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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the relations of individual lifestyle factors and its composite score with healthy ageing among Chinese. METHODS: We included 14,159 participants aged 45-74 years at baseline from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort. A protective lifestyle score (0-5 scale) was calculated at baseline (1993-1998) and updated at the second follow-up visit (2006-2010) on the basis of optimal body mass index (18.5-22.9 kg/m2), healthy diet (upper 40% of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index score), being physically active (≥2 hours/week of moderate activity or ≥0.5 hours/week of strenuous activity), non-smoking (never smoking), and low-to-moderate alcohol drinking (>0 to ≤14 drinks/week for men and >0 to ≤7 drinks/week for women). Healthy ageing was assessed at the third follow-up visit (2014-2016), and was defined as absence of specific chronic diseases, absence of cognitive impairment and limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, good mental and overall self-perceived health, good physical functioning, and no function-limiting pain. RESULTS: About 20.0% (2,834) participants met the criteria of healthy ageing after a median follow-up of 20 years. Each one-point increase in the protective lifestyle score computed at baseline and second follow-up visits was associated with higher likelihood of healthy ageing by 25% (95% CI: 20%-30%) and 24% (18%-29%), respectively. The population-attributable risk percent of adherence to 4-5 protective lifestyle factors was 34.3% (95% CI: 25.3%-42.3%) at baseline and 31.3% (23.0%-38.7%) at second follow-up visits for healthy ageing. In addition, positive increase in lifestyle scores from baseline to second follow-up visits was also significantly associated with a higher likelihood of healthy ageing with an odds ratio of 1.18 (95% CI: 1.12-1.24) for each increment in protective lifestyle score. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirmed that adopting healthy lifestyle factors, even after midlife, was associated with healthy ageing at old age.

2.
Phys Med Biol ; 66(4): 04NT01, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527911

RESUMO

The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a deep learning approach for automatic rat brain image segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images in a clinical PET/MR, providing a useful tool for analyzing studies of the pathology and progression of neurological disease and to validate new radiotracers and therapeutic agents. Rat brain PET/MR images (N = 56) were collected from a clinical PET/MR system using a dedicated small-animal imaging phased array coil. A segmentation method based on a triple cascaded convolutional neural network (CNN) was developed, where, for a rectangular region of interest covering the whole brain, the entire brain volume was outlined using a CNN, then the outlined brain was fed into the cascaded network to segment both the cerebellum and cerebrum, and finally the sub-cortical structures within the cerebrum including hippocampus, thalamus, striatum, lateral ventricles and prefrontal cortex were segmented out using the last cascaded CNN. The dice score coefficient (DSC) between manually drawn labels and predicted labels were used to quantitatively evaluate the segmentation accuracy. The proposed method achieved a mean DSC of 0.965, 0.927, 0.858, 0.594, 0.847, 0.674 and 0.838 for whole brain, cerebellum, hippocampus, lateral ventricles, striatum, prefrontal cortex and thalamus, respectively. Compared with the segmentation results reported in previous publications using atlas-based methods, the proposed method demonstrated improved performance in the whole brain and cerebellum segmentation. In conclusion, the proposed method achieved high accuracy for rat brain segmentation in MRI images from a clinical PET/MR and enabled the possibility of automatic rat brain image processing for small animal neurological research.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 148(2): 352-362, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459354

