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1.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 573633, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041766

RESUMO

Background: Neuropathological studies have revealed copper and iron accumulation in the deep gray matter (DGM) nuclei of patients with Wilson's disease (WD). However, the association between metal accumulation and neurodegeneration in WD has not been well studied in vivo. The study was aimed to investigate whether metal accumulation in the DGM was associated with the structural and functional changes of DGM in neurological WD patients. Methods: Seventeen neurological WD patients and 20 healthy controls were recruited for the study. Mean bulk susceptibility values and volumes of DGM were obtained from quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). Regions of interest including the head of the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus, substantia nigra, red nucleus, and dentate nucleus were manually segmented. The susceptibility values and volumes of DGM in different groups were compared using a linear regression model. Correlations between susceptibility values and volumes of DGM and Unified Wilson's Disease Rating Scale (UWDRS) neurological subscores were investigated. Results: The susceptibility values of all examined DGM in WD patients were higher than those in healthy controls (P < 0.05). Volume reductions were observed in the head of the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus, and substantia nigra of WD patients (P < 0.001). Susceptibility values were negatively correlated with the volumes of the head of the caudate nucleus (r p = -0.657, P = 0.037), putamen (r p = -0.667, P = 0.037), and thalamus (r p = -0.613, P = 0.046) in WD patients. UWDRS neurological subscores were positively correlated with the susceptibility values of all examined DGM. The susceptibility values of putamen, head of the caudate nucleus, and dentate nucleus could well predict UWDRS neurological subscores. Conclusion: Our study provided in vivo evidence that paramagnetic metal accumulation in the DGM was associated with DGM atrophy and neurological impairment. The susceptibility of DGM could be used as a biomarker to assess the severity of neurodegeneration in WD.

2.
Front Neurol ; 11: 838, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903360

RESUMO

Background: The sequence effect (SE), referring to step-to-step reduction in amplitude, is considered to lead to freezing of gait (FOG) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Visual cues may alleviate SE and help reduce freezing episodes. FOG patients show significant SE prior to turning or toward a doorway, but the SE toward a destination has not been clearly studied. Objectives: To examine the SE when approaching a destination in PD patients with FOG, and to further explore the effects of different types of visual cues on destination SE. Methods: Thirty-five PD patients were divided into a freezing (PD+FOG, n = 15) group and a non-freezing (PD-FOG, n = 20) group. Walking trials were tested under three conditions, including without cues (no-cue condition), with wearable laser lights (laser condition), and with transverse strips placed on the floor (strip condition). Kinematic data was recorded by a portable Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) system. The destination SE and some key gait parameters were evaluated. Results: The PD+FOG group showed greater destination SE in the no-cue and laser conditions when compared to the PD-FOG group. There were no significant differences in the strip condition when comparing destination SE of the two groups. The destination SE was alleviated only by using the transverse strips on the floor. In contrast, transverse strips and wearable laser lights could increase the step length. Conclusions: The significant destination SE may explain why FOG patients are prone to freezing when heading toward their destination. Visual cues using transverse strips on the floor may be a more effective strategy for FOG rehabilitation in PD patients.

3.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 51(3): 344-349, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543140

RESUMO

Objective: To observe the relationship between the mechanism of bone marrow stem cell mobilization mediated the myocardial fibrosis inhibition in rats and the non-classical pathway mediated by transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß). Methods: Twenty two Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with isoproterenol (Iso) to establish the model of myocardial fibrosis, and then were randomly divided into control group and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-treat group (GT group). The rats in GT group were subcutaneously injected with recombinant human granulocyte stimulating factor for 5 days, and the control group was injected with normal saline. After 4 weeks, the myocardial structure was observed by pathological staining, the content of serum B type natriuretic peptide (BNP) was detected by ELISA , the expression of type Ⅲ collagen was detected by immunohistochemistry staining and the protein expression level of typeⅠcollagen, TGF-ß, transforming growth factor kinase 1 (TAK1), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) was determined by Western blot. Results: Compared with the control group, the serum BNP level, Masson staining collagen deposition, collagen area ratio and the expression of typeⅠcollagen, TGF- ß, TAK1, MKK3 and p38MAPK in the GT group were lower than those in the control group. Conclusion: Bone marrow stem cell mobilization can alleviate the degree of myocardial fibrosis in rats, which is related to the inhibition of TGF- ß/TAK1/MKK/p38MAPK pathway.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea , Fibrose , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1
4.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351182

