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1.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 711009, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603006

RESUMO

Background: Subjective cognitive decline and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) were widely thought to be preclinical AD spectrum disorders, characterized by aberrant functional connectivity (FC) within the triple networks of the default mode network (DMN), the salience network (SN), and the executive control network (ECN). Dynamic FC (DFC) analysis can capture temporal fluctuations in brain FC during the scan, which static FC analysis cannot. The purpose of the current study was to explore the changes in dynamic FC within the triple networks of the preclinical AD spectrum and further reveal their potential diagnostic value in diagnosing preclinical AD spectrum disorders. Methods: We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 44 patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), 49 with aMCI, and 58 healthy controls (HCs). DFC analysis based on the sliding time-window correlation method was used to analyze DFC variability within the triple networks in the three groups. Then, correlation analysis was conducted to reveal the relationship between altered DFC variability within the triple networks and a decline in cognitive function. Furthermore, logistic regression analysis was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of altered DFC variability within the triple networks in patients with SCD and aMCI. Results: Compared with the HC group, the groups with SCD and aMCI both showed altered DFC variability within the triple networks. DFC variability in the right middle temporal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) within the ECN were significantly different between patients with SCD and aMCI. Moreover, the altered DFC variability in the left IFG within the ECN was obviously associated with a decline in episodic memory and executive function. The logistic regression analysis showed that multivariable analysis had high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing SCD and aMCI. Conclusions: Subjective cognitive decline and aMCI showed varying degrees of change in DFC variability within the triple networks and altered DFC variability within the ECN involved episodic memory and executive function. More importantly, altered DFC variability and the triple-network model proved to be important biomarkers for diagnosing and identifying patients with preclinical AD spectrum disorders.

2.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 708687, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675797

RESUMO

Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a transitional state between normal aging and dementia disorders, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD). The disruption of the default mode network (DMN) is often considered to be a potential biomarker for the progression from MCI to AD. The purpose of this study was to assess MRI-specific changes of DMN in MCI patients by elucidating the convergence of brain regions with abnormal DMN function. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Ovid, and Web of science for relevant articles. We identified neuroimaging studies by using amplitude of low frequency fluctuation /fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF/fALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo), and functional connectivity (FC) in MCI patients. Based on the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) algorithm, we carried out connectivity modeling of coordination-based meta-analysis and functional meta-analysis. Results: In total, this meta-analysis includes 39 articles on functional neuroimaging studies. Using computer software analysis, we discovered that DMN changes in patients with MCI mainly occur in bilateral inferior frontal lobe, right medial frontal lobe, left inferior parietal lobe, bilateral precuneus, bilateral temporal lobe, and parahippocampal gyrus (PHG). Conclusions: Herein, we confirmed the presence of DMN-specific damage in MCI, which is helpful in revealing pathology of MCI and further explore mechanisms of conversion from MCI to AD. Therefore, we provide a new specific target and direction for delaying conversion from MCI to AD.

3.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 292, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Graph-based analysis (GBA) of genome-scale metabolic networks has revealed system-level structures such as the bow-tie connectivity that describes the overall mass flow in a network. However, many pathways obtained by GBA are biologically impossible, making it difficult to study how the global structures affect the biological functions of a network. New method that can calculate the biologically relevant pathways is desirable for structural analysis of metabolic networks. RESULTS: Here, we present a new method to determine the bow-tie connectivity structure by calculating possible pathways between any pairs of metabolites in the metabolic network using a flux balance analysis (FBA) approach to ensure that the obtained pathways are biologically relevant. We tested this method with 15 selected high-quality genome-scale metabolic models from BiGG database. The results confirmed the key roles of central metabolites in network connectivity, locating in the core part of the bow-tie structure, the giant strongly connected component (GSC). However, the sizes of GSCs revealed by GBA are significantly larger than those by FBA approach. A great number of metabolites in the GSC from GBA actually cannot be produced from or converted to other metabolites through a mass balanced pathway and thus should not be in GSC but in other subsets of the bow-tie structure. In contrast, the bow-tie structural classification of metabolites obtained by FBA is more biologically relevant and suitable for the study of the structure-function relationships of genome scale metabolic networks. CONCLUSIONS: The FBA based pathway calculation improve the biologically relevant classification of metabolites in the bow-tie connectivity structure of the metabolic network, taking us one step further toward understanding how such system-level structures impact the biological functions of an organism.

