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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 692431, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744705

RESUMO

Vascular calcification (VC) in macrovascular and peripheral blood vessels is one of the main factors leading to diabetes mellitus (DM) and death. Apart from the induction of vascular calcification, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have also been reported to modulate autophagy and apoptosis in DM. Autophagy plays a role in maintaining the stabilization of the external and internal microenvironment. This process is vital for regulating arteriosclerosis. However, the internal mechanisms of this pathogenic process are still unclear. Besides, the relationship among autophagy, apoptosis, and calcification in HASMCs upon AGEs exposure has not been reported in detail. In this study, we established a calcification model of SMC through the intervention of AGEs. It was found that the calcification was upregulated in AGEs treated HASMCs when autophagy and apoptosis were activated. In the country, AGEs-activated calcification and apoptosis were suppressed in Atg7 knockout cells or pretreated with wortmannin (WM), an autophagy inhibitor. These results provide new insights to conduct further investigations on the potential clinical applications for autophagy inhibitors in the treatment of diabetes-related vascular calcification.

2.
Orthop Surg ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755473

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether anterior selective fusion (ASF) could save more distal fusion segments compared with posterior approach in the treatment of Lenke type 5 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with long term follow-up. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study. From 2008 to 2011, 22 AIS girls with Lenke type 5 who underwent ASF or posterior selective fusion (PSF) with more than 8-year follow-up, were extracted from the database. 13 girls in the ASF group had an average age of 14.3 ± 1.3 years and Risser sign of 3.3 ± 1.1; 9 PSF girls had an average age of 16.2 ± 3.6 years and Risser sign of 3.8 ± 1.5. The radiographic outcome was compared between groups preoperatively, 6-month postoperatively, 8-year postoperatively and at last follow-up (>8 years). RESULTS: The average follow-up duration was 8.7 ± 0.4 (ASF) and 8.8 ± 0.5 (PSF) years, respectively. There was no significant difference at baseline in age, Risser sign and preoperative curve pattern in the coronal and sagittal plane between the groups (P > 0.05). The ASF group had significantly shorter fusion segments (5.1 ± 0.6 vs. 7.0 ± 1.3) and decreased upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) (T11 ± 0.8 vs. T10 ± 0.8) than the PSF (P < 0.05); while no significant difference was found in the lower instrumented vertebra (LIV) and distal reserved segments (P > 0.05), which suggested that ASF could shorten the fusion segments by lowering UIV. The distal compensatory curve in the ASF group (9.0° ± 3.9°) was significantly larger than in the PSF group (3.3° ± 2.4°, P = 0.003), despite of no significant difference in the incidence of coronal imbalance (P > 0.05), indicating that both two approaches could obtain satisfactory correction in the coronal plane. In the sagittal plane, PSF patients had significantly larger lumbar lordosis (LL, 59.1° ± 10.5°), thoracic kyphosis (TK, 37.2° ± 13.3°) and proximal junctional angle (PJA, 13.3° ± 6.1°) at the last follow-up than the ASF (LL: 43.4° ± 9.4°; TK: 20.7° ± 8.4°; PJA: 4.7° ± 3.4°; P < 0.05), but without significant difference in proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) (P > 0.05). After controlling for age, Risser sign, and radiographic parameters related to the primary curve pattern, shorter fusion segments and more distal reserved segments still remained significant in the ASF group with greater Risser sign (P < 0.05). No major intra- or post-operative complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Both ASF and PSF could obtain satisfactory coronal and sagittal correction for Lenke 5 AIS; compared with PSF, ASF could shorten the fusion segments by lowering UIV, and save more distal fusion segments only in patients with greater skeletal maturity.