RESUMO

Wilson's disease (WD) is an inherited disease caused by mutations in ATP7B and is characterized by the pathological accumulation of copper in the liver and brain. Common clinical manifestations of WD include a wide range of liver disease and neurological symptoms. In some patients, psychiatric symptom may be the only manifestation at the time of diagnosis. The clinical features of WD are highly variable and can mimic any disease of the internal medicine. Therefore, for unexplained medical diseases, the possibility of WD should not be ignored. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve the prognosis of WD patients and reduce disability and early death. Gene sequencing is becoming a valuable method to diagnose WD, and if possible, all WD patients and their siblings should be genetically sequenced. Copper chelators including Dpenicillamine, trientine, and dimercaptosuccinic acid can significantly improve the liver injury and symptoms of WD patients, but may have limited effect on neurological symptoms. Zinc salts may be more appropriate for the treatment of asymptomatic patients or for the maintenance treatment of symptomatic patients. High-quality clinical trials for the drug treatment of WD are still lacking, therefore, individualized treatment options for patients are recommended. Individualized treatment can be determined based on the clinical features of the WD patients, efficacy and adverse effects of the drugs, and the experience of the physician. Liver transplantation is the only effective method to save patients with acute liver failure or with severe liver disease who fail drug treatment.

5.
BMC Med Genomics ; 11(1): 47, 2018 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29747637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma neurofilament light (NFL) is a promising biomarker for Alzheimer disease (AD), which increases in the early stage of AD and is associated with the progression of AD. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of plasma NFL in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 1 (ADNI-1) cohort to identify novel variants associated with AD. METHODS: This study included 179 cognitively healthy controls (HC), 176 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 172 patients with AD. All subjects were restricted to non-Hispanic Caucasian derived from the ADNI cohort and met all quality control (QC) criteria. Association of plasma NFL with the genetic variants was assessed using PLINK with an additive genetic model, i.e.dose-dependent effect of the minor alleles. The influence of a genetic variant associated with plasma NFL (rs7943454) on brain structure was further assessed using PLINK with a linear regression model. RESULTS: The minor allele (T) of rs7943454 in leucine zipper protein 2 gene (LUZP2) was associated with higher plasma NFL at suggestive levels (P = 1.39 × 10- 6) in a dose-dependent fashion. In contrast, the minor allele (G) of rs640476 near GABRB2 was associated with lower plasma NFL at suggestive levels (P = 6.71 × 10- 6) in a dose-dependent effect in all diagnostic groups except the MCI group. Furthermore, the minor allele (T) of rs7943454 within LUZP2 increased the onset risk of AD (odds ratio = 1.547, confidence interval 95% = 1.018-2.351) and was associated with atrophy of right middle temporal gyrus in the whole cohort in the longitudinal study (P = 0.0234). CONCLUSION: GWAS found the associations of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs7943454 and rs640476) with plasma NFL at suggestive levels. Rs7943454 in LUZP2 was associated with the onset risk of AD and atrophy of right middle temporal gyrusin the whole cohort. Using an endophenotype-based approach, we identified rs7943454 as a new AD risk locus.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Regressão
6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 58(2): 303-322, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28409746

RESUMO

As a member of the A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase (ADAM) family, ADAM10 has been identified as the constitutive α-secretase in the process of amyloid-ß protein precursor (AßPP) cleavage and plays a critical role in reducing the generation of the amyloid-ß (Aß) peptides. Recent studies have demonstrated its beneficial role in alleviating the pathologic impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) both in vitro and in vivo. However, the role of ADAM10 in AD and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not well established. Increasing evidence indicates that ADAM10 not only reduces the generation of Aß but may also affect the pathology of AD through potential mechanisms including reducing tau pathology, maintaining normal synaptic functions, and promoting hippocampal neurogenesis and the homeostasis of neuronal networks. Mechanistically, ADAM10 regulates these functions by interacting with postsynaptic substrates in brain, especially synaptic cell receptors and adhesion molecules. Furthermore, ADAM10 protein in platelets seems to be a promising biomarker for AD diagnosis. This review will summarize the role of ADAM10 in AD and highlight its functions besides its role as the α-secretase in AßPP cleavage. Meanwhile, we will discuss the therapeutic potential of ADAM10 in treating AD.


Assuntos
Proteína ADAM10/metabolismo , Proteína ADAM10/uso terapêutico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Proteína ADAM10/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
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