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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487518

RESUMO

Chronic hepatic injury caused by hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infection, high fat diet and alcohol intake has increased to be the critical promoter of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These high risk factors set into motion a vicious cycle of hepatocyte death, inflammation and fibrosis that finally results in cirrhosis and HCC after several decades. However, the treatment options for HCC are very limited. Therefore, early treatment of liver injury may reduce the incidence and probability of HCC or delay the progression of HCC. Substantial ongoing research has focused on nontoxic biological macromolecules, mainly polysaccharides, which possess prominent efficacies on hepatoprotective activity. Based on these encouraging observations, a great deal of effort has been devoted to discovering novel polysaccharides for the development of effective therapeutics for hepatic injury. This review focuses on the protective effects of polysaccharides on liver injury, including hepatitis virus infection, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease and other hepatic injuries, and describes the underlying mechanisms.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385783

RESUMO

A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and strictly aerobic bacterium, designated ZQ420T, was isolated from marine sediment sampled on Zhoushan Island located in the East China Sea. Strain ZQ420T was able to grow at 10-45 °C, 0-12.0 % (w/v) NaCl and pH 5.5-9.0. Catalase and oxidase activities, nitrate reduction, H2S production, hydrolysis of starch, casein, Tween 20, 40 and 80 were positive. Indole, methyl red, Voges-Proskauer test, hydrolysis of gelatin and Tween 60 were negative. The major cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0 and 11-methyl C18 : 1ω7c. Ubiquinone-10 (Q-10) was the only detected respiratory quinone. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids, three unidentified glycolipids, two unidentified aminolipid and two unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content was 64.8 mol%. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain ZQ420T shared 97.9, 96.3 and 96.3 % similarities to the following species with validated names Pararhodobacteraggregans D1-19T, Pseudo rhodobacter psychrotolerans PAMC27389T and Pseudo rhodobacter collinsensis 4-T-34T, respectively. While sharing lower sequence similarities (<96.0 %) to other type species. Phylogenetic analyses showed that strain ZQ420T and P. aggregans D1-19T formed an independent cluster in the phylogenetic trees. The average nucleotide identity value between strain ZQ420T and P. aggregans D1-19T was 79.1 %. The in silico DNA-DNA hybridization analysis revealed that strain ZQ420T shared 21.5 % DNA relatedness with P. aggregans D1-19T. On the basis of its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics, strain ZQ420T is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Pararhodobacter, for which the name Pararhodobactermarinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZQ420T (=KCTC 62579T=MCCC 1K03530T).

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437414

RESUMO

Research regarding polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status and body composition in neonates is limited. This study tested the relationship between newborn docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status and body composition. Healthy mothers and their term-born infants (n = 100) were studied within 1 month postpartum for anthropometry, and whole body composition using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Maternal and infant red blood cell (RBC) membrane PUFA profiles were measured using gas chromatography (expressed as % of total fatty acids). Data were grouped according to infant RBC DHA quartiles; and tested for differences in n-3 status and infant body composition using mixed model ANOVA, Spearman correlations and regression analyses (P < 0.05). Mothers were 32.2 ± 4.6 y (mean ± SD) of age, infants (54% males) were 0.68 ± 0.23 month of age and 80% exclusively breastfed. Infant RBC DHA (ranged 3.96 to 7.75% of total fatty acids) inversely associated with infant fat mass (r = -0.22, P = 0.03) Infant and maternal RBC n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (R2 = 0.28, P = 0.043; R2 = 0.28, P = 0.041 respectively) positively associated with fat mass. These results demonstrate that both maternal and infant long chain PUFA status are associated with neonatal body composition. Novelty: • Our findings support an early window to further explore the relationship between infant n-3 PUFA status and body composition. • Maternal and infant n-3 PUFA status inversely related to neonatal whole body fat mass. • DHA appears to be the best candidate to test in the development of a lean body phenotype.

