digitally synthesized transition metal oxide that shows a reversible, electric-field-controlled transformation between distinct crystalline phases at room-temperature. In superlattices comprised of alternating one-unit-cell of SrIrO3 and La0.2Sr0.8MnO3, we find a reversible phase transformation with a 7% lattice change and dramatic modulation in chemical, electronic, magnetic and optical properties, mediated by the reversible transfer of oxygen and hydrogen ions. Strikingly, this phase transformation is absent in the constituent oxides, solid solutions and larger period superlattices. Our findings open up this class of materials for voltage-controlled functionality.

2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 123: 109722, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent studies have suggested that H2S may be involved in the pathophysiology of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Endogenous H2S is mainly formed by cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS), d-amino-acid oxidase (DAO), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfotransferase (3-MST) from the substrate cysteine in the central nervous system. In this study, we assessed the expression of CBS, 3-MST, and DAO in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with SAH and rats and the expression in the rat brain. METHODS: CSF samples were collected within 48 h of aneurysm rupture in SAH patients. The CBS, DAO and 3-MST levels in CSF were measured using Western blot analyses, and correlations with the inflammatory parameter Interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed. Six months after SAH, the clinical outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: In human CSF samples, the CBS and DAO protein levels were detected and increased after SAH. However, 3-MST was not detected in the control group CSF but increased after SAH. Strong correlations were observed between the increasing levels of CBS, DAO, and 3-MST and IL-6 2 days after SAH. Furthermore, high CBS, 3-MST and DAO levels in the CSF samples were correlated with poor outcomes at 6 months after SAH onset. We also found that the expression of CBS, DAO and 3-MST in the rat CSF and brain (parietal cortex and hippocampus) increased following SAH. We detected strong correlations between the increases in CBS, 3-MST and IL-6 in the rat CSF and brain samples. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the upregulated expression of CBS, DAO and 3-MST after SAH was closely associated with the inflammatory response and neurological deficits after SAH.

3.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 3693-3704, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695336

RESUMO

Purpose: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a relatively common, devastating traumatic condition resulting in permanent disability. In this study, the use of exosomes derived from bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs-Exo) as a cell-free therapy for the treatment of SCI in rats was investigated to gain insights into their mechanisms of action. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into three groups, Sham (treated with PBS), SCI (SCI injury + PBS) and SCI + Exo (SCI injury + BMSCs-Exo). Changes in the complement system between the three groups were assessed with the use of proteomics. The proteomic data were verified using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, the distributions of BMSCs-Exo in rats with SCI were detected by immunofluorescence. Moreover, SCI-activated NF-κB levels were determined using Western blot. Results: SCI insult increased complement levels, including C4, C5, C6, C4 binding protein alpha and complement factor H. In contrast, the SCI + BMSCs-Exo group exhibited attenuated SCI-induced complement levels. Immunofluorescence assay results revealed that BMSCs-Exo mainly accumulated at the spinal cord injury site and were bound to microglia cells. Western blot analysis of tissue lysates showed that BMSCs-Exo treatment also inhibited SCI-activated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB). Conclusion: BMSCs-Exo play a protective role in spinal cord injury by inhibiting complement mRNA synthesis and release and by inhibiting SCI-activated NF-κB by binding to microglia.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(4): 047203, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491273

RESUMO

The recent discovery of intrinsic ferromagnetic order in the atomically thin van der Waals crystal CrXTe_{3} (X=Si, Ge) stimulates intensive studies on the nature of low-dimensional magnetism because the presence of long-range magnetic order in two-dimensional systems with continuous symmetry is strictly prohibited by thermal fluctuations. By combining advanced many-body calculations with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy we investigate CrSiTe_{3} single crystals and unveil the pivotal role played by the strong electronic correlations at both high- and low-temperature regimes. Above the Curie temperature (T_{c}), Coulomb repulsion (U) drives the system into a charge transfer insulating phase. In contrast, below T_{c} the crystal field arranges the Cr-3d orbitals such that the ferromagnetic superexchange profits, giving rise to the bulk ferromagnetic ground state with which the electronic correlations compete. The excellent agreement between theory and experiment establishes CrSiTe_{3} as a prototype low-dimensional crystal with the cooperation and interplay of electronic correlation and ferromagnetism.

