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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 643988, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34123986

RESUMO

Background: The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and related compulsory measures have triggered a wide range of psychological issues. However, the effect of COVID-19 on mental health in late-middle-aged adults remains unclear. Methods: This cross-sectional, web-based survey recruited 3,730 participants (≥ 50 years old) between February 28 and March 11 of 2020. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Insomnia Severity Index, and Acute Stress Disorder Scale were used to evaluate depression, anxiety, insomnia, and acute stress symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was fitted to explore risk factors that were associated with the selected outcomes. Results: The mean age of the participants was 54.44 ± 5.99 years, and 2,026 (54.3%) of the participants were female. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and acute stress symptoms among late-middle-aged adults in China during the COVID-19 pandemic was 20.4, 27.1, 27.5, and 21.2%, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that participants who were quarantined had increased odds ratios for the four mental health symptoms, and those with a good understanding of the COVID-19 pandemic displayed a decreased risk for all mental health symptoms among late-middle-aged adults. In addition, participants with a low income and with a risk of COVID-19 exposure at work had a remarkably high risk of depression, anxiety, and acute stress symptoms. Conclusions: Mental health symptoms in late-middle-aged adults in China during the COVID-19 pandemic are prevalent. Population-specific mental health interventions should be developed to improve mental health outcomes in late-middle-aged adults during this public health emergency.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1697, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is an enzyme family involved in cell aerobic metabolism of tricarboxylic acid cycle. However, the landscape of IDH mutations in pan-cancer has not been fully characterized. METHODS: Tissue or blood samples were subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS) for detection the IDH mutation. RESULTS: A total of 28.868 patients from more than 20 solid tumor species were analyzed. A total of 374 cases (1.30%) with IDH mutations were identified. Among all the IDH mutations cases, 80 (21.4%) were biliary tract cancer (BTC), 80 (21.4%) were lung cancer, 57 (15.2%) were liver cancer, and 42 (11.2%) were colorectal cancer. The most common IDH variant were IDH1 and IDH2 which were discovered in 0.81% cases and 0.47% cases, respectively. However, there were significant differences in IDH1 and IDH2 mutation frequency among different tumor species (p = 0.0003). Of the patients with IDH1 mutations, about 53.0% of these mutations occur in codons 132. Codons 172 (25.4%) was high-frequency mutation subtypes in IDH2 mutation. TP53, PBRM1, and BAP1 were the most significantly mutated genes in BTC which were different from others cancer. Moreover, TMB were significantly higher in lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and gastric cancer than BTC (p = 0.0164, p < 0.0001, p = 0.0067, respectively) and BTC patients with IDH mutation had lower TMB compared with wild-type IDH. CONCLUSION: Somatic IDH mutation was found in multiple solid tumors and IDH would be a driver gene in BTC.

3.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(23): 4735-4745, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095948

RESUMO

Large bone defects face a high risk of infection, which can also lead to bone homeostasis disorders. This seriously hinders the bone healing process; therefore, the help of a dual-functional scaffold that has both anti-infection and bone-homeostasis-regulating capacities is needed in the treatment of infected bone defects. In this study, a 3D printed dual-functional scaffold composed of poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL), mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBG), and gallium (Ga) was produced. In vitro experiments demonstrated the excellent antibacterial ability of the PCL/MBG/Ga scaffold against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The scaffold also significantly inhibited osteoclastic activity and promoted osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, a rabbit model with an infected bone defect in the radius was used to evaluate the in vivo bone healing capability of PCL/MBG/Ga. The results demonstrate that the PCL/MBG/Ga scaffold can significantly accelerate bone healing and prevent bone resorption, suggesting its potential for application in repairing infected bone defects.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3403, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099707

