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1.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376379

##### RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pedicle screw loosening is a common postoperative complication for osteoporotic patients, and several studies have found the important role of fusion length in internal fixation failure, but the relationship between the number of fusion segments and the potential risks is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the rate and risk factors of screw loosening in osteoporotic patients with different segment degenerative lumbar diseases. METHODS: 217 patients were divided into 3 groups according to the different fusion levels: single-level (group A, 100 cases), double-level (group B, 73 cases), and multilevel fusion group (group C, 44 cases). Patient baseline demographic characteristics were compared. Furthermore, we also assessed the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) before operation and at the last follow-up. RESULTS: Compared with pre-operative value, the scores of VAS and ODI of the last follow-up were significantly improved for these three groups. And in terms of the operative time, blood loss, hospital stay, screw loosening rate, fusion rate as well as VAS and ODI scores of the last follow-up, all of them obviously increased with the increasing of fusion segments (group C> group B> group A). It is worth noting that all the screw loosening was observed in cranial and caudal vertebra. Furthermore, the multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that lumbosacral fixation, larger PI-LL, and larger post-operation PT are the independent predictors for screw loosening. However, gender, BMD, BMI, LL, SS, PI, the change of LL, and pre-operation PT are not relevant to the screw loosening (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Owing to the high rate of screw loosening in cranial and caudal vertebra, osteoporotic patients with double-level or multilevel pedicle screw fixation benefited less than those with single-level pedicle screw fixation. Larger PI-LL, larger PT, and lumbosacral fixation are other risk factors for the loosening of screw. An instrument with stronger holding strength at cranial and caudal pedicle screws is recommended for those high-risk patients.

2.
Future Med Chem ; 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400188

##### RESUMO

Aim: CDK4 and 6 are the key initiators in the transition from G1 to S phase in the cell cycle; thus, inhibition of CDK4/6 is a promising strategy for cancer treatment. Materials & methods: The Specs database and an in-house library were screened via the pharmacophore model and LibDock protocol and then the retrieved hits were clustered into 100 clusters. The CDK4/6 inhibitory activity of selected compounds was evaluated by CDK enzymatic assays, followed by chemical optimization of the top hit compound. Results & conclusion: The integration of pharmacophores and molecular docking offered us an effective method to discover the novel CDK4/6 inhibitor 10 and further chemical optimization led to the highly selective and potent CDK4/6 inhibitor 18, which exhibited potential for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

3.
Parasite ; 27: 33, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410725

##### RESUMO

Paracaesicola n. gen., is erected herein to accommodate a new microcotylid species, Paracaesicola nanshaensis n. sp., collected from the Yongshu Reef, South China Sea. This species is the first monogenean to be recorded from the gills of Paracaesio sordida. The new species is characterized by the following features: (i) haptor short, with clamps arranged in two equal bilateral rows; (ii) testes numerous, arranged in two roughly alternating longitudinal rows, extending into the haptor; (iii) genital atrium armed with 16 robust spines, which are vertically arranged on top of the sausage shaped muscular male copulatory organ; and (iv) single vagina, bottle-shaped, with a distinctly bulbous vaginal atrium. The terminals of the reproductive system discriminate Paracaesicola n. gen. from all other genera in the Microcotylidae. Molecular phylogenetic analyses, based on partial 28S rDNA, places Paracaesicola nanshaensis n. sp. within the microcotylid clade, but its sequence differs from all known available microcotylid sequences.

4.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; : 172939, 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437704

##### RESUMO

The relationship between circadian rhythms and mood disorders has been established, circadian dysregulations are believed to exacerbate the severity of mood disorders and vice versa. Although many studies on diurnal changes of clock genes in animal model of depression have been performed from the RNA level, only a few studies have been carried out from the protein level. In this study, we investigated the diurnal changes induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) using various methods, including free-running wheel test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western Blotting (WB). Besides, we examined the depression-like behaviors of rats by sucrose preference test (SPT) and forced swim test (FST). We found that CUS induced significant reductions in the quantity of free-running wheel activity and the amplitude of melatonin secretion rhythm. We also found that CUS induced rhythmic disruptions of clock proteins in hippocampus. Furthermore, we found that the amplitude of PER1 in CA1 was positively related to the severity of depression-like behaviors. These results suggest that stress results in both changes in circadian rhythms and in depression-like behaviors and that it is suggested that these changes are related.