5.
Adv Mater ; 31(39): e1901964, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389096

RESUMO

Atomically thin oxychalcogenides have been attracting intensive attention for their fascinating fundamental properties and application prospects. Bi2 O2 Se, a representative of layered oxychalcogenides, has emerged as an air-stable high-mobility 2D semiconductor that holds great promise for next-generation electronics. The preparation and device fabrication of high-quality Bi2 O2 Se crystals down to a few atomic layers remains a great challenge at present. Here, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of atomically thin Bi2 O2 Se films down to monolayer on SrTiO3 (001) substrate is achieved by co-evaporating Bi and Se precursors in oxygen atmosphere. The interfacial atomic arrangements of MBE-grown Bi2 O2 Se/SrTiO3 are unambiguously revealed, showing an atomically sharp interface and atom-to-atom alignment. Importantly, the electronic band structures of one-unit-cell (1-UC) thick Bi2 O2 Se films are observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), showing low effective mass of ≈0.15 m0 and bandgap of ≈0.8 eV. These results may be constructive to the synthesis of other 2D oxychalcogenides and investigation of novel physical properties.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3457, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358759

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

7.
Neural Regen Res ; 14(10): 1734-1742, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169191

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that resveratrol, a bioactive substance found in many plants, can reduce early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage, but how it acts is still unclear. This study explored the mechanism using the experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage rat model established by injecting autologous blood into the cerebellomedullary cistern. Rat models were treated with an intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg resveratrol 2, 6, 24 and 46 hours after injury. At 48 hours after injury, their neurological function was assessed using a modified Garcia score. Brain edema was measured by the wet-dry method. Neuronal apoptosis in the prefrontal cortex was detected by terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling assay. Levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde in the prefrontal cortex were determined by colorimetry. CHOP, glucose-regulated protein 78, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1 mRNA expression levels in the prefrontal cortex were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha content in the prefrontal cortex was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the number of positive cells of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2, heme oxygenase 1, glucose-regulated protein 78, CHOP and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Western blot assay was utilized to analyze the expression levels of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2, heme oxygenase 1, glucose-regulated protein 78 and CHOP protein expression levels in the prefrontal cortex. The results showed that resveratrol treatment markedly alleviated neurological deficits and brain edema in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage rats, and reduced neuronal apoptosis in the prefrontal cortex. Resveratrol reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, and increased the expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2, heme oxygenase-1 mRNA and protein in the prefrontal cortex. Resveratrol decreased glucose-regulated protein 78, CHOP mRNA and protein expression and tumor necrosis factor-alpha level. It also activated astrocytes. The results suggest that resveratrol exerted neuroprotective effect on subarachnoid hemorrhage by reducing oxidative damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress and neuroinflammation. The study was approved by the Animals Ethics Committee of Shandong University, China on February 22, 2016 (approval No. LL-201602022).

8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 115: 108818, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102912

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) represents a relatively common type of motor system trauma. While the SCI patient will experience varying degrees of paraplegia and quadriplegia, which severely affects their quality of life, a heavy burden is also placed on the family and society as a whole. The exact pathogenic mechanisms underlying this condition remain unknown and no specific treatments are currently available. Findings from recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), derived from extracellular vesicles (EVs) can reduce apoptosis, inflammation and promote angiogenesis after SCI. However, the mechanisms through which EVs exert these effects have yet to be identified, indicating the necessity for further investigation. In the present study, we report that treatment with MSCs-EVs significantly improved functional recovery and attenuated lesion size and apoptosis in a rat model of SCI. These MSCs-EVs were found to be directed to the spinal injury site and mainly incorporated into neurons within the lesioned site of the spinal cord. Tandem Mass Tags quantitative proteomics was applied to compare protein changes after SCI and MSCs-EVs treatment. A total of 883 differential proteins were identified, many of which being associated with apoptosis and inflammation. Subsequently, miRNA contents of MSCs-EVs were determined using qRT-PCR, with the result that miR-21-5p was one of the most highly expressed miRNA in these MSCs-EVs. Moreover, inhibition of miR-21-5p in MSCs-EVs significantly reversed the beneficial effects of MSCs-EVs on motor function and apoptosis, an effect which was associated with modulating FasL expression. The data suggest that modulation of the MSCs-EVs miR-21-5p/FasL gene axis may serve as a promising strategy for clinical treatment of SCI and other neurological diseases.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Proteína Ligante Fas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Animais , Apoptose , Regulação para Baixo , Proteína Ligante Fas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neuroproteção , Ratos
9.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 12: 58, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914921