RESUMO

Telomeres play a key role in chromosomal maintenance and stability. To date, few studies have investigated the association of leukocyte telomere length with risk of cancer incidence and all-cause mortality in a large prospective cohort, particularly of the Asian population. Relative telomere lengths in genomic DNA from peripheral blood samples were quantified using a validated quantitative real-time PCR among 26 540 middle-aged or older Chinese adults. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer and deaths by quintiles of telomere length were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards regression method with adjustment for age, sex and other potential confounders. After baseline blood collection, 4353 persons developed cancer and 7609 died. Participants with the longest decile of telomeres had a 26% (95% CI: 11%-44%) higher risk of total cancer incidence compared to the shortest decile after controlling for age, sex and other potential founders (Ptrend < .0001). In contrast, longer telomeres were associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.84-1.03), noncancer death (HR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.71-0.92), specifically, death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumonia (HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.70-0.89) and digestive diseases (HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.88). Our findings demonstrated that longer telomeres are associated with increased risk of cancer development overall and several common cancer types including breast, rectal, prostate, pancreatic cancer and lung adenocarcinoma. Our study also confirmed that longer telomeres are associated with a reduced risk of noncancer related death.

4.
J Affect Disord ; 281: 125-130, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relation of changes in sleep duration with risk of cognitive impairment are inconclusive. This study evaluated the prospective relationships of changes in sleep duration with risk of cognitive impairment in Singapore Chinese. METHODS: We used data from 16,948 Chinese men and women who were aged 45-74 years at baseline (1993-1998) during recruitment into the Singapore Chinese Health Study cohort. Daily sleep duration was assessed at baseline, follow-up 2 (2006 to 2010) and follow-up 3 interviews (2014-2016). Cognitive function was evaluated with a Singapore-Modified Mini-Mental State Examination at follow-up 3 interviews when participants were 61-96 years old. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for cognitive impairment. RESULTS: Of the 16,948 participants, 14.4% were defined to have cognitive impairment. Compared with 7 h/day sleep at both baseline and follow-up 2, the OR (95% CI) for cognitive impairment was 1.50 (1.04-2.16) for those who maintained long sleep duration (≥9 h/day), 2.18 (1.37-3.45) for those who prolonged sleep from short duration (≤5 h/day) to long duration (≥9 h/day), and 1.55 (1.20-2.02) for those who prolonged sleep from recommended duration (7 h/day) to long duration. The highest risk was observed in those who shortened sleep from long to short duration (2.93, 1.35-6.34). LIMITATIONS: Measures of sleep were self-reported. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial changes in sleep duration over time were associated with higher risks of cognitive impairment. The findings underscore the importance of maintaining optimal sleep duration for the prevention of cognitive impairment.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326609

RESUMO

Associations of coffee and tea consumption with lung cancer risk have been inconsistent, and most lung cancer cases investigated were smokers. Included in this study were over 1.1 million participants from 17 prospective cohorts. Cox regression analyses were conducted to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential effect modifications by sex, smoking, race, cancer subtype and coffee type were assessed. After a median 8.6 years of follow-up, 20 280 incident lung cancer cases were identified. Compared with noncoffee and nontea consumption, HRs (95% CIs) associated with exclusive coffee drinkers (≥2 cups/d) among current, former and never smokers were 1.30 (1.15-1.47), 1.49 (1.27-1.74) and 1.35 (1.15-1.58), respectively. Corresponding HRs for exclusive tea drinkers (≥2 cups/d) were 1.16 (1.02-1.32), 1.10 (0.92-1.32) and 1.37 (1.17-1.61). In general, the coffee and tea associations did not differ significantly by sex, race or histologic subtype. Our findings suggest that higher consumption of coffee or tea is associated with increased lung cancer risk. However, these findings should not be assumed to be causal because of the likelihood of residual confounding by smoking, including passive smoking, and change of coffee and tea consumption after study enrolment.