3.
Transpl Int ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726801

RESUMO

Direct-acting antivirals (DAA) transformed hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment in 2014; however, their impact on transplant candidates' willingness to accept (CWTA) organs from HCV+ donors remains uncertain. We retrospectively studied Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network data from 2008 to 2019, investigating CWTA different organs from HCV+ donors over time, using segmented multivariable logistic regression, and how that influenced wait-time and deceased-donor transplantation (DDTx) probability, using multivariable logistic or linear regression. We found that DAA availability was associated with a marked increase in CWTA in all organs from HCV+ donors except intestine. By December 2020, 40% of kidney, 33% of kidney-pancreas, 42% of pancreas, over 50% of liver, heart, lung, heart-lung, and 9% of intestine candidates waitlisted were CWTA an organ from HCV+ donors. Compared with pre-DAA, yearly CWTA kidney from HCV+ donors increased post-DAA 1.78 1.811.83 -fold, kidney-pancreas 2 .52 2.78 3.07 -fold, pancreas 3.15 3.69 4.43 -fold, liver 1.53 1.541.56 -fold, heart 1 .92 2.02 .08 -fold, and lung 2.00 2.12 .20 -fold. CWTA kidney and liver from HCV+ donors significantly increased DDTx probability post-DAA (1.98 2.042.1 -fold and 1.24 1.291.33 -fold, respectively) and shortened kidney candidates' wait-time78 90101 days (Mean with 95% CI). CWTA organs from HCV+ donors rose significantly with DAA availability, benefitting kidney and liver candidates with increased DDTx rates and shortened kidney candidates' wait time. Further long-term outcomes investigation and standardized organ from HCV+ donors' education could improve both provider and patient acceptance and utilization.

4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(20): 5240-5246, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738425

RESUMO

Zearalenone(ZEN) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium, possessing estrogen-like effects, carcinogenicity, and multiple toxicities. To seek more efficient and practical agents for biological detoxification and broaden their application, this study isolated 194 bacterial strains from the moldy tuberous root of Pseudostellaria heterophylla, which were co-cultured with ZEN. An efficient ZEN-degrading strain H4-3-C1 was screened out by HPLC and identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus by morphological observation and molecular identification. The effects of culture medium, inoculation dose, culture time, pH, and temperature on the degradation of ZEN by H4-3-C1 strain were investigated. The mechanism of ZEN degradation and the degrading effect in Coicis Semen were discussed. The degradation rate of 5 µg·mL~(-1) ZEN by H4-3-C1 strain was 85.77% in the LB medium(pH 6) at 28 ℃/180 r·min~(-1) for 24 h with the inoculation dose of 1%. The degradation rate of ZEN in the supernatant of strain culture was higher than that in the intracellular fluid and thalli. The strain was inferred to secret extracellular enzymes to degrade ZEN. In addition, the H4-3-C1 strain could also degrade ZEN in Coicis Semen. If the initial content of ZEN in Coicis Semen was reduced from 90 µg·g~(-1) to 40.68 µg·g~(-1), the degradation rate could reach 54.80%. This study is expected to provide a new strain and application technology for the biological detoxification of ZEN in food processing products and Chinese medicinal materials.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Micotoxinas , Zearalenona , Bactérias , Temperatura
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 756782, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790589

RESUMO

Objectives: Recently, KPC-producing P. aeruginosa has rapidly emerged and expanded in East China. Here we described the clinical impact and characteristics of bloodstream infections (BSIs) from the dominant KPC-producing CRPA belonging to Sequence Type (ST) 463. Methods: Retrospective cohort study was performed with CRPA BSI cases from 2019 to 2020 in a hospital in East China. Clinical characteristics, risk factors, and all-course mortality were evaluated. All CRPA isolates had whole-genome sequencing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and serum resistance assay. Representative isolates were tested for virulence in a Galleria mellonella infection model. Results: Among the 50 CRPA BSI cases, ST463 predominated (48.0%). In multivariate analysis, we found three independent risk factors for fatal outcome: KPC carriage (OR 4.8; CI95% 1.0-23.7; P = 0.05), Pitt bacteremia score (OR 1.3; CI95% 1.0-1.6; P = 0.02), and underlying hematological disease (OR 8.5; CI95% 1.6-46.4; P = 0.01). The baseline clinical variables were not statistically different across STs, however the 28-day mortality was significantly higher in ST463 cases than that in non-ST463 cases (66.7% vs 33.3%, P = 0.03). ExoU and exoS virulence genes coexisted in all ST463 isolates, and the carbapenem resistant gene bla KPC were produced in almost all ST463 isolates, significantly higher than in the non-ST463 group(95.8% vs 7.7%, P<0.001). ST463 CRPA isolates also showed higher resistance rates to antipseudomonal cephalosporins, monobactam, and fluoroquinolones. And ST463 CRPA was confirmed hypervirulence in the larvae model. The genome of one ST463 CRPA strain showed that the bla KPC-2 gene was the sole resistance gene located on a 41,104bp plasmid pZYPA01, carried on a 7-kb composite transposon-like element flanked by two IS26 elements (IS26-Tn3-tnpA-ISKpn27-bla KPC-2-ISKpn6-IS26). Plasmid from various species presented core bla KPC-2 was franked by mobile genetic element ISKpn27 and ISKpn6. Conclusions: In the ST463 CRPA BSI cohort, the mortality rates were higher than those in the non-ST463 CRPA BSI. The ST463 CRPA clone coharboring the bla KPC and exoU/exoS genes emerged and spread in East China, which might develop to a new threat in the clinic. Our results suggest that the surveillance of the new high-risk clone, ST463 CRPA, should be strengthened in China, even worldwide in the future.