RESUMO

We have reported previously that L-cysteine-derived hydrogen sulfide (H2S) demonstrates a remarkable neuroprotective effect against hypoxia-ischemic (HI) insult in neonatal animals. Here, we assessed some of the mechanisms of this protection as exerted by L-cysteine. Specifically, we examined the capacity for L-cysteine to stimulate microglial polarization of the M2 phenotype and its modulation of complement expression in response to HI in neonatal mice. L-cysteine treatment suppressed the production of inflammatory cytokines, while dramatically up-regulating levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the damaged cortex. This L-cysteine administration promoted the conversion of microglia from an inflammatory M1 to an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, an effect which was associated with inhibiting the p38 and/or JNK pro-inflammatory pathways, nuclear factor-κB activation and a decrease in HI-derived levels of the C1q, C3a and C3a complement receptor proteins. Notably, blockade of H2S-production clearly prevented L-cysteine-mediated M2 polarization and complement expression. L-cysteine also inhibited neuronal apoptosis as induced by conditioned media from activated M1 microglia in vitro. We also show that L-cysteine promoted AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and the AMPK inhibitor abolished these anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of L-cysteine. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that L-cysteine-derived H2S attenuated neuronal apoptosis after HI and suggest that these effects, in part, result from enhancing microglia M2 polarization and modulating complement expression via AMPK activation.

10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4570, 2018 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374115

RESUMO

The original HTML version of this Article omitted to list Harold Y. Hwang as a corresponding author and incorrectly listed Adrian G. Swartz as a corresponding author. This has been corrected in the HTML version of the Article. The PDF version was correct from the time of publication.

11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4008, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275443

RESUMO

Quantum ground states that arise at atomically controlled oxide interfaces provide an opportunity to address key questions in condensed matter physics, including the nature of two-dimensional metallic behaviour often observed adjacent to superconductivity. At the superconducting LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, a metallic ground state emerges upon the collapse of superconductivity with field-effect gating and is accompanied with a pseudogap. Here we utilize independent control of carrier density and disorder of the interfacial superconductor using dual electrostatic gates, which enables the comprehensive examination of the electronic phase diagram approaching zero temperature. We find that the pseudogap corresponds to precursor pairing, and the onset of long-range phase coherence forms a two-dimensional superconducting dome as a function of the dual-gate voltages. The gate-tuned superconductor-metal transitions are driven by macroscopic phase fluctuations of Josephson coupled superconducting puddles.

12.
Sci Adv ; 4(9): eaat8355, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30225369

RESUMO

Semiconductors are essential materials that affect our everyday life in the modern world. Two-dimensional semiconductors with high mobility and moderate bandgap are particularly attractive today because of their potential application in fast, low-power, and ultrasmall/thin electronic devices. We investigate the electronic structures of a new layered air-stable oxide semiconductor, Bi2O2Se, with ultrahigh mobility (~2.8 × 105 cm2/V⋅s at 2.0 K) and moderate bandgap (~0.8 eV). Combining angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy, we mapped out the complete band structures of Bi2O2Se with key parameters (for example, effective mass, Fermi velocity, and bandgap). The unusual spatial uniformity of the bandgap without undesired in-gap states on the sample surface with up to ~50% defects makes Bi2O2Se an ideal semiconductor for future electronic applications. In addition, the structural compatibility between Bi2O2Se and interesting perovskite oxides (for example, cuprate high-transition temperature superconductors and commonly used substrate material SrTiO3) further makes heterostructures between Bi2O2Se and these oxides possible platforms for realizing novel physical phenomena, such as topological superconductivity, Josephson junction field-effect transistor, new superconducting optoelectronics, and novel lasers.

13.
Appl Opt ; 57(22): 6383-6387, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30117867

RESUMO

A novel photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with an elliptical tellurite core is proposed to realize high birefringence and high nonlinearity simultaneously as well as low confinement loss at the wavelength of 1.55 µm. The guiding properties, such as the birefringence, the nonlinearity, and the confinement loss, have been investigated by using the full vectorial finite element method. The results show that the birefringence and the nonlinear coefficient can be up to 7.57×10-2 and 188.39 W-1 Km-1, respectively, and the confinement loss can be only 10-9 dB/m. The proposed PCF can find potential applications in optical fiber sensing, polarization-maintaining transmission, and super-continuum generation.