RESUMO

Developmental outcomes are shaped by the interplay between intrinsic and external factors. The production of stomata-essential pores for gas exchange in plants-is extremely plastic and offers an excellent system to study this interplay at the cell lineage level. For plants, light is a key external cue, and it promotes stomatal development and the accumulation of the master stomatal regulator SPEECHLESS (SPCH). However, how light signals are relayed to influence SPCH remains unknown. Here, we show that the light-regulated transcription factor ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), a critical regulator for photomorphogenic growth, is present in inner mesophyll cells and directly binds and activates STOMAGEN. STOMAGEN, the mesophyll-derived secreted peptide, in turn stabilizes SPCH in the epidermis, leading to enhanced stomatal production. Our work identifies a molecular link between light signaling and stomatal development that spans two tissue layers and highlights how an environmental signaling factor may coordinate growth across tissue types.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Estômatos de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Hipocótilo/metabolismo , Células do Mesofilo/metabolismo , Comunicação Parácrina/genética , Comunicação Parácrina/efeitos da radiação , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos da radiação , Epiderme Vegetal/metabolismo , Estômatos de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos da radiação
5.
Thorac Cancer ; 2021 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) is deemed as a fatal malignancy with a poor prognosis. Although immunotherapy has gradually played an important role in the treatment of ES-SCLC since 2018, ES-SCLC treatment data and patient outcome before 2018, when chemotherapy served as a fundamental therapeutic strategy, is still meaningful as a summary of the situation regarding previous medical treatment and is a baseline for comparative data. In addition, the prognostic factors of ES-SCLC have failed to reach a consensus until now. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate survival and identify the prognostic factors in an ES-SCLC population. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the detailed medical records of 358 patients with ES-SCLC from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2018 in a Chinese top-level cancer hospital. The prognostic factors were evaluated by Cox univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The median overall survival (OS) of ES-SCLC patients (N = 358) was 14.0 months, the one- and two-year OS rates were 56.2% and 21.7%, respectively. Moreover, we identified two demographic characters (age ≥ 70, smoking index ≥ 400), one tumor burden factor (bone multimetastasis), two tumor biomarkers (cyfra211, CA125) and two laboratory indexes (decreased Na, PLR < 76) as independent prognostic factors for OS in this patient population. Progression-free survival (PFS) data of 238 patients was obtained for further analysis, and the median PFS was 6.2 months, and six-month and one-year PFS rates were 51.7% and 14.3%, respectively. Elevated cyfra211, decreased Hb and Na were identified as independent prognostic factors for PFS. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides real-world evidence of the survival and prognosis of ES-SCLC patients which will enable better evaluation and clinical decision-making in the future.

6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963281

RESUMO

Sleep deprivation (SD) is increasingly common in modern society, which can lead to the dysregulation of inflammatory responses and cognitive impairment, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota plays a critical role in the pathogenesis and development of inflammatory and psychiatric diseases, possibly via gut microbiota-brain interactions and neuroinflammation. The present study investigated the impact of SD on gut microbiota composition and explored whether alterations of the gut microbiota play a causal role in chronic inflammatory states and cognitive impairment that are induced by SD. We found that SD-induced gut dysbiosis, inflammatory responses, and cognitive impairment in humans. Moreover, the absence of the gut microbiota suppressed inflammatory response and cognitive impairment induced by SD in germ-free (GF) mice. Transplantation of the "SD microbiota" into GF mice activated the Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway and impaired cognitive function in the recipient mice. Mice that harbored "SD microbiota" also exhibited increases in neuroinflammation and microglial activity in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. These findings indicate that gut dysbiosis contributes to both peripheral and central inflammatory processes and cognitive deficits that are induced by SD, which may open avenues for potential interventions that can relieve the detrimental consequences of sleep loss.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(22)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050022

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest that admixture with archaic hominins played an important role in facilitating biological adaptations to new environments. For example, interbreeding with Denisovans facilitated the adaptation to high-altitude environments on the Tibetan Plateau. Specifically, the EPAS1 gene, a transcription factor that regulates the response to hypoxia, exhibits strong signatures of both positive selection and introgression from Denisovans in Tibetan individuals. Interestingly, despite being geographically closer to the Denisova Cave, East Asian populations do not harbor as much Denisovan ancestry as populations from Melanesia. Recently, two studies have suggested two independent waves of Denisovan admixture into East Asians, one of which is shared with South Asians and Oceanians. Here, we leverage data from EPAS1 in 78 Tibetan individuals to interrogate which of these two introgression events introduced the EPAS1 beneficial sequence into the ancestral population of Tibetans, and we use the distribution of introgressed segment lengths at this locus to infer the timing of the introgression and selection event. We find that the introgression event unique to East Asians most likely introduced the beneficial haplotype into the ancestral population of Tibetans around 48,700 (16,000-59,500) y ago, and selection started around 9,000 (2,500-42,000) y ago. Our estimates suggest that one of the most convincing examples of adaptive introgression is in fact selection acting on standing archaic variation.

