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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126142, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655779

RESUMO

In this work, effects of sulfomethylated lignins (SLs) prepared from masson pine (SLM) and poplar (SLP) on enzymatic hydrolysis and cellulase-lignin interaction were comparatively investigated. The results showed that both SLM and SLP significantly promoted the substrate enzymatic digestibility. The total sugar yield increased from 38.6% to 74.4% and âˆ¼ 100%, respectively at 10 FPU/g-cellulose of cellulase dosage. The protein content in hydrolysate linearly increased with the addition of SL (0 - 1.6 g/g-substrate lignin), which suggested the competitive adsorption of cellulase may occur to substrate lignin and SLs. Further structural analysis of lignin revealed the high S/(V + H) ratio was directly related to the high enzymatic saccharification efficiency. The strong interaction between SL and cellulase decreased the nonproductive adsorption of cellulase onto substrate lignin and increased the accessibility of cellulase to carbohydrate, which was considered to be the key factor for the improvement of substrate enzymatic digestibility.


Assuntos
Celulase , Lignina , Adsorção , Hidrólise , Triticum
2.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(1): 13-20, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to escalate intensively worldwide. Massive studies on general populations with SARS-CoV-2 infection have revealed that pre-existing comorbidities were a major risk factor for the poor prognosis of COVID-19. Notably, 49-75% of COVID-19 patients had no comorbidities, but this cohort would also progress to severe COVID-19 or even death. However, risk factors contributing to disease progression and death in patients without chronic comorbidities are largely unknown; thus, specific clinical interventions for those patients are challenging. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective study based on 4806 COVID-19 patients without chronic comorbidities was performed to identify potential risk factors contributing to COVID-19 progression and death using LASSO and a stepwise logistic regression model. RESULTS: Among 4806 patients without pre-existing comorbidities, the proportions with severe progression and mortality were 34.29% and 2.10%, respectively. The median age was 47.00 years [interquartile range, 36.00-56.00], and 2162 (44.99%) were men. Among 51 clinical parameters on admission, age ≥ 47, oxygen saturation < 95%, increased lactate dehydrogenase, neutrophil count, direct bilirubin, creatine phosphokinase, blood urea nitrogen levels, dyspnea, increased blood glucose and prothrombin time levels were associated with COVID-19 mortality in the entire cohort. Of the 3647 patients diagnosed with non-severe COVID-19 on admission, 489(13.41%) progressed to severe disease. The risk factors associated with COVID-19 progression from non-severe to severe illness were increased procalcitonin levels, SpO2 < 95%, age ≥ 47, increased LDH, activated partial thromboplastin time levels, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, dyspnea and increased D-dimer levels. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients without pre-existing chronic comorbidities have specific traits and disease patterns. COVID-19 accompanied by severe bacterial infections, as indicated by increased procalcitonin levels, was highly associated with disease progression from non-severe to severe. Aging, impaired respiratory function, coagulation dysfunction, tissue injury, and lipid metabolism dysregulation were also associated with disease progression. Once factors for multi-organ damage were elevated and glucose increased at admission, these findings indicated a higher risk for mortality. This study provides information that helps to predict COVID-19 prognosis specifically in patients without chronic comorbidities.

3.
Biomacromolecules ; 2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806363

RESUMO

Bioactive substances, displaying excellent biocompatibility, chemical stability, and processability, could be extensively applied in biomedicine and tissue engineering. In recent years, plant-based bioactive substances such as flavonoids, vitamins, terpenes, and lignin have received considerable attention due to their human health benefits and pharmaceutical/medical applications. Among them is lignin, an amorphous biomacromolecule mainly derived from the combinatorial radical coupling of three phenylpropane units (p-hydroxypenyl, guaiacyl, and syringyl) during lignification. Lignin possesses intrinsic bioactivities (antioxidative, antibacterial, anti-UV activities, etc.) against phytopathogens. Lignin also enhances the plant resistance (adaptability) against environmental stresses. The abundant structural features of lignin offer other significant bioactivities including antitumor and antivirus bioactivities, regulation of plant growth, and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. This Review reports the latest research results on the bioactive potential of lignin and lignin-based substances in biomedicine, agriculture, and biomass conversion. Moreover, the interfacial reactions and bonding mechanisms of lignin with biotissue/cells and other constituents were also discussed, aiming at promoting the conversion or evolution of lignin from industrial wastes to value-added bioactive materials.