4.
J Org Chem ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432674

RESUMO

The Rh(III)-catalyzed oxidative coupling of oxime ether (S1) and cyclopropanol (S2) with Cu(II) as the oxidant features the combination of C-H activation and strained ring opening. The sequential order of C-H activation versus ring opening was investigated with the aid of density functional theory calculations. Prior ring opening due to the release of ring strain is found to be favored over the prior C-H activation. For the prior ring-opening mechanisms, the outer-sphere concerted metalation-deprotonation (CMD) mechanism in C-H bond activation is energetically favored. The outer-sphere CMD mechanism proposed in this work favors solvent effects and affords the N→Rh binding that allows a directing role of the Schiff base group. In conclusion, the reaction was suggested to undergo prior ring opening followed by C-H activation via the outer-sphere CMD mechanism.

5.
Ecol Lett ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436014

RESUMO

The adaptive value of transgenerational effects (the ancestor environmental effects on offspring) in changing environments has received much attention in recent years, but the related empirical evidence remains equivocal. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis summarising 139 experimental studies in plants and animals with 1170 effect sizes to investigate the generality of transgenerational effects across taxa, traits, and environmental contexts. It was found that transgenerational effects generally enhanced offspring performance in response to both stressful and benign conditions. The strongest effects are in annual plants and invertebrates, whereas vertebrates appear to benefit mostly under benign conditions, and perennial plants show hardly any transgenerational responses at all. These differences among taxonomic/life-history groups possibly reflect that vertebrates can avoid stressful conditions through their mobility, and longer-lived plants have alternative strategies. In addition to environmental contexts and taxonomic/life-history groups, transgenerational effects also varied among traits and developmental stages of ancestors and offspring, but the effects were similarly strong across three generations of offspring. By way of a more comprehensive data set and a different effect size, our results differ from those of a recent meta-analysis, suggesting that transgenerational effects are widespread, strong and persistent and can substantially impact the responses of plants and animals to changing environments.

6.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 17: 590-600, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382190

RESUMO

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been suggested to possess the capacity to differentiate into different cell lineages. Maintaining a balanced stem cell differentiation program is crucial to the bone microenvironment and bone development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have played a critical role in regulating the differentiation of BMSCs into particular lineage. However, the role of miR-149-3p in the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs has not been extensively discovered. In this study, we aimed to detect the expression levels of miR-149-3p during the differentiation of BMSCs and investigate whether miR-149-3p participated in the lineage choice of BMSCs or not. Compared with mimic-negative control (NC), miR-149-3p mimic decreased the adipogenic differentiation potential of BMSCs and increased the osteogenic differentiation potential. Further analysis revealed that overexpression of miR-149-3p repressed the expression of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene through binding to the 3' UTR of the FTO mRNA. Also, the role of miR-149-3p mimic in inhibiting adipogenic lineage differentiation and potentiating osteogenic lineage differentiation was mainly through targeting FTO, which also played an important role in regulating body weight and fat mass. In addition, BMSCs treated with miR-149-3p anti-miRNA oligonucleotide (AMO) exhibited higher potential to differentiate into adipocytes and lower tendency to differentiate into osteoblasts compared with BMSCs transfected with NC. In summary, our results detected the effects of miR-149-3p in cell fate specification of BMSCs and revealed that miR-149-3p inhibited the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs via a miR-149-3p/FTO regulatory axis. This study provided cellular and molecular insights into the observation that miR-149-3p was a prospective candidate gene for BMSC-based bone tissue engineering in treating osteoporosis.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(34): e16888, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441865

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Facial nerve palsy (FNP) is one of the rare neurologic symptoms of Kawasaki disease (KD), associated with a higher incidence of coronary arteries lesions and may be an indicator of more severe disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 3-month-old male infant with persistent fever, irritability, and facial asymmetry. DIAGNOSES: KD with FNP. INTERVENTIONS: The infant received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (2 g/kg/16 hours) and aspirin (50 mg/kg/day) were started on the 8th day of illness. OUTCOMES: Fever and FNP resolved within 48 hours after IVIG treatment. The inflammatory markers all improved to normal or near-normal levels before discharge; all infectious studies returned negative. His left facial weakness was unappreciable at day of discharge. LESSONS: FNP associated with KD is an uncommon finding but may indicate an increased risk of coronary artery involvement. KD should always be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of a child who presents with prolonged unexplained fever, even with incomplete diagnostic features, as well as the need to be aware of unusual manifestations, such as FNP.