8.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(11): 1299-1309, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33967195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bendamustine was approved in China on May 26th, 2019 by the National Medical Product Administration for the treatment of indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The current study was the registration trial and the first reported evaluation of the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of bendamustine in Chinese adult patients with indolent B-cell NHL following relapse after chemotherapy and rituximab treatment. METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter, open-label, single-arm, phase 3 study (NCT01596621; C18083/3076) with a 2-year follow-up period. Eligible patients received bendamustine hydrochloride 120 mg/m2 infused intravenously on days 1 and 2 of each 21-day treatment cycle for at least six planned cycles (and up to eight cycles). The primary endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR); and secondary endpoints were duration of response (DoR), progression-free survival (PFS), safety, and pharmacokinetics. Patients were classified according to their best overall response after initiation of therapy. Proportions of patients in each response category (complete response [CR], partial response [PR], stable disease, or progressive disease) were summarized along with a two-sided binomial exact 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the ORR. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients were enrolled from 20 centers between August 6th, 2012, and June 18th, 2015. At the time of the primary analysis, the ORR was 73% (95% CI: 63%-81%) per Independent Review Committee (IRC) including 19% CR and 54% PR. With the follow-up period, the median DoR was 16.2 months by IRC and 13.4 months by investigator assessment; the median PFS was 18.6 months and 15.3 months, respectively. The most common non-hematologic adverse events (AEs) were gastrointestinal toxicity, pyrexia, and rash. Grade 3/4 neutropenia was reported in 76% of patients. Serious AEs were reported in 29 patients and five patients died during the study. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that the characteristics of bendamustine and its metabolites M3 and M4 were generally consistent with those reported for other ethnicities. CONCLUSION: Bendamustine is an active and effective therapy in Chinese patients with relapsed, indolent B-cell NHL, with a comparable risk/benefit relationship to that reported in North American patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, No. NCT01596621; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01596621.


Assuntos
Linfoma não Hodgkin , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Cloridrato de Bendamustina/uso terapêutico , China , Humanos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico
9.
Neuroimage ; 237: 118169, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss of control over drug intake occurring in drug addiction is believed to result from disruption of reward circuits, including reduced responsiveness to natural rewards (e.g., monetary, sex) and heightened responsiveness to drug reward. Yet few studies have assessed reward deficiency and related brain responses in abstinent heroin users with opioid use disorder, and less is known whether the brain responses can predict cue-induced craving changes following by prolonged abstinence. METHOD: 31 heroin users (age: 44.13±7.68 years, male: 18 (58%), duration of abstinence: 85.2 ± 52.5 days) were enrolled at a mandatory detoxification center. By employing a cue-reactivity paradigm including three types of cues (drug, sexual, neutral), brain regional activations and circuit-level functional coupling were extracted. Among the 31 heroin users, 15 were followed up longitudinally to assess cue induced craving changes in the ensuing 6 months. RESULTS: One way analysis of variance results showed that heroin users have differential brain activations to the three cues (neutral, drug and sexual) in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), insula, orbiotofrontal cortex (OFC) and the bilateral thalamus. Drug cue induced greater activations in left DLPFC, insula and OFC compared to sexual cue. The psychophysiological interactions (PPI) analysis revealed negative couplings of the left DLPFC and the left OFC, bilateral thalamus, putamen in heroin users during drug cue exposure. In the 6-month follow-up study, both drug cue induced activation of the left DLPFC and the functional coupling of the left DLPFC-bilateral thalamus at baseline was correlated with craving reductions, which were not found for sexual cues. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary study provided novel evidence for the reward deficiency theory of opioid use disorder. Our findings also have clinical implications, as drug cue induced activation of the left DLPFC and functional coupling of left DLPFC-bilateral thalamus may be potential neuroimaging markers for craving changes during prolonged abstinence. Evidently, the findings in the current preliminary study should be confirmed by large sample size in the future.

10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 221: 113522, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984804

RESUMO

Statins play an important role in the treatment of hyperlipidemia, but drug resistance and adverse effects greatly limits their application. To discover new lipid-lowering drugs, three different series of tetrahydroprotoberberine derivatives (THPBs) were designed and synthesized. These compounds were first tested for their effects on viability of HepG2 cells and 21 compounds with the percent of cell viability over 90% were further screened to evaluate their ability to reduce total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels. Among these derivatives, two compounds displayed significant down-regulation both intracellular of TC and TG content, especially compound 49 exhibited the greatest efficacy. Mechanistically, compound 49 promoted proteasomal degradation of SREBPs. Importantly, compound 49 displayed superior bioavailability (F = 65.1%) and obvious efficacy in the treatment of high fat diet induced obesity in vivo. Therefore, compound 49 is a promising candidate to develop new treatment of hyperlipidemia.