5.
Mol Immunol ; 139: 131-138, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482201

RESUMO

WDFY4 (WD repeat and FYVE domain-containing 4) is a susceptibility gene involved in several autoimmune diseases and plays an important role in the immune system. However, it is not clear how WDFY4 affects T cells. We have generated a Wdfy4-knockout mouse and found that selective deficiency of Wdfy4 in T cells led to a reduction in the number of CD8+ T cells in the periphery, thus promoting tumor growth when mice were challenged with a transplantable tumor. Moreover, conditional ablation of Wdfy4 in T cells enhanced the apoptosis of CD8+ T cells and increased the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species accompanied by the upregulation of Nox2. Mechanistically, the decrease in the CD8+ T-cell numbers in Wdfy4-knockout mice was associated with activation of the p53 pathway and inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. In addition, WDFY4 participated in cell proliferation. In conclusion, our results elucidate the biological role of WDFY4 in apoptosis and establish a link between WDFY4 and T cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia , Animais , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
6.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 711023, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531735

RESUMO

Background: Changes in the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) have provided stronger evidence for the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment. Whether the altered patterns of ALFF and fALFF differ in amnestic cognitive impairment (aMCI) and vascular mild cognitive impairment (vMCI) is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the ALFF/fALFF changes in the two diseases and to further explore whether they contribute to the diagnosis and differentiation of these diseases. Methods: We searched PubMed, Ovid, and Web of Science databases for articles on studies using the ALFF/fALFF method in patients with aMCI and vMCI. Based on the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) method, connectivity modeling based on coordinate meta-analysis and functional meta-analysis was carried out. Results: Compared with healthy controls (HCs), patients with aMCI showed increased ALFF/fALFF in the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus/hippocampus (PHG/HG), right amygdala, right cerebellum anterior lobe (CAL), left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), left cerebrum temporal lobe sub-gyral, left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), and left cerebrum limbic lobe uncus. Meanwhile, decreased ALFF/fALFF values were also revealed in the bilateral precuneus (PCUN), bilateral cuneus (CUN), and bilateral posterior cingulate (PC) in patients with aMCI. Compared with HCs, patients with vMCI predominantly showed decreased ALFF/fALFF in the bilateral CUN, left PCUN, left PC, and right cingulate gyrus (CG). Conclusions: The present findings suggest that ALFF and fALFF displayed remarkable altered patterns between aMCI and vMCI when compared with HCs. Thus, the findings of this study may serve as a reliable tool for distinguishing aMCI from vMCI, which may help understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of these diseases.

7.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(18): 2494-2503, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the burden of thyroid cancer and its attributable risk factors in 204 countries and territories during 30 years. METHODS: We extracted data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 database, including incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and the attributable risk factors of thyroid cancer from 1990 to 2019. Estimated annual percentage changes (EAPC) were calculated to assess the changes in age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR), and age-standardized DALYs rate (ASDR). We also examined the associations between cancer burden and the sociodemographic index (SDI). RESULTS: The global new cases, death, and DALYs of thyroid cancer in 2019 were 233 847 (95% UI: 211 637-252 807), 45 576 (95% UI: 41 290-48 775), and 1 231 841 (95% UI: 1 113 585-1 327 064), respectively. From 1990 to 2019, the ASIR of thyroid cancer showed an upward trend (EAPC = 1.25), but ASMR (EAPC = -0.15) and ASDR (EAPC = -0.14) decreased. The burden of thyroid cancer varied at regional and national levels, but the association between ASIR and SDI was positive. We found that the burden of thyroid cancer was mainly concentrated in females and that the age of onset tended to be younger. The proportion of DALYs from thyroid cancer attributable to high body-mass index was higher in high SDI regions, especially in males. CONCLUSIONS: The global incidence of thyroid cancer has continued to increase in the past three decades. The high body-mass index as an important risk factor for thyroid cancer deserves greater attention, especially in high SDI regions.