Assuntos
Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/etiologia , Assimetria Facial/etiologia , Paralisia Facial/etiologia , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/diagnóstico , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia , Assimetria Facial/tratamento farmacológico , Paralisia Facial/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Lactente , Masculino , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/complicações
8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(35): 32097-32107, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408610

RESUMO

Kesterite Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) thin film is a promising material for optoelectronic devices. In this work, we fabricate Mo/CZTSSe/CdS/ZnO/ITO (ITO, indium tin oxide) heterojunction photodetectors with favorable self-powered characteristics. The photodetector exhibits exceptional high-frequency photoresponse performance whose -3 dB bandwidth and rise/decay time have reached 1 MHz and 240/340 ns, respectively. For further improvement, ultrathin Al2O3 layer prepared via atomic layer deposition (ALD) process is introduced at the Mo/CZTSSe interface. The influence of ALD-Al2O3 layer thickness and its role on the photoresponse performance are investigated in detail. The interfacial layer proved to serve as a protective layer preventing selenization of Mo electrode, resulting in the reduction of MoSe2 transition layer and the decrease of series resistance of the device. Accordingly, the -3 dB bandwidth is remarkably extended to 3.5 MHz while the rise/decay time is dramatically improved to 60/77 ns with 16 cycles of ALD-Al2O3 layer, which is 4-5 orders of magnitude faster than the other reported CZTSSe photodetectors. Simultaneously, it is revealed that the ALD-Al2O3 interfacial layer acts as an electron blocking layer which leads to the effective suppression of carrier recombination at the rear surface. Consequently, the responsivity and detectivity are enhanced in the entire range while the maximum values are up to 0.39 AW-1 and 2.04 × 1011 Jones with 8 cycles of ALD-Al2O3, respectively. Finally, the CZTSSe photodetector is successfully integrated into a visible light communication system and obtains a satisfying transfer rate of 2 Mbps. These results indicate the satisfying performance of CZTSSe-based thin film photodetectors with great potential applications for communication.

9.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 183: 110385, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408781

RESUMO

Polypeptide carriers have a good cell compatibility, rich functionality, and facile synthesis and modification, make them promising materials as siRNA vectors. Phenylalanine dipeptide (FF) has been previously assessed as an siRNA vector and showed to have two major drawbacks, namely poor water solubility and poor serum stability. Herein, the FF backbone was modified by ligating a PEG-Arg-Ala (PEG-RA) sequence at the N-terminus to increase its hydrophilicity and serum stability. Arg is a typical amino acid in the cell penetrating peptide, which can increase the efficiency of cell internalization. Ala acts as a spacer to avoid steric hindrance. The target sequence PEG-RAFF was synthesized by a solid phase peptide synthesis. The morphology, particle size, and siRNA ratio were assessed by SEM, TEM, DLS, and gel electrophoresis. Further, MCF-7 cells were used as a model and survivin-siRNA as a passenger to assess cell internalization, inhibition of gene expression rate, and apoptosis rate using confocal microscopy, real-time PCR, and flow cytometry. At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, PEG-RAFF took the form of nanovesicles with a diameter of 154.74 ±â€¯14.36 nm. The optimal PEG-RAFF to siRNA ratio was N/P = 100:1. Compared with the control group, the red fluorescence of TAMRA(Carboxytetramethylrhodamine, Red fluorescence)-siRNA transfected into cells was clearly visible in the confocal microscope image. The inhibition rate of survivin was 67.99 ±â€¯10.31%, and the apoptotic rate was 16.07%. Therefore, PEG-RAFF has potential as an siRNA carrier in cancer treatment.