14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3311, 2018 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120240

RESUMO

Infrared light detection and sensing is deeply embedded in modern technology and human society and its development has always been benefitting from the discovery of various photoelectric materials. The rise of two-dimensional materials, thanks to their distinct electronic structures, extreme dimensional confinement and strong light-matter interactions, provides a material platform for next-generation infrared photodetection. Ideal infrared detectors should have fast respond, high sensitivity and air-stability, which are rare to meet at the same time in one two-dimensional material. Herein we demonstrate an infrared photodetector based on two-dimensional Bi2O2Se crystal, whose main characteristics are outstanding in the whole two-dimensional family: high sensitivity of 65 AW-1 at 1200 nm and ultrafast photoresponse of ~1 ps at room temperature, implying an intrinsic material-limited bandwidth up to 500 GHz. Such great performance is attributed to the suitable electronic bandgap and high carrier mobility of two-dimensional oxyselenide.

15.
ACS Nano ; 12(8): 7554-7561, 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30011187

RESUMO

With a honeycomb single-atomic-layer structure similar to those of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), the graphitic phase of ZnO (gZnO) have been predicted to offer many advantages for engineering, including high-temperature stability in ambient conditions and great potential in heterostructure applications. However, there is little experimental data about this hexagonal phase due to the difficulty of synthesizing large-area gZnO for characterization and applications. In this work, we demonstrate a solution-based approach to realize gZnO nanoflakes with thicknesses down to a monolayer and sizes up to 20 µm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy, photoluminescence, atomic force microscopy, and electron microscopy characterizations are conducted on synthesized gZnO samples. Measurements show significant changes to the electronic band structure compared to its bulk phase, including an increase of the band gap to 4.8 eV. The gZnO nanosheets also exhibit excellent stability at temperatures as high as 800 °C in ambient environment. This wide band gap layered material provides us with a platform for harsh environment electronic devices, deep ultraviolet optical applications, and a practical alternative for hBN. Our synthesis method may also be applied to achieve other types of 2D oxides.

16.
Brain Behav Immun ; 73: 222-234, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751053

RESUMO

We previously reported that l-Cysteine, an H2S donor, significantly alleviated brain injury after hypoxia-ischemic (HI) injury in neonatal mice. However, the mechanisms underlying this neuroprotective effect of l-Cysteine against HI insult remain unknown. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the protective effects of l-Cysteine are associated with glial responses and autophagy, and l-Cysteine attenuates synaptic injury as well as behavioral deficits resulting from HI. Consistent with our previous findings, we found that treatment with l-Cysteine after HI reduced early brain injury, improved behavioral deficits and synaptic damage, effects which were associated with an up-regulation of synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95 expression in the lesioned cortex. l-Cysteine attenuated the accumulation of CD11b+/CD45high cells, activation of microglia and astrocytes and diminished HI-induced increases in reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde within the lesioned cortex. In addition, l-Cysteine increased microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3-II and Beclin1 expression, decreased p62 expression and phosphor-mammalian target of rapamycin and phosphor-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. Further support for a critical role of l-Cysteine was revealed from results demonstrating that treatment with an inhibitor of the H2S-producing enzyme, amino-oxyacetic acid, reversed the beneficial effects of l-Cysteine described above. These results demonstrate that l-Cysteine effectively alleviates HI injury and improves behavioral outcomes by inhibiting reactive glial responses and synaptic damage and an accompanying triggering of autophagic flux. Accordingly, l-Cysteine may provide a new a therapeutic approach for the treatment of HI via the formation of H2S.


Assuntos
Cisteína/farmacologia , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Ácido Amino-Oxiacético/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisteína/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Hipóxia , Camundongos , Microglia/metabolismo , Neuroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Vesículas Sinápticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinaptofisina/análise
17.
Appl Opt ; 57(8): 1883-1886, 2018 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29521970

RESUMO

A birefringent single-layer coating photonic crystal fiber biosensor based on surface plasmon resonance is proposed to realize high sensitivity, which is easy to implement, in that only gold is deposited externally. The birefringent nature of the structure provides the sensor with high sensitivity. The results show that the biosensor can obtain the wavelength sensitivity of 15180 nm/refractive index unit (RIU) and high linearity with the analyte RI range of 1.40-1.43, corresponding to the resolution of 5.6818×10-6 RIU. Owing to the high sensitivity and simple structure, the proposed sensor can find important applications in biochemical and biological analyte detection.