10.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(20): e2100009, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398529

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) materials have garnered considerable attention for their unique properties and potentials in a wide range of fields, which include nano-electronics/optoelectronics, solar energy, and catalysis. Meanwhile, challenges in the approaches toward achieving high-performance devices still inspire the search for new 2D vdW materials with precious properties. In this study, via molecular beam epitaxy, for the first time, the vdW SnI2 monolayer is successfully fabricated with a new structure. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy characterization, as corroborated by the density functional theory calculation, indicates that this SnI2 monolayer exhibits a band gap of ≈2.9 eV in the visible purple range, and an indirect- to direct-band gap transition occurs in the SnI2 bilayer. This study provides a new semiconducting 2D material that is promising as a building block in future electronics/optoelectronics.

11.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(12)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205493

RESUMO

Aiming at the problems of a complex structure or poor controllability of the existing bearing preload control devices, a method of self-regulation via a negative Poisson's ratio (NPR) spacer is proposed. Firstly, the principle of preload automatic adjustment at the bearing operation was introduced and the NPRs with three types of cell structures were analyzed. Furthermore, a thermo-mechanical coupling analysis model of the NPR spacer was established and the deformation and force output characteristics of the NPR spacer were studied and experimentally verified. It is found that the concave hexagonal cell structure has the optimal deformation characteristics for bearing preload adjustment. When the temperature is considered, the absolute value of Poisson's ratio of the NPR spacer decreases as the speed increases and the elongation of the NPR spacer and the output forces are much larger than those without temperature consideration. With the increase in temperature or rotating speed, the axial elongation and output forces of the NPR spacer increases while the effect of temperature is relatively larger.

12.
Infect Dis Model ; 6: 924-929, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34316527

RESUMO

Quarantine is a crucial control measure in reducing imported COVID-19 cases and community transmissions. However, some quarantined COVID-19 patients may show symptoms after finishing quarantine due to a long median incubation period, potentially causing community transmissions. To assess the recommended 14-day quarantine policy, we develop a formula to estimate the quarantine failure rate from the incubation period distribution and the epidemic curve. We found that the quarantine failure rate increases with the exponential growth rate of the epidemic curve. We apply our formula to United States, Canada, and Hubei Province, China. Before the lockdown of Wuhan City, the quarantine failure rate in Hubei Province is about 4.1%. If the epidemic curve flattens or slowly decreases, the failure rate is less than 2.8%. The failure rate in US may be as high as 8.3%-11.5% due to a shorter 10-day quarantine period, while the failure rate in Canada may be between 2.5% and 3.9%. A 21-day quarantine period may reduce the failure rate to 0.3%-0.5%.

13.
Updates Surg ; 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327667

RESUMO

To evaluate the incidence of external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) injuries after thyroid surgical procedures with or without the functional and visual identification of the EBSLN before ligation at the superior thyroid pole. Patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) enrolled from a single tertiary referral academic medical center were assigned to functional and visual identification of EBSLN group (study group) or no identification of EBSLN group (controlled group). The main outcome measures were the incidence of EBSLN injury detected by the intraoperative neuromonitoring and Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and Impairment Index-5 (VII-5) valuation questionnaires. Postoperative complications were recorded. A total of 140 (50.4%) patients were enrolled in study group and 138 (49.6%) in controlled group. In the study group, 110 (39.3%) EBSLNs were direct visual recognized and 170 (60.7%) nerves were visually identified with the help of neuromonitoring. Three patients in the study group and two patients in the controlled group were diagnosed with vocal cord paralysis. Six (4.4%) patients in the identification group and 37 (27.2%) patients in the no identification group presented no response from the stimulation of sternothyroid-laryngeal triangle. The VII-5 scores of the study group were significantly higher than those of the controlled group at one and three months postoperatively (P = 0.024 and P = 0.034). With significant lower scores of VII-5 and VHI-10, functional and visual identification of EBSLN might be necessary during thyroid surgery to protect the structural integrity and motor activity of the nerve.