6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although adherence to healthful dietary patterns has been associated with a lower risk of kidney function decline in Western populations, evidence in Asian populations remains scanty. OBJECTIVES: We examined predefined dietary patterns, namely, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and the alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED), in relation to risk of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). METHODS: We included 56,985 Chinese adults (aged 45-74 y) in the Singapore Chinese Health Study who were free of cancer, stroke, coronary artery disease, and ESKD at recruitment (1993-1998). Dietary pattern scores were calculated based on a validated 165-item FFQ. AHEI-2010 and aMED scores were modified by excluding the alcohol intake component because daily drinking has been associated with a higher risk of ESKD in our study population. We identified 1026 ESKD cases over a median follow-up of 17.5 y via linkage with the nationwide Singapore Renal Registry. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to compute HRs and their 95% CIs. RESULTS: Higher scores of all 3 dietary patterns were associated with lower ESKD risk in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the lowest quintiles, the multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of ESKD were 0.75 (0.61, 0.92) for the highest quintile of AHEI-2010, 0.67 (0.54, 0.84) for DASH, and 0.73 (0.59, 0.91) for aMED (all P-trend ≤ 0.004). These inverse associations were stronger with increasing BMI (in kg/m2), and the HRs for the diet-ESKD association were lowest in the obese (BMI ≥ 27.5), followed by the overweight (BMI = 25 to <27.5) participants, compared with those in lower BMI categories; the P-interaction values between BMI and diet scores were 0.03 for AHEI-2010, 0.004 for aMED, and 0.06 for DASH. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to healthful dietary patterns was associated with a lower ESKD risk in an Asian population, especially in overweight or obese individuals.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the associations between individual lifestyle factors and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been previously described, their combined impact on HCC risk is unknown. METHODS: The association of a composite score of healthy lifestyle factors, including body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, alternative Mediterranean diet, and sleep duration, and HCC risk was examined in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, an on-going prospective cohort study of 63,257 Chinese. Cox proportional hazard regression method was used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI). Conditional logistic regression method was used to evaluate this composite lifestyle score-HCC risk association among a subset of individuals who tested negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C antibody. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 17.7 years, 561 participants developed HCC. Individuals with higher composite scores representing healthier lifestyles (range 0-8) were at significantly lower risk of HCC. Compared to the lowest composite score category (0-4), the HRs (95% CIs) for the composite scores of 5, 6, 7, and 8 were 0.67 (0.62-0.85), 0.61 (0.48-0.77), 0.49 (0.37-0.65), and 0.13 (0.06-0.30), respectively (Ptrend<0.0001). A similar inverse association was observed in participants with negative HBsAg and anti-HCV negative serology (HR=0.38, 95% CI: 0.19-0.79; for the highest versus the lowest category of the composite scores (Ptrend=0.001). CONCLUSION: Healthy lifestyles protects against HCC development, especially for individuals without hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C infections. IMPACT: Our current study highlight the importance of a comprehensive lifestyle modification strategy for HCC primary prevention.

8.
FASEB J ; 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190300

RESUMO

Food withdrawal is usually used for accurate feed metabolizable energy (ME) assessment in poultry, but its effects on intestinal structure and the absorption of nutrients are unclear. In this study, broilers were fed ad libitum (CT) or withdrew food for 12 (FH12), 24 (FH24), 36 (FH36), or 48 hours (FH48). We showed that food withdrawal increased the energy assimilation when compared with the CT. Food withdrawal improved the digestibility of ether extract and the level of lipid substances and fatty acid-derived ß-hydroxybutyrate in serum. Compared to the CT, food withdrawal did not influence the digestibility of starch. Due to 12 hours or longer food withdrawal duration increased glutamate oxidation and uric acid excretion, the analyzed digestibility of crude protein was underestimated, although the upregulated amino acid transporter genes. In addition, histological analysis showed that short-term food withdrawal (12 hours) increased intestinal villus height, crypt depth, and proliferative cell, whereas prolonged food withdrawal (more than 24 hours) impaired villus structure due to the decreased cell proliferation. Moreover, proteomics analysis revealed upregulated pathways in birds withdrawn food for 36 hours involved in nutrient absorption and amino acid oxidation. In conclusion, food withdrawal changes nutrient absorption and utilization, especially for amino acid and ether extract, and results in increased ME. Both glutamate oxidation and fatty acid incomplete oxidation are involved in energy supply after refeeding. In contrast to short-term food withdrawal, prolonged food withdrawal impairs the intestinal structure and villus renewal. Our findings deserve attention from nutritionists who are analyzing food digestibility.