Assuntos
Klebsiella pneumoniae , Sepse , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , beta-Lactamases
6.
Chem Sci ; 12(44): 14855-14862, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820101

RESUMO

Hepatotoxicity is a serious problem faced by thousands of clinical drugs, and drug-induced liver injury (DILI) caused by chronic administration or overdose has become a major biosafety issue. However, the near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes currently used for liver injury detection still suffer from poor liver targeting ability and low sensitivity. Enzyme-activated fluorogenic probes with powerful in situ targeting ability are the key to improving the imaging effect of liver injury. Herein, we rationally designed a leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) activated fluorogenic probe hCy-CA-LAP, which greatly improved the hepatocyte-targeting capability by introducing a cholic acid group. The probe hCy-CA-LAP is converted into a high-emission hCy-CA fluorophore in the presence of LAP, showing high selectivity, high sensitivity and low detection limit (0.0067 U mL-1) for LAP, and successfully realizes the sensitive detection of small fluctuations of LAP in living cells. Moreover, the probe can achieve effective in situ accumulation in the liver, thereby achieving precise imaging and evaluation of two different types of drug-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo. Therefore, the probe hCy-CA-LAP may be a potential tool for exploring the roles of LAP and evaluating the degree of DILI.

7.
Inflammation ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825300

RESUMO

Neutrophilic asthma (NA) is a severe type of steroid resistant asthma, and so far the immune mechanisms underlying NA are not clear. In this article, we performed a comprehensive assessment of Th-cell subsets and cytokines in severe NA patients. A total of 13 healthy individuals and 31 severe asthma patients were enrolled in this study. Refractory asthma patients were defined as those with eosinophilic asthma (EA, accounted for 32% of asthmatic patients) or NA (68%) according to sputum neutrophil/eosinophil counts or blood eosinophils. Th-cell subsets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were analyzed by flow cytometry, and cytokines were detected by cytometric bead array (CBA). The results showed significant differences were observed in Th-cell phenotypes, where the number of Th1 cells were reduced and the numbers of Th2 cells were increased in NA and EA groups, respectively, when compared with healthy controls. Th17 cells were not strongly associated with severe neutrophilic asthma. The frequencies of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells were strikingly reduced in severe asthma patients, especially in the NA group. This NA group also showed increased levels of IL-17A, IL-17F, TNF-α, and IL-6 in serum and increased levels of IL-17A, IL-17F, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-8 in sputum. In addition, sputum IL-6 was positively correlated with TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-8. Our results uncovered a controversial role for Th17 cells, which were reduced in severe asthma patients. Severe neutrophilic asthma was associated with a striking deficiency of MAIT cells and high pro-inflammatory cytokine levels.

8.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 14(11): 1741-1747, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804865

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the intrinsic brain activity variations in retinal vein occlusion (RVO) subjects by using the voxel-wise degree centrality (DC) technique. METHODS: Twenty-one subjects with RVO and twenty-one healthy controls (HCs) were enlisted and underwent the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) examination. The spontaneous cerebrum activity variations were inspected using the DC technology. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was implemented to distinguish the DC values of RVOs from HCs. The relationships between DC signal of definite regions of interest and the clinical characteristics in RVO group were evaluated by Pearson's correlation analysis. RESULTS: RVOs showed notably higher DC signals in right superior parietal lobule, middle frontal gyrus and left precuneus, but decreased DC signals in left middle temporal gyrus and bilateral anterior cingulated (BAC) when comparing with HCs. The mean DC value of RVOs in the BAC were negatively correlated with the anxiety and depression scale. CONCLUSION: RVO is associated aberrant intrinsic brain activity patterns in several brain areas including pain-related as well as visual-related regions, which might assist to reveal the latent neural mechanisms.