14.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comprehensive axillary surgery is associated with an elevated rate of morbidity. This trial aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of axillary dissection of lymph nodes from the breast (bALND) for the purpose of limiting the extent of surgery. METHODS: Patients enrolled from two tertiary referral centers from September 2018 to September 2019 were randomly allocated to two groups: bALND and standard axillary lymph node dissection (sALND). In the bALND group, the sentinel lymph node was filled with 0.1 ml methylene blue before resection. Then, bALND based on lymphatic drainage was subsequently performed. Lymph nodes at each breast lymphatic level and lymph nodes at Berg levels were sent for separate pathological examination. Arm lymphedema, locoregional recurrence, and distant metastasis were documented. RESULTS: In the bALND group, lymphatic vessels and subsequent-echelon lymph nodes from the breast were stained blue after injection of methylene blue in 404 (89.0%, 404/454) cases, and 57.8% (228/394) of the patients harbored fewer than four metastatic nodes. With a median follow-up of 18 months, the incidence of arm lymphedema was 6.6% (26/394) in the bALND group versus 13.7% (60/438) in the sALND group (p = 0.008), while regional recurrence presented no difference between the two surgical procedures (0.76% vs 0.68%, p = 0.896). CONCLUSION: For node-positive breast cancer patients, bALND based on lymphatic drainage is a less radical axillary surgery that can eliminate morbidity without impairing cancer control.

15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 457, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213656

RESUMO

After the concept of ecological efficiency (eco-efficiency) was put forward and constantly supplemented, it generally refers to the maximization of economic benefits with minimum energy consumption and environmental damage. In a new eco-efficiency model proposed by this paper, the input indexes take into account the consumption of capital, human, resources and energy, and the environmental load caused by them. The output indexes take into account GDP, income, and tax revenue. An optimal weighted cross-evaluation efficiency (OWCE) model based on data standardization is proposed, by improving the traditional data envelopment models of CCR and BCC. The OWCE model not only objectively weights but also unifies the comparison scale, and facilitates the establishment of the super-efficiency decomposition model, which is conducive to further exploring the reasons for the difference of eco-efficiency in various regions. Empirically, the eco-efficiencies of 11 provinces (municipalities) along the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) were analyzed based on the data from 2008 to 2019. The results show that there has been a serious imbalance in the 11 provinces, showing a trend of high in the east and low in the west, although the eco-efficiency has been improving continuously in the past 10 years. Shanghai, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu, which are located in the traditional Yangtze River lower delta region, are the top in terms of eco-efficiency, among which Shanghai ranks the first place with absolute advantage, and also is far ahead in sub-efficiencies of basic input, energy consumption, capital and human input, and environmental cost. Geographical location, especially whether it is close to the ocean, and the length of river flow have a certain positive impact on eco-efficiency. Through in-depth analysis, high-energy consumption, high pollution, and low economic output are the main reasons for low eco-efficiency in the middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze River.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , China , Cidades , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Humanos
16.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 38(1): 1069-1076, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278927

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of computed tomography (CT)-guided microwave ablation (MWA) combined with percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) as a treatment for painful high thoracic vertebral metastases (T1-T4). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, 23 adult patients (33 high thoracic vertebral metastases) with moderate to severe pain were treated with CT-guided MWA and PVP. The procedural effectiveness was evaluated using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), daily morphine consumption, and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) before and immediately after the procedure and during follow-up. RESULTS: Technical success was achieved in all patients. The mean pre-procedure VAS score and morphine doses were 6.7 ± 1.7 (5-10) and 105.2 ± 32.7 (30-150) mg, respectively. The mean VAS scores and daily morphine doses at 24 h and 1, 4, 12, and 24 weeks post-operatively were 3.2 ± 1.4 and 41.3 ± 9.6 mg; 1.8 ± 1.0 and 31.5 ± 12.2 mg; 1.4 ± 1.3 and 19.6 ± 12.4 mg; 1.1 ± 0.8 and 14.5 ± 9.6 mg; and 1.0 ± 0.7 and 13.9 ± 9.3 mg, respectively (all p < 0.001). ODI scores significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Minor cement leakage occurred in 10 patients (30.30%) with no symptoms. Follow-up imaging showed no local tumor progression. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results suggest MWA combined with PVP is an effective and safe treatment for painful high thoracic vertebral metastases (T1-T4) and can significantly relieve pain and improve the quality of life of patients. However, its efficacy should be confirmed by mid- and long-term studies.