9.
Hereditas ; 157(1): 43, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Reelin (RELN) gene encodes the protein reelin, which is a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein that plays a key role in brain development. Additionally, this protein may be involved in memory formation, neurotransmission, and synaptic plasticity, which have been shown to be disrupted in schizophrenia (SCZ). A decreasing trend in the expression of RELN mRNA in the brain and peripheral blood of SCZ patients has been observed. There is a need to determine whether changes in RELN mRNA expression in SCZ patients are the result of long-term antipsychotic treatment rather than the etiological characteristics of schizophrenia. The expression levels of RELN mRNA in the peripheral blood of 48 healthy controls and 30 SCZ patients before and after 12-weeks of treatment were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: The expression levels of RELN mRNA in the SCZ group were significantly lower than that of healthy controls; however, after 12-weeks of antipsychotic treatment, RELN mRNA levels were significantly increased in the SCZ group. CONCLUSION: The up-regulation of RELN mRNA expression was current in SCZ patients after antipsychotic treatment, suggesting that the changes in RELN mRNA expression were related to the effect of the antipsychotic treatment.

10.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218913

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between dietary patterns in midlife and likelihood of future healthy ageing in Chinese older adults. DESIGN: Prospective population-based study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We included 14,159 participants aged 45-74 years who were free from cancer, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes at baseline (1993-1998) from the Singapore Chinese Health Study. METHODS: Dietary intakes in midlife were assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Diet quality was scored according to the alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED), the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, the alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, overall plant-based diet index (PDI), and healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI). Healthy ageing was assessed at the third follow-up visit (2014-2016), which occurred about 20 years after the baseline visit, and was defined as the absence of 10 chronic diseases, no impairment of cognitive function, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no clinical depression at screening, good overall self-perceived health, good physical functioning, and no function-limiting pain among participants who had survival to at least 65 years of age. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between each dietary pattern score and healthy ageing. RESULTS: About 20.0% of participants met the healthy ageing criteria. The OR (95% CI) for healthy ageing comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of diet quality scores was 1.52 (1.31-1.77) for aMED, 1.53 (1.35-1.73) for DASH, 1.39 (1.23-1.57) for AHEI-2010, 1.34 (1.18-1.53) for PDI, and 1.45 (1.27-1.65) for hPDI (all P-trend < .001). Each standard deviation increment in different diet quality scores was associated with 12% to 18% higher likelihood of healthy ageing. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: In this Chinese population, adherence to various healthy dietary patterns at midlife is associated with higher likelihood of healthy ageing at later life.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-27 mRNA is highly enriched in the tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma. Overexpression of interleukin-27 gene has been found to increase T cell expression of inhibitory receptors, an immunosuppressive feature in tumor microenvironment, that promotes the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: Two parallel case-control studies of hepatocellular carcinoma, each with 100 case-control pairs were conducted in the Singapore Chinese Health Study and the Shanghai Cohort Study to examine the association between serum interleukin-27 levels and risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. The interleukin-27 concentrations were significantly elevated in sera collected from study participants 4-5 years prior to the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in both cohort studies. RESULTS: Compared with the lowest tertile of interleukin-27, odds ratios (ORs)of hepatocellular carcinoma for the highest tertile of interleukin-27 was 46.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.68-453.86] in the Singapore Chinese Health Study and 19.09 (95% CI: 3.81-95.57) in the Shanghai Cohort Study (both ptrend <0.001). The corresponding ORs in both cohort studies were 42.47 (95% CI: 8.30-217.40) among individuals negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 242.46 (95% IC: 38.42-1529.01) among those positive for HBsAg compared with the lowest tertile of interleukin-27 and negative HBsAg. CONCLUSION: Levels of interleukin-27 in prediagnostic sera were significantly associated with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development. IMPACT: Interleukin-27 through its immunosuppressive property may play a significant role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Serum levels of interleukin-27 may be used as a biomarker for prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma development.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210298