9.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 274, 2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the role of transmuscular quadratus lumborum block (TMQLB) for postoperative pain control, patient satisfaction and recovery in laparoscopic adrenalectomy. METHODS: Seventy-two patients aged between 18 and 70 years with an ASA I-II and scheduled for laparoscopic adrenalectomy were randomized to receive a single-shot TMQLB with 0.4 ml/kg 0.5 % ropivacaine or 0.4 ml/kg 0.9 % saline as placebo. The primary endpoint was pain on movement at 12 h after surgery evaluated by the numeric rating scale (NRS, 0-10). P-values < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The secondary outcomes included pain at rest and pain on movement evaluated by the NRS, and postoperative recovery related parameters. RESULTS: NRS on movement at 12 h after surgery was lower in the TMQLB group compared with the control (median 2 vs. 3, p = 0.024). Intraoperative fentanyl consumption was lower in the TMQLB group (247.08 ± 63.54 vs. 285.44 ± 74.70, p = 0.022). The rate of using postoperative rescue tramadol was also lower in the TMQLB group (5.6 vs. 27.8 %, p = 0.027). Similar incidences of nausea and vomiting were observed (11.1 vs. 25 %, p = 0.220). Patient satisfaction of pain service was better in the TMQLB group (83.3 vs. 25 %, p < 0.001) with shorter time to ambulation (16.5 vs. 21 h, p = 0.004) and flatus (18.5 vs. 23.5 h, p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: TMQLB showed better control of postoperative pain on movement for laparoscopic adrenalectomy with improved patients' satisfaction of anesthesia, shorter time to ambulation and flatus. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT03942237 ; registration date: 08/05/2019; enrollment date: 10/05/2019).

10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; : 112366, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of community-acquired respiratory infections. Infantile Feire Kechuan Oral Solution (IFKOS) is effective for treatment of M. pneumoniae infection. The aim of this study was to explore the potential mechanism of IFKOS against M. pneumoniae infection in basal epithelial human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. METHODS: The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to determine the effects of IFKOS on the viability of A549 cells infected with M. pneumoniae. Optical microscopy was used to observe cell morphology and a Muse cell analyzer was used to assess apoptosis and the cell cycle phase. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were employed to assess the expression levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-α, and IFN-γ. RESULTS: Under certain conditions, M. pneumoniae infection reduced the viability and inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells, promoted early apoptosis, and arrested cells in the G0/G1 phase, thus shortening the S and G2/M phases (all p < 0.05). M. pneumoniae also upregulated expression of IL-8 and TNF-α and downregulated that of IL-6 (p < 0.05), which switched the immune balance of Th1/Th2 to Th1 cells. IFKOS (5.531 mg/mL) improved the viability and proliferation of M. pneumoniae-infected A549 cells, mitigated early apoptosis, and reversed cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase, thereby extending the S and G2/M phases (all, p < 0.05). IFKOS downregulated expression of IL-8 and TNF-α and upregulated that of IL-6 (p < 0.01), thereby reversing the immune imbalance of Th1/Th2. Secretion of IL-4, IL-17, IFN-α, and IFN-γ was not observed. CONCLUSION: IFKOS played a protective role in the regulation of cell viability, apoptosis, the cell cycle, and Th1/Th2 immune imbalance induced by M. pneumoniae infection and conveyed an anti-inflammatory effect in A549 cells.