11.
Brain Sci ; 11(3)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809786

RESUMO

Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has emerged as a promising technique to non-invasively modulate the endogenous oscillations in the human brain. Despite its clinical potential to be applied in routine rehabilitation therapies, the underlying modulation mechanism has not been thoroughly understood, especially for patients with neurological disorders, including stroke. In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency-specific stimulation effect of tACS in chronic stroke. Thirteen chronic stroke patients underwent tACS intervention, while resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected under various frequencies (sham, 10 Hz and 20 Hz). The graph theoretical analysis indicated that 20 Hz tACS might facilitate local segregation in motor-related regions and global integration at the whole-brain level. However, 10 Hz was only observed to increase the segregation from whole-brain level. Additionally, it is also observed that, for the network in motor-related regions, the nodal clustering characteristic was decreased after 10 Hz tACS, but increased after 20 Hz tACS. Taken together, our results suggested that tACS in various frequencies might induce heterogeneous modulation effects in lesioned brains. Specifically, 20 Hz tACS might induce more modulation effects, especially in motor-related regions, and they have the potential to be applied in rehabilitation therapies to facilitate neuromodulation. Our findings might shed light on the mechanism of neural responses to tACS and facilitate effectively designing stimulation protocols with tACS in stroke in the future.

12.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1913785, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849405

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought unprecedented challenges to medical education systems and medical students. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on medical career and specialty choices among medical students. An online cross-sectional survey of Chinese medical students was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic from February to April 2020. The students' willingness to be a doctor before and after the COVID-19 pandemic and changed willingness to specialize in respiratory medicine and infectious diseases were investigated. Multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression was used to explore factors that were associated with changes of willingness. A total of 1,837 medical students, including 1,227 females (66.8%), with a median age of 21.0 years, were recruited. Of the participants, 10.6% and 6.9% showed increased and decreased willingness to be a doctor after the COVID-19 outbreak, respectively. Moreover, 11.7% showed increased willingness and 9.5% showed decreased willingness to major in respiratory medicine and infectious diseases. Students with younger age, lower household income, fewer depressive symptoms, less exposure to negative pandemic information and more satisfaction with their own major after the pandemic were associated with increased willingness to be a doctor. Students who engaged in regular exercise, were males and undergraduate level, were interested in medicine, paid more attention to positive information, were satisfied with their majors, and had increased willingness to be a doctor after the pandemic were more likely to choose to specialize in respiratory medicine and infectious disease. However, the severity of anxiety symptoms was associated with decreased willingness to work in the specialties of respiratory medicine and infectious diseases. Psychological problems and professional satisfaction appear to be independent factors that affect medial career and specialty choices. The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical students require further research.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Escolha da Profissão , Especialização , Estudantes de Medicina , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651331

RESUMO

Dysfunction of the sleep-wake transition is considered to be associated with the pathology of patients with primary insomnia (PI). Previous animal study had reported that brain circuits between the striatum and cortex can regulate sleep-wake transitions. So far, few studies have systematically explored the structural connectivity of the striatum-centered circuits and their potential roles in patients with PI. In this study, we chosen the striatum as the seed and 10 priori target regions as masks to assess the structural connectivity by using seed-based classification with a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) probabilistic tractography method. Track strengths of the striatum-centered circuits were compared between 22 patients with PI (41.27 ± 9.21 years) and 30 healthy controls (HC) (35.2 ± 8.14 years). Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to measure the sleep quality in all participants. Lower track strengths (left striatum- anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left striatum- dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), left striatum-Hippocampus, and right striatum-Hippocampus) were observed in patients with PI compared to HC. Additionally, the lower track strengths of brain circuits mentioned above were negatively correlated with PSQI. Taken together, our findings revealed the lower tract strength of frontostriatal circuits in patients with PI and HC, which provided the implications of the system-level structural connections of frontostriatal circuits in the pathology of PI. We suggested that the track strengths of the frontostriatal circuits calculated from DTI can be the potential neuroimaging biomarkers of the sleep quality in patients with PI.