RESUMO

2,456 lung cancer cases and 5,342 controls were evaluated in this International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) pooled analysis on estrogen-related hormonal factors and lung cancer in Asian women. Random effect of study site and fixed effect of age, smoking status, comprehensive smoking index, and family history of lung cancer were adjusted for in the multivariable logistic regression models. We found that late onset of menarche conferred elevated odds of lung cancer with adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.24 (95% confidence interval, CI=1.05 , 1.45) for 17 years or older, compared with 14 years or younger. Late onset of menopause at 55 years old or older was associated with lung cancer with OR=1.24 (95% CI=1.02 , 1.51). Non-natural menopause was associated with an OR of 1.39 (95%CI=1.13 , 1.71). More live births showed reversed association with lung cancer (ORs of 5 or more live births: 0.71 (95%CI=0.60 , 0.84), compared with 0-2 live births (Ptrend <0.001). A later first child delivery seemed associated with an increased susceptibility: OR of 21-25 years old: 1.23 (95% CI=1.06 , 1.40), 26 or older: 1.27 (95%CI=1.06, 1.52), Ptrend =0.010). Oral contraceptives use appeared to be protective with an OR of 0.69 (95% CI=0.57, 0.83). Stronger for adenocarcinoma than squamous cell carcinoma, these relationships were not clearly modified by smoking status, probably because of lower prevalence of smoking. This is a first and largest pooling study of lung cancer among Asian women and the results suggested potential roles of hormone-related pathways in the etiology of this disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137463

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The workup and longitudinal monitoring for subjects presenting with pulmonary nodules is a pressing clinical problem. A blood-based biomarker panel potentially has utility for identifying subjects at higher risk for harboring a malignant nodule for whom additional work-up would be indicated or subjects at reduced risk for whom imaging based follow-up would be indicated. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether a previously described four-protein biomarker panel, previously reported to improve assessment of lung cancer risk compared to a smoking-based lung cancer risk model, can provide discrimination between benign and malignant indeterminate pulmonary nodules. METHODS: A previously validated multiplex enzyme linked immunoassay was performed on matched case and control samples from each cohort. MEASUREMENTS: The biomarker panel was tested in two case-control cohorts of patients presenting with indeterminate pulmonary nodules at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and The University of Texas Southwestern. MAIN RESULTS: In both cohorts, the biomarker panel resulted in improved prediction of lung cancer risk over a model based on nodule size alone. Of particular note, the addition of the marker panel to nodule size greatly improved sensitivity at a high specificity in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: A four-marker biomarker panel, previously validated to improve lung cancer risk prediction, also shows utility in distinguishing benign from malignant indeterminate pulmonary nodules. Its performance in improving sensitivity at a high specificity indicates potential utility of the marker panel in assessing likelihood of malignancy in otherwise indeterminate nodules.