11.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(11): 1241-7, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acupuncture for regulating spleen and stomach on aspirin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and explore the effect mechanism. METHODS: A total of 68 T2DM patients complicated with aspirin resistance were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 34 cases in each one. On the base of the conventional treatment for diabetes, aspirin enteric-coated tablets were prescribed for oral administration, 100 mg each time, once daily in the control group. In the observation group, on the basis of the treatment as the control group, acupuncture was used for regulating spleen and stomach at Zhongwan (CV 12), Zusanli (ST 36), Yinlingquan (SP 9), Hegu (LI 4), etc., once daily. The treatment for 1 week was as one course and 4 courses of treatment were required totally in two groups. Before and After treatment, the indexes of platelet function (platelet aggregation rate [PAG] and salicylic acid concentration), the indexes of vascular endothelial function (6-keone prostaglandin F1α[6-keto-PGF1α], thromin B2 [TXB2] and cyclooxysynthase-2 [COX-2]), blood glucose (fasting plasma glucose [FPG], 2 h plasma glucose [2h PG] and glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c]), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), blood lipid indexes (total cholesterol [TC], triacylglycerol [TG], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]) and the total score of TCM symptoms were observed in the patients of two groups. Clinical therapeutic effect and safety was compared in the patients between the two groups after treatment and the recurrence rate of cardiocerebrovascular events was followed up 6 months after treatment. RESULTS: After treatment, PAG, salicylic acid concentration, TXB2, COX-2, FPG, 2h PG, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, LDL-C, TC, TG and the total scores of TCM symptoms were all reduced as compared with those before treatment in the two groups (P<0.01, P<0.05), and 6-keto-PGF1αand HDL-C were increased as compared with those before treatment in the two groups (P<0.01, P<0.05). In comparison with the control group, the aforementioned indexes in the observation group were all improved significantly (P<0.01). The total effective rate was 91.2% (31/34) in the observation group, higher than 70.6% (24/34) in the control group (P<0.05). In follow up visit, the recurrence rate of cardiocerebrovascular events was 14.7% (5/34) in the observation group, lower than 29.4% (10/34) in the control group (P<0.05). The therapies were safe and had no obvious adverse reactions in both two groups. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture for regulating spleen and stomach combined with aspirin enteric-coated tablets relieve insulin resistance and reduces blood glucose and lipid as well as the recurrence rate of cardiocerebrovascular events in the patients with T2DM, which is probably related to the regulation of insulin resistance and the improvement of vascular endothelial function. This combined therapy achieves the better effect on aspirin resistance as compared with simple aspirin enteric-coated tablets.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Pontos de Acupuntura , Aspirina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Baço , Estômago
12.
Clin Transplant ; : e14551, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843130

RESUMO

Transplantation of organs from increased risk donors for infection transmission (IRDs) is increasing. These organs confer survival benefit to recipients. This study examined transplant center acceptance policies for IRD kidneys across United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) regions, based on transplant centers' annual responses to the Minimum Acceptance Criteria (MAC) for acceptance of IRD kidneys, and the association with national and regional IRD kidney utilization. De-identified MAC responses from all transplant centers in the United States from 2007-2019 were obtained. Implementation of MAC responses into practice was evaluated based on annual rates of recovery and transplantation of IRD kidneys, by MAC and UNOS region. Nationally, the number of transplant centers willing to accept IRD kidneys across all criteria increased from 22% in 2007 to 64% in 2019. Acceptance rates increased markedly from donors with intravenous drug use and other potential HIV exposures. However, significant heterogeneity exists in transplant center willingness to accept IRD kidneys, both regionally and between criteria. Trends towards increasing acceptance are strongly associated with higher rates of recovery and transplantation of IRD kidneys. Further research on provider- and center-based refusal to consider IRD kidneys for waitlisted patients is needed to improve utilization of this organ pool. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(40): 48009-48019, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596376

RESUMO

Pressure sensors usually suffer from a trade-off between sensitivity and the linear sensing range, which may be improved by manipulating the geometric microstructure of active sensing materials via the molding strategy, standard photolithography technique, and so on. However, these conventional microengineering techniques require specialized equipment, which are extremely complicated, high-cost, and time-consuming to manufacture. Herein, a mold-free, scalable, low-cost, and environment-friendly one-step thermofoaming strategy is proposed to fabricate surface morphology-tunable microdome-patterned composites (MPCs). The microstructured pressure sensor is then prepared by coating the MPCs with highly conductive graphene. Remarkably, the as-prepared pressure sensor presents a better overall sensing performance compared to the previous pressure sensors prepared using complicated microengineering methods. Moreover, an electromechanical response model and finite-element analysis are used to clarify the sensing mechanisms of the present microstructured pressure sensor. Furthermore, several successful application demonstrations are conducted under various pressure levels. Considering the advantages of the one-step fabrication strategy over conventional surface microengineering techniques and the high performance of the microstructured pressure sensor, the present pressure sensor has promising potential applications in health monitoring, tactile sensation, wearable devices, etc.