18.
Nano Lett ; 18(4): 2387-2392, 2018 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580055

RESUMO

Electric-double-layer (EDL) gating with liquid electrolyte has been a powerful tool widely used to explore emerging interfacial electronic phenomena. Due to the large EDL capacitance, a high carrier density up to 1014 cm-2 can be induced, directly leading to the realization of field-induced insulator to metal (or superconductor) transition. However, the liquid nature of the electrolyte has created technical issues including possible side electrochemical reactions or intercalation, and the potential for huge strain at the interface during cooling. In addition, the liquid coverage of active devices also makes many surface characterizations and in situ measurements challenging. Here, we demonstrate an all solid-state EDL device based on a solid superionic conductor LaF3, which can be used as both a substrate and a fluorine ionic gate dielectric to achieve a wide tunability of carrier density without the issues of strain or electrochemical reactions and can expose the active device surface for external access. Based on LaF3 EDL transistors (EDLTs), we observe the metal-insulator transition in MoS2. Interestingly, the well-defined crystal lattice provides a more uniform potential distribution in the substrate, resulting in less interface electron scattering and therefore a higher mobility in MoS2 transistors. This result shows the powerful gating capability of LaF3 solid electrolyte for new possibilities of novel interfacial electronic phenomena.

19.
Nano Lett ; 18(2): 1410-1415, 2018 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29385803

RESUMO

Layered metal chalcogenide materials provide a versatile platform to investigate emergent phenomena and two-dimensional (2D) superconductivity at/near the atomically thin limit. In particular, gate-induced interfacial superconductivity realized by the use of an electric-double-layer transistor (EDLT) has greatly extended the capability to electrically induce superconductivity in oxides, nitrides, and transition metal chalcogenides and enable one to explore new physics, such as the Ising pairing mechanism. Exploiting gate-induced superconductivity in various materials can provide us with additional platforms to understand emergent interfacial superconductivity. Here, we report the discovery of gate-induced 2D superconductivity in layered 1T-SnSe2, a typical member of the main-group metal dichalcogenide (MDC) family, using an EDLT gating geometry. A superconducting transition temperature Tc ≈ 3.9 K was demonstrated at the EDL interface. The 2D nature of the superconductivity therein was further confirmed based on (1) a 2D Tinkham description of the angle-dependent upper critical field Bc2, (2) the existence of a quantum creep state as well as a large ratio of the coherence length to the thickness of superconductivity. Interestingly, the in-plane Bc2 approaching zero temperature was found to be 2-3 times higher than the Pauli limit, which might be related to an electric field-modulated spin-orbit interaction. Such results provide a new perspective to expand the material matrix available for gate-induced 2D superconductivity and the fundamental understanding of interfacial superconductivity.

20.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 13(4): 294-299, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483599

RESUMO

Doped semiconductors are the most important building elements for modern electronic devices 1 . In silicon-based integrated circuits, facile and controllable fabrication and integration of these materials can be realized without introducing a high-resistance interface2,3. Besides, the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) materials enables the realization of atomically thin integrated circuits4-9. However, the 2D nature of these materials precludes the use of traditional ion implantation techniques for carrier doping and further hinders device development 10 . Here, we demonstrate a solvent-based intercalation method to achieve p-type, n-type and degenerately doped semiconductors in the same parent material at the atomically thin limit. In contrast to naturally grown n-type S-vacancy SnS2, Cu intercalated bilayer SnS2 obtained by this technique displays a hole field-effect mobility of ~40 cm2 V-1 s-1, and the obtained Co-SnS2 exhibits a metal-like behaviour with sheet resistance comparable to that of few-layer graphene 5 . Combining this intercalation technique with lithography, an atomically seamless p-n-metal junction could be further realized with precise size and spatial control, which makes in-plane heterostructures practically applicable for integrated devices and other 2D materials. Therefore, the presented intercalation method can open a new avenue connecting the previously disparate worlds of integrated circuits and atomically thin materials.

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