5.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314196

##### RESUMO

Intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) networks, including the default mode network (DMN), central executive network (CEN), and salience network (SN), have been implicated in nicotine addiction. However, litter evidence exists about the abnormalities in the three networks in young adult smokers. Forty-eight young adult smokers and 49 age- and gender-matched non-smokers were recruited in the present study. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were analyzed by a combination of independent component analysis (ICA) and dual regression to identify potential differences of FC patterns in the DMN, CEN, and SN. Compared to non-smokers, young adult smokers showed enhanced FC of the left posterior cingulate cortex (LPCC), right medial prefrontal cortex (RMPFC) and right precuneus within the DMN network, of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) within the right CEN, and of the left anterior insula (LAI) within the SN. We also found increased FC between the DMN, CEN and key node of the SN (anterior insula, AI). Correlation analysis showed that the increased FC within the networks was significantly correlated with smoking behaviors (pack-years, smoking duration, FTND, first smoking age, and number of cigarettes per day). Our findings may provide additional evidence for conceptualizing the framework of nicotine addiction as a disease of intercommunicating brain networks.

6.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314778

##### RESUMO

2D ferromagnets, such as CrX3 (X = Cl, Br and I), have been attracting extensive attention since they provide novel platforms to fundamental physics and device applications. Integrating CrX3 with other electrodes and substrates is an essential step to their device realization. Therefore, it is important to understand the interfacial properties between CrX3 and other 2D materials. As an illustrative example, we have investigated the heterostructures between CrX3 and graphene (CrX3/Gr) by first-principles calculations. We found a unique Schottky contact type with strongly spin-dependent barriers in CrX3/Gr. This can be understood by synergistic effects between the exchange splitting of the semiconductor band of CrX3 and interlayer charge transfer. The spin-asymmetry of Schottky barriers may result in different tunneling rates of spin-up and down electrons, and then lead to spin-polarized current, namely the spin-filter (SF) effect. Moreover, by introducing X vacancies into CrX3/Gr, an ohmic contact forms in the spin-up direction. It may enhance the transport of spin-up electrons, and improve the SF effect. Our systematic study reveals the unique interfacial properties of CrX3/Gr, and provides a theoretical view of the understanding and designing of spintronic devices based on magnetic vdW heterostructures.

7.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125616

##### RESUMO

Visual presentation of appetitive and negative cues triggers fast responses in the human brain. Here we assessed functional MRI (fMRI) responses to food, cocaine, and neutral cues presented at a subliminal ("unconscious", 33 ms) and supraliminal ("conscious", 750 and 3000 ms) level in healthy, cocaine naïve volunteers. Because there is evidence of circadian variability in reward sensitivity, our second aim was to assess diurnal variability in the brain's reactivity to cues. Sixteen participants completed two randomly ordered fMRI sessions (once 9-11 AM and another 5-7 PM). in which food, cocaine, and neutral cues were presented for 33, 750 and 3000 ms. Participants rated food cues as positive and "wanted" (more so in evenings than mornings), and cocaine cues as negative (no diurnal differences). fMRI showed occipital cortex activation for food>neutral, cocaine>neutral and cocaine>food; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for cocaine>neutral and cocaine>food, and midbrain for cocaine>food (all pFWE < 0.05). When comparing unconscious (33 ms) > conscious (750 and 3000 ms) presentations, we observed significant differences for cocaine>neutral and cocaine>food in occipital cortex, for cocaine>neutral in the insula/temporal lobe, and for food>neutral in the middle temporal gyrus (pFWE < 0.05). No diurnal differences for brain activations were observed. We interpret these findings to suggest that negative items (e.g., cocaine) might be perceived at a faster speed than positive ones (e.g., food), although we cannot rule out that the higher saliency of cocaine cues, which would be novel to non-drug using individuals, contributed to the faster speed of detection.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4465, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144354

##### RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4342, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152428