14.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(10): 3627-3635, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676724

RESUMO

We constructed standard tree-ring-width chronology of Picea likiangensis var. rubescens for the Larima sampling site in the Ganzi Prefecture, Sichuan Province, by the single-free detren-ding method. The results showed that there was significant and positive correlation between the tree-ring chronology and March-August 1-month scale standardized precipitation and evapotranspiration index (SPEI1) of Yajiang region. The variation of the March-August SPEI1 sequence for 1942-2008 was reconstructed based on the current and last year sequences of the tree-ring chronology, with an explained variation of 42.8%. The newly reconstructed series mainly represented the variation of SPEI1 in the low-frequency domain over the historical period. Three wet periods were found in 1442-1465, 1516-1601 and 1836-2008, while the two intervals were dry periods for the March-August SPEI1 reconstruction in the Yajiang region of West Sichuan Plateau. There was a significant drying trend in 1456-1762 for the reconstructed sequence, a significant wetting trend in 1455-1762, while the wetting trend was the most significant in 1959-2008. Mutation test showed that the sudden changes from dry to wet for the March-August SPEI1 reconstructions occurred in 1512, 1733, 1767, 1831, 1941, 1957 and 1975, while that in 1684 and 1961 was the opposite. The comparison with surrounding region showed a good coherence of variations in the low-frequency domain among the SPEI1 reconstruction for the Yajiang region, the annual precipitation reconstruction for the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, and the SPEI05 reconstruction for the northern slope of the eastern Qilian Mountains. The reconstructed sequence well represented the variation of the March-August SPEI1 in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau and the southern Qinhai Province.


Assuntos
Picea , Árvores , China , Secas
15.
Clin Neuroradiol ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709410

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Anterior pituitary iron overload and volume shrinkage is common in patients with transfusion-dependent anemia and associated with growth retardation and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. We investigated the accuracy of different MRI-based pituitary volumetric approaches and the relationship between pituitary volume and MRI-R2, particularly with respect to growth and hypogonadism. METHODS: In 43 patients with transfusion-dependent anemia (12-38 years) and 32 healthy controls (12-72 years), anterior pituitary volume was measured by a sagittal T1 GRE 3D sequence at 1.5T and analyzed by 3D semi-automated threshold volumetry (3D-volumetry). This reference method was compared with planimetric 2D-volumetry, approximate volume calculations, and pituitary height. Using a multiple SE sequence, pituitary iron as MRI-R2 was assessed by fitting proton signal intensities to echo times. Growth and hypogonadism were obtained from height percentile tables and patients' medical charts. From body surface area and age adjusted anterior pituitary volumes of controls, Z­scores were calculated for all subjects. Separation of controls and patients with respect to Z and pituitary R2 was performed by bivariate linear discriminant analysis. RESULTS: Tuned 2D volumes showed highest agreement with reference 3D-volumes (bias -4.8%; 95% CI:-8.8%|-0.7%). A linear discriminant equation of Z = -17.8 + 1.45 · R2 revealed optimum threshold sensitivity and specificity of 65% and 100% for discrimination of patients from controls, respectively. Of correctly classified patients 71% and 75% showed hypogonadism and growth retardation, respectively. CONCLUSION: Accurate assessment of anterior pituitary size requires 3D or precise 2D volumetry, with shorter analysis time for the latter. Anterior pituitary volume Z­scores and R2 allow for the identification of patients at risk of pituitary dysfunction.