14.
Foods ; 9(11)2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202556

RESUMO

Healthy diets are necessary for both humans and animals, including poultry. These diets contain various nutrients for maintenance and production in laying hens. Therefore, research was undertaken to explore the efficiency of various dietary flaxseed sources on the n-3 deposition in the egg yolk and gene expression in laying hens. Five dietary groups were analyzed, i.e., (i) a corn-based diet with no flaxseed (FS) as a negative control (NC), (ii) a wheat-based diet supplemented with 10% whole FS without multi-carbohydrase enzymes (MCE) as a positive control (PC), (iii) ground FS supplemented with MCE (FS), (iv) extruded flaxseed meal was supplemented with MCE (EFM), (v) flaxseed oil supplemented with MCE (FSO). Results indicated that egg weight was highest in the NC, FS, EFM, and FSO groups as compared to PC in the 12th week. Egg mass was higher in enzyme supplemented groups as compared to the PC group, but lower than NC. In the 12th week, the HDEP (hen day egg production) was highest in the FS and EFM groups as compared to FSO, PC, and NC. The FCR (feed conversion ratio) was better in enzyme supplemented groups as compared to the PC group. Enzyme addition enhanced the egg quality as compared to PC in the 12th week. The HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) was increased, while LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), VLDL-C (very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), TC (total cholesterol), and TG (total triglycerides) were reduced in the enzyme supplemented groups as compared to PC and NC. The FSO deposit more n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the egg yolk as compared to FS and EFM groups. The expression of ACOX1, LCPT1, FADS1, FADS2, and ELOV2 genes were upregulated, while PPAR-α was downregulated in the FSO group. The LPL mRNA expression was upregulated in the FS, EFM, and FSO groups as compared to the PC and NC groups. It was inferred that FSO with enzymes at 2.5% is cost-effective, improves the hen performances, upregulated the fatty acid metabolism and ß-oxidation genes expression, and efficiently deposits optimal n-3 PUFA in the egg as per consumer's demand.

16.
J Phys Chem B ; 124(44): 9829-9839, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104345

RESUMO

The thermodynamics and kinetics of protein folding and protein aggregation in vivo are of great importance in numerous scientific areas including fundamental biophysics research, nanotechnology, and medicine. However, these processes remain poorly understood in both in vivo and in vitro systems. Here we extend an established model for protein aggregation that is based on the kinetic equations for the moments of the polymer size distribution by introducing macromolecular crowding particles into the model using scaled-particle and transition-state theories. The model predicts that the presence of crowders can either speed up, cause no change to, or slow down the progress of the aggregation compared to crowder-free solutions, in striking agreement with experimental results from nine different amyloid-forming proteins that utilized dextran as the crowder. These different dynamic effects of macromolecular crowding can be understood in terms of the change of excluded volume associated with each reaction step.

17.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 33(10): 970-4, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107263

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate therapeutic effect of minimally invasive percutaneous plate internal fixation (MIPPO) through a single incision in treating open distal tibiofibula fractures. METHODS: From March 2015 to February 2019, 10 patients with open distal tibiofibula fractures were treated with MIPPO technique through single anterolateral incision, including 8 males and 2 females, aged from 31 to 68 years old. According to Gustilo classification, 6 patients were typeⅠ, 3 patients were typeⅡand 1 patient was type ⅢA. Operative time, intraoperative blood loss and fracture healing were observed, Mazur ankle joint scoring was used to evaluate clinical effect. RESULTS: All patients were followed up from 9 to 24 months. Operative time ranged from 85 to 120 min, intraoperative blood loss ranged from 80 to 200 ml, fracture healing time ranged from 18 to 30 weeks. Nine patients with Gustilo typeⅠandⅡachieved satisfactory healing wound, original wound of 1 patient with Gustilo type ⅢA was poor, and healed by skin flap transplantation at stageⅡ. No steel exposed and infection occurred. According to Mazur ankle scoring at the final following-up, total score was from 61 to 97, and 8 patients got excellent result, 1 good and 1 poor. CONCLUSION: MIPPO technique through anterolateral single incision for the treatment of open distal tibiofibula fractures could protect original medial wound in opertaion, avoid plate exposed through anterolateral extensor tendon to cover internal fixation, and MIPPO technique could protect fracture end blood flow to improve fracture healing rate, and it is a kind of choice.