11.
Eur Spine J ; 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312913

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The role of bacteria, especially Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), in human intervertebral disc diseases has raised attention in recent years. However, limited sample size of these studies and diverse bacteria-positive proportion made this topic still controversial. We aimed to review related articles and summarize the bacteria-positive proportion in these studies. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase for related literature from January 2001 to May 2018, and the reference articles were also searched. The random effects or fixed effects meta-analysis was used to pool the overall positive proportion or odds ratio of these studies. RESULTS: We found 16 relevant articles and 2084 cases of the bacteria culture from surgery. Within the 16 included studies, 12 studies' results supported the infection in the discs. The pooled bacterial infection rate was 25.3%. The pooled P. acnes infection rate was 15.5%. The overall pooled P. acnes proportion in bacteria-positive discs was 56.4%. We also found that the presence of bacteria may contribute to the development of Modic change with the odds ratio as 1.27 (95% CI: 0.44-3.64), but this result is not significant due to heterogeneity, so further study is needed. CONCLUSION: The existence of bacteria in the intervertebral discs was proved by many studies. However, the variety in sample collecting and culture methods is still obvious and the positive rate also fluctuated within the studies. Standardized and reliable methods should be taken to promote the study in the future. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e15963, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease (KD) have received a lot of attention during the past decade. Some studies have reported that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-308 polymorphism has been associated with KD. However, there have been inconsonant results among different studies. To increase the power for clarifying the influence of TNF on KD, a meta-analysis of case-control studies were performed. METHODS: The following databases were searched to identify related studies: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, Wanfang, and VIP databases according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Search terms included "Kawasaki disease" or "KD," "tumor necrosis factor-alpha" or "TNF-α," and "polymorphism" or "mutation." Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the strength of the association. Accounting for heterogeneity, a fixed or random effects model was respectively adopted. Heterogeneity was checked using the Q test and the I statistic. A cumulative meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the tendency of pooled OR. Funnel plots and Egger tests were performed to test for possible publication bias and sensitivity analyses were done to ensure authenticity of the outcome. RESULTS: Eleven separate studies were suitable for the inclusion criterion. The selected studies contained 2582 participants, including 841 in KD group and 1741controls. The pooled odds ratio of G versus A with the random effect model was 1.09 (95% CI = 0.69-1.70, P = .72) and the genotype effects for GG versus GA+AA was 1.14 (95% CI = 0.68-1.90, P = .62) in the whole population separately. Unfortunately, no significant association was detected between the TNF-α-308 polymorphism and KD risk under allele and genotype model. CONCLUSION: No association between the TNF-α-308 polymorphism and KD was found in our meta-analysis and further studies with larger sample size and more ethnicities are expected to be conducted in the future to validate the results.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Humanos
13.
Small ; 15(36): e1902135, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322829

RESUMO

Self-powered photodetectors (PDs) based on inorganic metal halide perovskites are regarded as promising alternatives for the next generation of photodetectors. However, uncontrollable film growth and sluggish charge extraction at interfaces directly limit the sensitivity and response speed of perovskite-based photodetectors. Herein, by assistance of an atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique, CsPbBr3 perovskite thin films with preferred orientation and enlarged grain size are obtained on predeposited interfacial modification layers. Thanks to improved film quality and double side interfacial engineering, the optimized CsPbBr3 (Al2 O3 /CsPbBr3 /TiO2 , ACT) perovskite PDs exhibit outstanding performance with ultralow dark current of 10-11 A, high detectivity of 1.88 × 1013 Jones and broad linear dynamic range (LDR) of 172.7 dB. Significantly, excellent long-term environmental stability (ambient conditions >100 d) and flexibility stability (>3000 cycles) are also achieved. The remarkable performance is credited to the synergistic effects of high carrier conductivity and collection efficiency, which is assisted by ALD modification layers. Finally, the ACT PDs are successfully integrated into a visible light communication system as a light receiver on transmitting texts, showing a bit rate as high as 100 kbps. These results open the window of high performance all-inorganic halide perovskite photodetectors and extends to rational applications for optical communication.