14.
J Affect Disord ; 286: 220-227, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is still spreading worldwide and posing a threat to individuals' physical and mental health including problematic internet use (PIU). A potentially high-risk group for PIU are those with symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity (ADHD symptoms), because of restrictions in their physical activity levels and engagement in computer diversions requiring only short attention spans. METHODS: We used convenience sampling in a cross-sectional survey of university students from 30 universities in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. We assessed PIU using the Internet Addiction Test and ADHD symptoms using the WHO Adult ADHD Self-Report Screening Scale. Using logistic regression and linear regression analyses we adjusted for demographic, epidemic-related and psychological covariates in models of the association between ADHD symptoms and PIU. RESULTS: Among 11,254 participants, we found a 28.4% (95% CI, 27.5%-29.2%) prevalence of PIU, relatively higher than before the pandemic. In our final logistic regression model, participants with ADHD symptoms had approximately two times the risk for PIU (OR: 2.31, 95% CI: 1.89-2.83). Similarly, individuals with depression, anxiety, insomnia, PTSD symptoms and feeling stress during the pandemic had a higher risk of PIU, while those exercising regularly during the pandemic had a lower risk. LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional design and reliance on internet based self-reports for ADHD symptoms and PIU assessments, without direct structured interviews for validation, are limitations. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PIU was high during COVID-19, and those people with ADHD symptoms and other mental illness symptoms appear to be at higher risk of PIU. Regular exercise may reduce that PIU risk and hence should be recommended during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Comportamento Aditivo , COVID-19 , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Internet , Uso da Internet , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes , Universidades
15.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 183, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The undergraduate program of psychiatry has been widely established in recent years to improve the education and recruitment of psychiatrists in China. We aim to investigate the career choice of medical students majoring in psychiatry in China and the influential factors. METHOD: This multicenter study was conducted in 26 medical schools in China from May to October of 2019. Participants included 4610 medical students majoring in psychiatry and 3857 medical students majoring in clinical medicine. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the influential factors of students' choices of psychiatry at matriculation and as a career. RESULTS: 44.08% of psychiatry majored students gave psychiatry as a first choice at matriculation, and 56.67% of them would choose psychiatry as a career, which was in sharp contrast to the proportion of clinical medicine majored students who would choose psychiatry as a career (0.69%). Personal interest (59.61%), suggestions from family members (27.96%), and experiencing mental problems (23.19%) were main reasons for choosing psychiatry major at matriculation. Personal interest (odds ratio [OR] = 2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.87-2.40), experiencing a psychiatry clerkship (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.28-3.08), being female (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.30-1.68), experiencing mental problems (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.28-1.56), and suggestions from family members (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08-1.46) correlated positively with students' choice of psychiatry as career. Students who lacked psychiatry knowledge (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.29-0.85) or chose psychiatry because of lower admission scores (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.63-0.97) were less likely to choose psychiatry as a career. CONCLUSION: More than half of psychiatry majored medical school students planned to choose psychiatry as their career, whereas very few students in the clinic medicine major would make this choice. Increasing students' interest in psychiatry, strengthening psychiatry clerkships, and popularizing psychiatric knowledge are modifiable factors to increase the psychiatry career intention. The extent to which medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry can be changed through medical school education and greater exposure to psychiatry will need further investigation.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Estudantes de Medicina , Escolha da Profissão , China , Feminino , Humanos , Psiquiatria/educação , Faculdades de Medicina , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741281

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Carotid body tumors (CBTs) are benign but challenging. This study compared outcomes of 3 techniques of the surgical treatment of CBTs. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective observational study was conducted from April 2013 to March 2019. The 38 patients enrolled in the study had primary tumors, including 1 with bilateral tumors and another with adrenal gland pheochromocytoma. We collected data on age, sex, size of tumor, Shamblin classification, treatment, blood loss, operative time, hospital stay, complications, and recurrence. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20 software. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients were male, and 12 were female, and they ranged in age from 11 to 71 years. Cases were assigned to Shamblin groups I (n = 6), II (n = 19), and III (n = 14). Tumor size ranged from 2.0 × 2.0 cm to 5.0 × 6.0 cm. Eleven CBTs underwent blunt dissection (BD), 20 underwent BD plus resection of external carotid artery division plus vessels of encapsulation with allograft dermal matrix (BD + RECA + VE), and 8 tumors underwent surgical resection of tumors plus common carotid artery-internal carotid artery artificial vascular reconstruction (SR +C-IAVR). No perioperative death or stroke occurred. There was a significant difference between Shamblin groups I, II, and III in terms of the size of the tumor, type of treatment used, blood loss, operative time, hospital stay, and complications. Six patients had mandibular branch facial nerve transient paresis; 7 patients had hypoglossal nerve dysfunction; 3 patients had Horner syndrome; and dysphasia occurred in 2 patients. The patients were seen in follow-up for 16 to 45 months, and 1 recurrence was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Three surgical techniques-BD, BD + RECA + VE, and SR + C-IAVR-are safe and feasible for the treatment of CBTs according to Shamblin classifications.