##### RESUMO

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost (IMRT-SIB) reduces overall treatment duration and results in less radiotherapy (RT)-induced dermatitis. However, the use of traditional sequential approach or IMRT-SIB is still under debate since there is not enough evidence of long-term clinical outcomes. The present study investigated 216 patients who underwent breast conserving surgery (BCS) between 2010 and 2013. The median age was 51 years (range, 21-81 years). All patients received IMRT-SIB, 50.4 Gy at 1.8 Gy per fraction to the whole breast and 60.2 Gy at 2.15 Gy per fraction to the tumor bed by integral boost. Among 216 patients, 175 patients received post-operative RT with forward IMRT and 41 patients had Tomotherapy. The median follow-up was 6.4 years. Forty patients (97.6%) in the Tomotherapy arm and 147 patients (84%) in the IMRT arm developed grade 0-1 skin toxicity (P = 0.021). For the entire cohort, the 5-year and 7-year overall survival (OS) rates were 94.4% and 93.1% respectively. The 7-year distant metastasis-free survival rates were 100% vs 89.1% in the Tomotherapy and IMRT arm respectively (P = 0.028). In conclusion, Tomotherapy improved acute skin toxicity compared with forward IMRT-SIB. Chronic skin complication was 1.9%. IMRT-SIB resulted in good long-term survival.

10.
J Neurol ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170447

##### RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obese individuals have shown functional abnormalities in frontal-limbic regions, and bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for morbid obesity. The aim of the study was to investigate how bariatric surgery modulates brain regional activation and functional connectivity (FC) to food cues, and whether the underlying structural connectivity (SC) alterations contribute to these functional changes as well as behavioral changes. METHODS: A functional magnetic resonance imaging cue-reactivity task with high- (HiCal) and low-calorie (LoCal) food pictures and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with deterministic tractography were used to investigate brain reactivity, FC and SC in 28 obese participants tested before and 1 month after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Twenty-two obese controls (Ctr) without surgery were also tested at baseline and 1 month later. RESULTS: LSG significantly decreased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation to HiCal versus LoCal cues and increased FC between DLPFC and ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), which are regions involved in self-regulation of feeding behaviors. LSG also increased SC between DLPFC and ACC as quantified by fractional anisotropy. Increases in SC and FC between DLPFC and ACC were associated with greater reductions in BMI, and SC changes were positively correlated with FC changes. Increased SC between right DLPFC and ACC mediated the relationship between reduced BMI and increased right DLPFC-vACC FC; likewise, increases in right DLPFC-vACC FC mediated the relationship between increased right DLPFC-ACC SC and reduced BMI. CONCLUSION: LSG might induce weight loss in part by increasing SC and FC between DLPFC and ACC, and thus strengthening top-down control over food intake.

11.
Tumori ; : 300891620910805, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178590

##### RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the expression profile and prognostic value of RAD21 in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: A tissue microarray (TMA) containing 60 paired NSCLC tissues and peritumor tissues was purchased and another TMA containing 140 NSCLC tissues was constructed. Then, immunohistochemical staining was performed and scored. Finally, the expression profile and prognostic value of RAD21 were evaluated. RESULTS: RAD21 was predominantly detected in the nucleus of tumor and peritumor cells. RAD21 was more highly expressed in tumor tissues compared to peritumor tissues. High RAD21 expression was correlated with more lymph node metastases and advanced pathological stage, but not with any other clinicopathological features. High RAD21 expression led to worsened overall survival (OS) and was an independent prognostic factor for worsened OS in NSCLC, especially in stage II-III. CONCLUSION: High RAD21 expression indicates poor survival in patients with NSCLC. RAD21 may become a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in patients with NSCLC.