14.
Mol Ecol ; 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339595

RESUMO

Genetic admixture, the intraspecific hybridization among divergent introduced sources, can immediately facilitate colonization via hybrid vigor and profoundly enhance invasion via contributing novel genetic variation to adaption. As hybrid vigor is short-lived, provisioning adaptation is anticipated to be the dominant and long-term profit of genetic admixture, but the evidence for this is rare. We employed the 30 years' geographic-scale invasion of the salt marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora, as an evolutionary experiment and evaluated the consequences of genetic admixture by combining the reciprocal transplant experiment with quantitative and population genetic surveys. Consistent with the documentation, we found that the invasive populations in China had multiple origins from the southern Atlantic coast and the Gulf of Mexico in the US. Interbreeding among these multiple sources generated a "hybrid swarm" that spread throughout the coast of China. In the northern and mid-latitude China, natural selection greatly enhanced fecundity, plant height and shoot regeneration compared to the native populations. Furthermore, genetic admixture appeared to have broken the negative correlation between plant height and shoot regeneration, which was genetically-based in the native range, and have facilitated the evolution of super competitive genotypes in the invasive range. In contrast to the evolved northern and mid-latitude populations, the southern invasive populations showed slight increase of plant height and shoot regeneration compared to the native populations, possibly reflecting the heterotic effect of the intraspecific hybridization. Therefore, our study suggests a critical role of genetic admixture in accelerating the geographic invasion via provisioning rapid adaptive evolution.

15.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(9): 6140-6153, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304676

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is closely associated with the dysfunction of bone metabolism, which is caused by the imbalance between new bone formation and bone resorption. Osteogenic differentiation plays a vital role in maintaining the balance of bone microenvironment. The present study investigated whether melatonin participated in the osteogenic commitment of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and further explored its underlying mechanisms. Our data showed that melatonin exhibited the capacity of regulating osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, which was blocked by its membrane receptor inhibitor luzindole. Further study demonstrated that the expression of miR-92b-5p was up-regulated in BMSCs after administration of melatonin, and transfection of miR-92b-5p accelerated osteogenesis of BMSCs. In contrast, silence of miR-92b-5p inhibited the osteogenesis of BMSCs. The increase in osteoblast differentiation of BMSCs caused by melatonin was attenuated by miR-92b-5p AMO as well. Luciferase reporter assay, real-time qPCR analysis and western blot analysis confirmed that miR-92b-5p was involved in osteogenesis by directly targeting intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Melatonin improved the expression of miR-92b-5p, which could regulate the differentiation of BMSCs into osteoblasts by targeting ICAM-1. This study provided novel methods for treating osteoporosis.

16.
EMBO Rep ; 20(9): e47892, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318145

RESUMO

The conversion of skeletal muscle fiber from fast twitch to slow-twitch is important for sustained and tonic contractile events, maintenance of energy homeostasis, and the alleviation of fatigue. Skeletal muscle remodeling is effectively induced by endurance or aerobic exercise, which also generates several tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, including succinate. However, whether succinate regulates muscle fiber-type transitions remains unclear. Here, we found that dietary succinate supplementation increased endurance exercise ability, myosin heavy chain I expression, aerobic enzyme activity, oxygen consumption, and mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse skeletal muscle. By contrast, succinate decreased lactate dehydrogenase activity, lactate production, and myosin heavy chain IIb expression. Further, by using pharmacological or genetic loss-of-function models generated by phospholipase Cß antagonists, SUNCR1 global knockout, or SUNCR1 gastrocnemius-specific knockdown, we found that the effects of succinate on skeletal muscle fiber-type remodeling are mediated by SUNCR1 and its downstream calcium/NFAT signaling pathway. In summary, our results demonstrate succinate induces transition of skeletal muscle fiber via SUNCR1 signaling pathway. These findings suggest the potential beneficial use of succinate-based compounds in both athletic and sedentary populations.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276777