16.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127269, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607026

RESUMO

Phenolic root exudates (PREs) released from wetland plants are potentially effective for accelerating the biodegradation of alkylphenols, yet the inherent behavior is still unclear. In this study, two representative root exudates (REs), namely p-coumaric acid (PREs) and oxalic acid (non-PREs) were exogenously added as specific and non-specific co-metabolic substrates, respectively, to elucidate the quantification of each removal pathway and degradation mechanism of co-metabolism for alkylphenols (i.e. p-tert-butylphenol (PTBP)) from synthetic wastewater. The results showed that soil adsorption (31-37%), microbial degradation (27-37%), and plant uptake (16-41%) are the main removal pathways of PTBP by PREs in the Phragmites australis rhizosphere. Both REs enriched anaerobic functional community (anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria and denitrifying bacteria) and promoted the usage of PTBP as carbon source and/or electron donor. The activity of non-specific enzyme (polyphenol oxidase) was enhanced by RE which owning a significant positive correlation with bacterial abundance, whereas only PREs strengthened the activity of specific enzyme (monophenol oxidase) catalyzing the phenolic ring hydroxylation of PTBP followed by a dehydrogenation route. Moreover, exogenous PREs significantly improved the growth of degrading-related bacteria (Sphingomonas and Gemmatimonas), especially in unplanted soils with high activity of dioxygenase catalyzing the cleavage pathway of PTBP, instead of plant presence.

17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640646

RESUMO

Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) generates from the reaction between hydrogen peroxide and chloride ions via myeloperoxidase (MPO)-mediated in vivo. As very important reactive oxygen species (ROS), hypochlorous acid (HOCl)/hypochlorite (OCl-) play a crucial role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. However, excessive or misplaced production of HOCl/OCl- can cause variety of tissue damage and human diseases. Therefore, rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of OCl- is very important. In recent years, the fluorescent probe method for detecting hypochlorous acid has been developed rapidly due to its simple operation, low toxicity, high sensitivity, and high selectivity. In this review, the progress of recently discovered fluorescent probes for the detection of hypochlorous acid was summarized with the aim to provide useful information for further design of better fluorescent probes.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Ácido Hipocloroso , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Peroxidase
18.
Bioengineered ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709992

RESUMO

Enhanced EphA2 expression is observed in a variety of epithelial-derived malignancies and is an important target for anti-tumor therapy. Currently, Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies against immune checkpoints have shown good efficacy for tumor treatment. In this study, we constructed an immune single-chain fragment variable (scFv) library using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 200 patients with a variety of malignant tumors. High affinity scFvs against EphA2 can be easily screened from the immune library using phage display technology. Anti-EphA2 scFvs can be modified into any form of recombinant antibody, including scFv-Fc and full-length IgG1 antibodies, and the recombinant antibody affinity was improved following modification. Among the modified anti-EphA2 antibodies the affinity of 77-IgG1 was significantly increased, reaching a pmol affinity level (10-12). We further demonstrated the binding activity of recombinant antibodies to the EphA2 protein, tumor cells, and tumor tissues using macromolecular interaction techniques, flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Most importantly, both the constructed scFvs-Fc, as well as the IgG1 antibodies against EphA2 were able to inhibit the growth of tumor cells to some extent. These results suggest that the immune libraries from patients with malignant tumors are more likely to screen for antibodies with high affinity and therapeutic effect. The constructed fully human scFv immune library has broad application prospects for specific antibody screening. The screened scFv-Fc and IgG1 antibodies against EphA2 can be used for the further study of tumor immunotherapy.

20.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(24): 7123-7132, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by germline mutations in the folliculin (FLCN) protein gene, which usually manifests as cutaneous fibrofolliculoma, pulmonary cysts, renal cell carcinoma, and spontaneous pneumothorax. CASE SUMMARY: A 26-year-old woman with no history of smoking was admitted to the Respiratory Department of our hospital due to intermittent wheezing that lasted for 8 mo. She had experienced recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax more than four times during the past 8 mo. After admission, the patient again suffered from left pneumothorax without a clear reason. Lung computed tomography (CT) showed multiple low-density cystic changes in both lungs. Physical examination on admission revealed multiple white dome-shaped papules in the neck, the nape, and behind the ear. In addition, the patient had a family history of spontaneous pneumothorax. Her mother had suffered from pneumothorax four times (at age 36, 37, 42, and 50 years). Her second maternal aunt had suffered from a right pneumothorax at the age of 40. The multidisciplinary diagnosis of BHD, which included the Respiratory Department, Radiology Department, Pathology Department, and Dermatological Department, was BHD and was later confirmed by family genetic testing. The same variation (FLCN gene) was found in the patient's mother and aunt. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the importance of multidisciplinary diagnosis and a treatment platform for the diagnosis of BHD.

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