12.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193525

##### RESUMO

As a well-known semiconductor that can catalyse the oxygen evolution reaction, TiO2 has been extensively investigated for its solar photoelectrochemical water properties. Unmodified TiO2 shows some issues, particularly with respect to its photoelectrochemical performance. In this paper, we present a strategy for the controlled deposition of controlled amounts of GaOxNy cocatalysts on TiO2 1D nanowires (TiO2@GaOxNy core-shell) using atomic layer deposition. We show that this modification significantly enhances the photoelectrochemical performance compared to pure TiO2 NW photoanodes. For our most active TiO2@GaOxNy core-shell nanowires with a GaOxNy thickness of 20 nm, a photocurrent density up to 1.10 mA cm-2 (at 1.23 V vs. RHE) under AM 1.5 G irradiation (100 mW cm-2) has been achieved, which is 14 times higher than that of unmodified TiO2 NWs. Furthermore, the band gap matching with TiO2 enhances the absorption of visible light over unmodified TiO2 and the facile oxygen vacancy formation after the deposition of GaOxNy also provides active sites for water activation. Density functional theory studies of model systems of GaOxNy-modified TiO2 confirm the band gap reduction, high reducibility and ability to activate water. The highly efficient and stable systems of TiO2@GaOxNy core-shell nanowires with ALD deposited GaOxNy demonstrate a good strategy for the fabrication of core-shell structures that enhance the photoelectrochemical performance of readily available photoanodes.

13.
iScience ; 23(3): 100935, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146328

##### RESUMO

Many cancer vaccines are not successful in clinical trials, mainly due to the challenges associated with breaking immune tolerance. Herein, we report a new strategy using an adjuvant-protein-antigen (three-in-one protein conjugates with built-in adjuvant) as an anticancer vaccine, in which both the adjuvant (small-molecule TLR7 agonist) and tumor-associated antigen (mucin 1, MUC1) are covalently conjugated to the same carrier protein (BSA). It is shown that the protein conjugates with built-in adjuvant can increase adjuvant's stimulation, prevent adjuvant's systemic toxicities, facilitate the codelivery of adjuvants and antigens, and enhance humoral and cellular immune responses. The IgG antibody titers elicited by the self-adjuvanting three-in-one protein conjugates were significantly higher than those elicited by the vaccine mixed with TLR7 agonist (more than 15-fold) or other traditional adjuvants. Importantly, the potent immune responses against cancer cells suggest that this new vaccine construct is an effective strategy for the personalized antitumor immunotherapy.

14.
Environ Pollut ; 262: 114236, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142976

##### RESUMO

The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in rice grains is closely associated with the content of mineral nutrients and amino acid metabolism, but the causal link among them is unclear. Profiles of amino acids (AAs) and quantities of essential nutrients in grains from early and late rice cultivars grown at four sites with different Cd levels were analyzed in the present study. Hazard quotients (HQs) for consumers by intake of rice from late cultivars were much higher than that from early cultivars at sites with soil Cd content of 0.25, 0.61 and 0.84 mg kg-1. Cadmium accumulation in grains resulted in a sharp reduction of total essential AAs and non-essential AAs in both early and late rice cultivars. High-Cd-accumulating (HCA) cultivars had significantly higher level of glutamate (Glu) than low-Cd-accumulating (LCA) cultivars when rice Cd content was less than 0.20 mg kg-1. However, Glu level in grains dramatically declined with the accumulation of Cd, which subsequently leaded to the reduction of other AAs. Cadmium content was well predicted by five amino acids (i.e., Glu, Alanine, Phenylalanine, Glycine and Threonine) or four essential elements (Ca, Fe, Mn and Zn) when rice Cd was less than 0.80 mg kg-1. Amino acids played more important roles than nutrients in Cd accumulation. When Cd content was in the range of 0.40-1.16 mg kg-1, the Mn content in rice increased significantly with the increase of Cd content, while the Glu content dropped down synchronously. Remarkably, the ratio between Mn and Glu displayed the highest direct path coefficient on Cd accumulation than any single cation or amino acid. These results indicate that high capacity in synthesizing Glu and concentrating Mn is the determinant factor for Cd accumulation in rice grains, and abundant Glu in aleurone layer may alleviate Cd toxicity by forming Glu-Cd complex.

15.
Funct Plant Biol ; 47(4): 342-354, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040939

##### RESUMO

16.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 28(7): 115372, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088124

##### RESUMO

Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase SET7 emerged as a potential target for multiple cancers. In a virtual screening program used to explore new and potent inhibitors of SET7, compound 16 was discovered as a top hit with an IC50 value of 6.02 µM. A further similarity search afforded a new compound 23, which exhibited better activity against SET7 with an IC50 value of 1.96 µM. Importantly, compound 23 selectively inhibited the proliferation of MV4-11 cells. Comprehensively, compound 23 can serve as a lead for further identification and development of more potent SET7 inhibitors.