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Understanding prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics after radiation therapy plays a large role in the management of patients with prostate cancer (PCa). This is particularly true in establishing expectations regarding PSA nadir (nPSA) and PSA bounces, which can be disconcerting. As increasingly more patients are being treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for low- and intermediate-risk PCa, it is imperative to understand the PSA response to SBRT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: PSA data from 5 institutions were retrospectively analyzed for patients with localized PCa treated definitively with SBRT alone from 2004 to 2016. Patients received 35 to 40 Gy in 5 fractions, per institutional standards. Patients who had less than 12 months of PSA data or received androgen deprivation therapy were excluded from this study. Linear and logistic multivariable analysis were performed to identify predictors of nPSA, bounce, and biochemical recurrence, and joint latent class models were developed to identify significant predictors of time to biochemical failure. RESULTS: A total of 1062 patients were included in this study. Median follow-up was 66 months (interquartile range [IQR], 36.4-89.9 months). Biochemical failure per the Phoenix criteria occurred in 4% of patients. Median nPSA was 0.2 ng/mL, median time to nPSA was 40 months, 84% of patients had an nPSA ≤0.5 ng/mL, and 54% of patients had an nPSA ≤0.2 ng/mL. On multivariable analysis, nPSA was a significant predictor of biochemical failure. Benign PSA bounce was noted in 26% of patients. The median magnitude of PSA bounce was 0.52 ng/mL (IQR, 0.3-1.0 ng/mL). Median time to PSA bounce was 18.1 months (IQR, 12.0-31.1 months). On multivariable analysis, age and radiation dose were significantly associated with a lower incidence of bounce. Joint latent class models modeling found that nPSA and radiation dose were significantly associated with longer time to biochemical failure. CONCLUSIONS: In this multi-institutional cohort of patients with long-term follow-up, we found that SBRT led to low nPSAs. In turn, lower nPSAs are associated with reduced incidence of, and longer time to, biochemical failure. Benign PSA bounces occurred in a quarter of patients, as late as several years after treatment. Further studies are needed to directly compare the PSA response of patients who receive SBRT versus other treatment modalities.

18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(59): 8591-8594, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276134

RESUMO

Eight bidentate NHC/Ru complexes, namely [Ru]-1-[Ru]-8, were designed and prepared. In particular, [Ru]-2 displayed extraordinary performance even in open air for the dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols and hydroxides. Notably, an unprecedentedly low catalyst loading of 250 ppm and the highest TON of 32 800 and TOF of 3200 until now were obtained.

19.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178866

RESUMO

Intervertebral disc (IVD) is an immune-privileged organ that lacks immunocytes, such as macrophages or neutrophils; therefore, it is unclear how IVD immunological defense against bacterial infection occurs. Here, we demonstrated that nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs), the vital machinery for maintaining the homeostasis of IVD, exerted microbicidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus via induction of phagolysosome formation. Moreover, we found that the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway is critical for bacterial phagocytosis and phagolysosome formation of NPCs. These findings demonstrated for the first time that NPCs could function as non-professional phagocytes against S. aureus infection, thereby enhancing antimicrobial defense against bacterial infections in IVDs.

20.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 4579806, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31191799

RESUMO

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of sudden death worldwide. MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) has been reported to target antiapoptotic genes in various diseases models, but the functional role of miR-155 in response to MI injury needs further investigations. This study investigated the role of miR-155 in myocardial ischemia injury. TUNEL and flow cytometry were performed to measure cell apoptosis. Western blot analysis was employed to detect protein expressions of Bcl-2, XIAP, Bax, and caspase-3. qRT-PCR was used to quantify miRNA levels. We showed that miR-155 was dynamically elevated in murine hearts subjected to MI and in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocyte (NRVM) injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In response to H2O2, the silencing of miR-155 using AMO-155 (antisense inhibitor oligodeoxyribonucleotides) significantly increased cell viability and reduced cell apoptosis. Moreover, AMO-155 reversed the H2O2-induced downregulation of Bcl-2 and XIAP and upregulation of Bax and cleaved-caspase-3. Further study revealed that AMO-155 resulted in a decrease of H2O2-induced JC-1-labelled monomeric cell number. In addition, AMO-155 markedly decreased infarct size, ameliorated impaired cardiac function, and significantly reduced apoptotic cell percentages in MI mice heart. The RNA-binding protein Quaking (QKI) was predicted as a target gene of miR-155 through bioinformatic analysis, and AMO-155 attenuated the downregulation of QKI in H2O2-treated cardiomyocytes and MI mice heart. Knockdown of QKI by siRNA abolished the antiapoptotic effects of AMO-155. Taken together, miR-155 is upregulated in the MI heart and NRVMs in response to H2O2 stress, and downregulating of miR-155 protects cardiomyocytes against apoptosis. Mechanistically, it is probably due to the repression of QKI signaling pathway.

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