Assuntos
Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Vertebroplastia , Adulto , Cimentos Ósseos , Humanos , Micro-Ondas/uso terapêutico , Dor/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(8): 1171-1181, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278392

RESUMO

Pathogens are commonly present in the human respiratory tract, but symptoms are varied among individuals. The interactions between pathogens, commensal microorganisms and host immune systems are important in shaping the susceptibility, development and severity of respiratory diseases. Compared to the extensive studies on the human microbiota, few studies reported the association between indoor microbiome exposure and respiratory infections. In this study, 308 students from 21 classrooms were randomly selected to survey the occurrence of respiratory infections in junior high schools of Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Vacuum dust was collected from the floor, chairs and desks of these classrooms, and high-throughput amplicon sequencing (16S rRNA and ITS) and quantitative PCR were conducted to characterize the absolute concentration of the indoor microorganisms. Fifteen bacterial genera in the classes Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria were protectively associated with respiratory infections (p < 0.01), and these bacteria were mainly derived from the outdoor environment. Previous studies also reported that outdoor environmental bacteria were protectively associated with chronic respiratory diseases, such as asthma, but the genera identified were different between acute and chronic respiratory diseases. Four fungal genera from Ascomycota, including Devriesia, Endocarpon, Sarcinomyces and an unclassified genus from Herpotrichillaceae, were protectively associated with respiratory infections (p < 0.01). House dust mite (HDM) allergens and outdoor NO2 concentration were associated with respiratory infections and infection-related microorganisms. A causal mediation analysis revealed that the health effects of HDM and NO2 were partially or fully mediated by the indoor microorganisms. This is the first study to explore the association between environmental characteristics, microbiome exposure and respiratory infections in a public indoor environment, expanding our understanding of the complex interactions among these factors.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Microbiota , Infecções Respiratórias , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
18.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 677596, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149668

RESUMO

Methylotrophs utilizes cheap, abundant one-carbon compounds, offering a promising green, sustainable and economical alternative to current sugar-based biomanufacturing. However, natural one-carbon assimilation pathways come with many disadvantages, such as complicated reaction steps, the need for additional energy and/or reducing power, or loss of CO2, resulting in unsatisfactory biomanufacturing performance. Here, we predicted eight simple, novel and carbon-conserving formaldehyde (FALD) assimilation pathways based on the extended metabolic network with non-natural aldol reactions using the comb-flux balance analysis (FBA) algorithm. Three of these pathways were found to be independent of energy/reducing equivalents, and thus chosen for further experimental verification. Then, two novel aldol reactions, condensing D-erythrose 4-phosphate and glycolaldehyde (GALD) into 2R,3R-stereo allose 6-phosphate by DeoC or 2S,3R-stereo altrose 6-phosphate by TalBF178Y/Fsa, were identified for the first time. Finally, a novel FALD assimilation pathway proceeding via allose 6-phosphate, named as the glycolaldehyde-allose 6-phosphate assimilation (GAPA) pathway, was constructed in vitro with a high carbon yield of 94%. This work provides an elegant paradigm for systematic design of one-carbon assimilation pathways based on artificial aldolase (ALS) reactions, which could also be feasibly adapted for the mining of other metabolic pathways.

19.
Microb Biotechnol ; 14(4): 1797-1808, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132489

RESUMO

Methanol is a promising feedstock for biomanufacturing of fuels and chemicals. Although efforts have been made to engineer platform microorganisms for methanol bioconversion, the substrate uptake and cell growth rates on methanol are still unsatisfactory, suggesting certain limiting factors remain unsolved. Herein, we analysed the global metabolic regulation changes between an evolved methanol-dependent Corynebacterium glutamicum mutant and its ancestral strain by transcriptome analysis. Many genes involved in central metabolism including glycolysis, amino acid biosynthesis and energy generation were regulated, implying the adaptive laboratory evolution reprogrammed the cellular metabolism for methanol utilization. We then demonstrated that nitrate could serve as a complementary electron acceptor for aerobic methanol metabolism, and the biosynthesis of several amino acids limited methylotrophic growth. Finally, the sedoheptulose bisphosphatase pathway for generating methanol assimilation acceptor was found effective in C. glutamicum. This study identifies limiting factors of methanol metabolism and provides engineering targets for developing superior synthetic methylotrophs.


Assuntos
Corynebacterium glutamicum , Corynebacterium glutamicum/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Heptoses , Engenharia Metabólica , Metanol , Nitrogênio
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