17.
iScience ; 23(3): 100895, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088394

##### RESUMO

Targeting memory reconsolidation is an effective intervention for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Disrupting unconditioned stimulus (US)-retrieval-induced fear memory reconsolidation has become an effective therapeutic approach to attenuate fear memory, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we report that US-retrieval-dependent increase in phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIα (Pi4KIIα) promotes early endosomal trafficking of AMPA receptors, leading to the enhancement of synaptic efficacy in basolateral amygdala (BLA) neurons. The inhibition of Pi4KIIα by an inhibitor or short hairpin RNA impaired contextual fear memory reconsolidation. This disruptive effect persisted for at least 2 weeks, which was restored by Pi4KIIα overexpression with TAT-Pi4KIIα. Furthermore, the blockade of early endosomal trafficking following US retrieval reduced synaptosomal membrane GluA1 levels and decreased subsequent fear expression. These data demonstrate that Pi4KIIα in the BLA is crucial for US-retrieval-induced fear memory reconsolidation, the inhibition of which might be an effective therapeutic strategy for treating PTSD.

18.
J Vis Exp ; (156)2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091008

##### RESUMO

Neutrophils are a major member of the innate immune system and play pivotal roles in host defense against pathogens and pathologic inflammatory reactions. Neutrophils can be recruited to inflammation sites via the guidance of cytokines and chemokines. Overwhelming infiltration of neutrophils can lead to indiscriminate tissue damage, such as in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Neutrophils isolated from peritoneal exudate respond to a defined chemoattractant, N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP), in vitro in Transwell or Zigmond chamber assays. The air pouch experiment can be used to evaluate the chemotaxis of neutrophils towards lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vivo. The adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) mouse model is frequently used in RA research, and immunohistochemical staining of joint sections with anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) or anti-neutrophil elastase (NE) antibodies is a well-established method to measure neutrophil infiltration. These methods can be used to discover promising therapies targeting neutrophil migration.

19.
Opt Lett ; 45(4): 960-963, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058517

##### RESUMO

Controlling coherence and interference of quantum states is one of the central goals in quantum science. Different from energetically discrete quantum states, however, it remains a demanding task to visualize coherent properties of degenerate states (e.g., magnetic sublevels). It becomes further inaccessible in the absence of an external perturbation (e.g., Zeeman effect). Here, we present a theoretical analysis of all-optical control of degenerate magnetic states in the molecular hydrogen ion, ${\rm H}_2^ +$H2+, by using two time-delayed co- and counterrotating circularly polarized attosecond extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) pulses. We perform accurate simulations to examine this model by solving the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation. A counterintuitive phenomenon of quantum interference between degenerate magnetic sublevels appears in the time-dependent electronic probability density, which is observable by using x-ray-induced transient angular and energy-resolved photoelectron spectra. This work provides an insight into quantum interference of electron dynamics inside molecules at the quantum degeneracy level.

20.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 568: 81-88, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088454

##### RESUMO

Development of high-performance ammonia (NH3) sensor is imperative for monitoring NH3 in the living environment. In this work, to obtain a high performance NH3 gas sensor, structurally well-defined WO3@SnO2 core shell nanosheets with a controllable thickness of SnO2 shell layer have been employed as sensing materials. The prepared core shell nanosheets were used to obtain a miniaturized gas sensor based on micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS). By tuning the thickness of SnO2 layer via atomic layer deposition, a series of WO3@SnO2 core-shell nanosheets with tunable sensing properties were realized. Particularly, the sensor base on the fabricated WO3@SnO2 nanosheets with 20-nm SnO2 shell layer demonstrated superior gas sensing performance with the highest response (1.55) and selectivity toward 15 ppm NH3 at 200 °C. This remarkable enhancement of NH3 sensing ability could be ascribed to the formation of unique WO3-SnO2 core-shell heterojunction structure. The detailed mechanism was elucidated by the heterojunction-depletion model with the help of specific band alignment.