Assuntos
Placas Ósseas , Fraturas Expostas , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Consolidação da Fratura , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos
18.
Nutr J ; 19(1): 119, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shorter telomere length (TL) has been associated with poor health behaviors, increased risks of chronic diseases and early mortality. Excessive shortening of telomere is a marker of accelerated aging and can be influenced by oxidative stress and nutritional deficiency. Plasma n6:n3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio may impact cell aging. Increased dietary intake of marine n-3 PUFA is associated with reduced telomere attrition. However, the effect of plasma PUFA on leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and its interaction with genetic variants are not well established. METHODS: A nested coronary artery disease (CAD) case-control study comprising 711 cases and 638 controls was conducted within the Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS). Samples genotyped with the Illumina ZhongHua-8 array. Plasma n-3 and n-6 PUFA were quantified using mass spectrometry (MS). LTL was measured with quantitative PCR method. Linear regression was used to test the association between PUFA and LTL. The interaction between plasma PUFAs and genetic variants was assessed by introducing an additional term (PUFA×genetic variant) in the regression model. Analysis was carried out in cases and controls separately and subsequently meta-analyzed using the inverse-variance weighted method. We further assessed the association of PUFA and LTL with CAD risk by Cox Proportional-Hazards model and whether the effect of PUFA on CAD was mediated through LTL by using structural equation modeling. RESULTS: Higher n6:n3 ratio was significantly associated with shorter LTL (p = 0.018) and increased CAD risk (p = 0.005). These associations were mainly driven by elevated plasma total n-3 PUFAs, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (p < 0.05). There was a statistically significant interaction for an intergenic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs529143 with plasma total n-3 PUFA and DHA on LTL beyond the genome-wide threshold (p < 5 ×  10- 8). Mediation analysis showed that PUFA and LTL affected CAD risk independently. CONCLUSIONS: Higher plasma n6:n3 PUFA ratio, and lower EPA and DHA n-3 PUFAs were associated with shorter LTL and increased CAD risk in this Chinese population. Furthermore, genetic variants may modify the effect of PUFAs on LTL. PUFA and LTL had independent effect on CAD risk in our study population.

19.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129230

RESUMO

There is limited research on the effect of dietary quality on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk in populations with relatively high risk of HCC. Using data from Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort study, of 63 257 Chinese aged 45 to 74, we assessed four diet-quality index (DQI) scores: the Alternative Health Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), Alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Heathy Diet Indicator (HDI). We identified 561 incident HCC cases among the cohort participants after a mean of 17.6 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for HCC in relation to these DQI scores. Unconditional logistic regression method was used to evaluate the associations between DQIs and HCC risk among a subset of individuals who tested negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). High scores of AHEI-2010, aMED and DASH, representing higher dietary quality, were associated with lower risk of HCC (all Ptrend < .05). Compared with the lowest quartile, HRs (95% CIs) of HCC for the highest quartile of AHEI-2010, aMED and DASH were 0.69 (0.53-0.89), 0.70 (0.52-0.95) and 0.67 (0.51-0.87), respectively. No significant association between HDI and HCC risk was observed. Among HBsAg-negative individuals, similar inverse associations were observed, and the strongest inverse association was for aMED (HRQ4vsQ1 = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.23-0.94, Ptrend = .10). These findings support the notion that adherence to a healthier diet may lower the risk of HCC, suggesting that dietary modification may be an effective approach for primary prevention of HCC.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomere attrition has been proposed as a hallmark of ageing. We previously reported on the association between blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL) at mid-life and risk of chronic diseases and mortality. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effect of mid-life LTL and genetic proxies on five markers of ageing outcomes, namely handgrip strength, timed up-and-go (TUG), Singapore-modified Mini-Mental State Examination (SM-MMSE) scores, anxiety, and depression indices, measured after a median 20-year follow-up in the Singapore Chinese Health Study (N = 9,581). RESULTS: We observed a significant association between mid-life LTL and handgrip strength later in life (P = 0.004, Padjust = 0.020), as well as a nominal significant association between mid-life LTL and TUG later in life (P = 0.036, Padjust = 0.180). The weighted Genetic Risk Score (wGRS) comprising 15 previously reported LTL reducing loci in East-Asians was not significantly associated with handgrip strength. However, results from Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) showed that the effect of this wGRS on handgrip strength was mediated through LTL (proportion of wGRS effect on handgrip strength mediated through LTL = 33.3%, P = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Longer mid-life LTL was associated with increased handgrip strength later in life.

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