17.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 204: 173156, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675839

RESUMO

The relationship between circadian rhythms and mood disorders has been established. Circadian dysregulations are believed to exacerbate the severity of mood disorders and vice versa. Although many studies on diurnal changes of clock genes in animal model of depression have been performed from the RNA level, only a few studies have been carried out from the protein level. In this study, we investigated the diurnal changes induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) using free-running wheel test and Western Blotting (WB). Besides, we examined the depression-like behaviors of rats by sucrose preference test (SPT) and forced swim test (FST). We found that CUS induced significant reductions in the quantity of free-running wheel activity and rhythmic disruptions of clock proteins in hippocampus. Furthermore, we found that the amplitude of PER1 in CA1 was positively related to the severity of depression-like behaviors. These results suggest that CUS results in both changes in diurnal rhythms and in depression-like behaviors and that it is suggested that these changes are related.

18.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(2): 384-394, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645142

RESUMO

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polymers obtained by esterification of hydroxy fatty acid monomers. Due to similar mechanical characteristics of traditional petroleum-based plastics, 100% biodegradability and biocompatibility, PHAs are considered to be one of the most potential green materials. However, the application and promotion of PHAs as a green and environmentally friendly material are difficult because of the high production costs. This article focuses on the current methods to reduce production cost of PHAs effectively, such as cell morphology regulation, metabolic pathway construction, economic carbon source utilization and open fermentation technology development. Despite most research results are still limited in laboratory, the research methods and directions provide theoretical guidance for the industrial production of economic PHAs.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos , Fermentação , Indústrias , Plásticos
19.
Gene Ther ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633356

RESUMO

Waardenburg syndrome (WS), also known as auditory-pigmentary syndrome, is the most common cause of syndromic hearing loss (HL), which accounts for approximately 2-5% of all patients with congenital hearing loss. WS is classified into four subtypes depending on the clinical phenotypes. Currently, pathogenic mutations of PAX3, MITF, SOX10, EDN3, EDNRB or SNAI2 are associated with different subtypes of WS. Although supportive techniques like hearing aids, cochlear implants, or other assistive listening devices can alleviate the HL symptom, there is no cure for WS to date. Recently major progress has been achieved in preclinical studies of genetic HL in animal models, including gene delivery and stem cell replacement therapies. This review focuses on the current understandings of pathogenic mechanisms and potential biological therapeutic approaches for HL in WS, providing strategies and directions for implementing WS biological therapies, as well as possible problems to be faced, in the future.

20.
Tumori ; : 300891620988342, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554761

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To clarify the correlation between KIF11 (kinesin family member 11) and clinicopathologic characteristics of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and identify the prognostic value of KIF11 in patients with NSCLC. METHODS: For investigating the expression of KIF11 in NSCLC, two tissue microarrays (TMAs: one contained 60 paired NSCLC tissues and paratumor tissues, the other contained 140 NSCLC tissues and 10 normal lung tissues) were constructed, stained, and scored. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets were used to explore the differential expression level of KIF11 between NSCLC and paratumor. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted and multivariate analysis were carried out. RESULTS: The staining of KIF11 mainly distributed throughout the cytoplasm of tumor cells. Its expression was higher in NSCLC than paratumor cells, and similar results were obtained from TCGA datasets. We found that high expression of KIF11 had a significant correlation with lymph node metastases (p = 0.024) and pathologic stage (p = 0.018); that significant difference was not found in any other clinicopathologic characteristic. As univariate and multivariate analysis showed, KIF11 expression was significantly correlated with overall survival time of NSCLC (p = 0.002, p = 0.025, respectively). High KIF11 expression was found to significantly associate with overall survival of stage II-III (p = 0.001) and lung adenocarcinoma (p = 0.036). CONCLUSION: High KIF11 expression predicts poor outcome in NSCLC. KIF11 is expected to be a viable prognostic biomarker for NSCLC.

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