4.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(15): 4442-4458, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803509

RESUMO

Background: Autophagy regulates many cell functions related to cancer, ranging from cell proliferation and angiogenesis to metabolism. Due to the close relationship between autophagy and tumors, we investigated the predictive value of autophagy-related genes. Methods: Data from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) databases. A regression analysis of differentially expressed genes was performed. Based on a prognostic model, patients were divided into a high-risk or low-risk group. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses of patients were conducted. The immune landscapes, as determined using single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA), exhibited different patterns in the two groups. The prognostic model was verified using the ICGC database and clinical data from patients collected at Zhongnan Hospital. Based on the results of multivariate Cox regression analysis, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/inosine monophosphate (IMP) cyclohydrolase (ATIC) had the largest hazard ratio, and thus we studied the effect of ATIC on autophagy and tumor progression by performing in vitro and in vivo experiments. Results: Fifty-eight autophagy-related genes were differentially expressed (false discovery rate (FDR)<0.05, log2 fold change (logFC)>1); 23 genes were related to the prognosis of patients. A prognostic model based on 12 genes (ATG10, ATIC, BIRC5, CAPN10, FKBP1A, GAPDH, HDAC1, PRKCD, RHEB, SPNS1, SQSTM1 and TMEM74) was constructed. A significant difference in survival rate was observed between the high-risk group and low-risk group distinguished by the model (P<0.001). The model had good predictive power (area under the curve (AUC)>0.7). Risk-related genes were related to the terms type II IFN response, MHC class I (P<0.001) and HLA (P<0.05). ATIC was confirmed to inhibit autophagy and promote the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of liver cancer cells through the AKT/Forkhead box subgroup O3 (FOXO3) signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions: The prediction model effectively predicts the survival time of patients with liver cancer. The risk score reflects the immune cell features and immune status of patients. ATIC inhibits autophagy and promotes the progression of liver cancer through the AKT/FOXO3 signaling pathway.

5.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 9(5): 635-646, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722178

RESUMO

Background and Aims: The survival rate of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma is variable. The abnormal expression of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) is closely related to the occurrence and development of malignant tumors. The primary aim of this study was to identify RBPs related to the prognosis of liver cancer and to construct a prognostic model of liver cancer. Methods: We downloaded the hepatocellular carcinoma gene sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (cancergenome.nih.gov/) database, constructed a protein-protein interaction network, and used Cytoscape to realize the visualization. From among 325 abnormally expressed genes for RBPs, 9 (XPO5, enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit [EZH2], CSTF2, BRCA1, RRP12, MRPL54, EIF2AK4, PPARGC1A, and SEPSECS) were selected for construction of the prognostic model. Then, we further verified the results through the Gene Expression Omnibus (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/) database and in vitro experiments. Results: A prognostic model was constructed, which determined that the survival time of patients in the high-risk group was significantly shorter than that of the low-risk group (p<0.01). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis suggested that the risk score was an independent prognostic factor (p<0.01). We also constructed a nomogram based on the risk score, survival time, and survival status. At the same time, we verified the high expression and cancer-promoting effects of EZH2 in tumors. Conclusions: Survival, receiver operating characteristic curve and independent prognostic analyses demonstrated that we constructed a good prognostic model, which might be useful for estimating the survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

6.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 347, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759267

RESUMO

Recent studies show that small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) play an important role in tumorigenesis. SNORA42 is a potential therapeutic target and prognostic biomarker for various cancers, and the aim of the present study was to investigate the function and clinical relevance of SNORA42 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We detected the expression levels of SNORA42 in HCC and normal liver tissue samples, as well as in tumor and hepatocyte-derived cell lines. SNORA42 was significantly upregulated in the HCC tissues and cells compared to the adjacent liver tissues and normal hepatocytes. Furthermore, overexpression of SNORA42 correlated with poor prognosis in the HCC patients. Knocking down SNORA42 in HCC cell lines decreased their proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro, and inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. In contrast, ectopic expression of SNORA42 promoted HCC cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis. Mechanistically, SNORA42 exerted its oncogenic effects by targeting the p53 signaling pathway and cell cycle transition. In conclusion, SNORA42 acted as an oncogene in HCC and was a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target.

7.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 14: 4469-4482, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795494

RESUMO

Purpose: To analyze the impact of hyperglycemia on the clinical outcome of COVID-19 in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes (NDD). Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 3114 cases of COVID-19 without pre-existing diabetes, 351 of which had NDD, in Hubei Province, China. The Cox regression model was used to calculate the risk of adverse clinical outcomes comparing the NDD vs non-NDD group before and after propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis. Patients with NDD were further divided into a sustained hyperglycemia group, a fluctuating group, and a remitted group based on their blood glucose levels during hospitalization as well as into hypoglycemic agent users and nonusers. Results: Compared to the non-NDD individuals, individuals with NDD had a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted HR after PSM, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.49-4.72; P = 0.001) and secondary outcomes involving organ damage during the 28-day follow-up period. Subgroup analyses indicated that among individuals with NDD, the individuals with remitted hyperglycemia had the lowest 28-day mortality, whereas those with sustained hyperglycemia had the highest (IRR 24.27; 95% CI, 3.21-183.36; P < 0.001). Moreover, individuals treated with hypoglycemic agents had significantly lower all-cause mortality than those not treated with hypoglycemic agents (IRR 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01-0.56; P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study reinforces the clinical message that NDD is strongly associated with poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, resolved hyperglycemia in the later phase of the disease and the use of hypoglycemic agents were associated with improved prognosis in patients with NDD.

8.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 14(1): 205, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670604

RESUMO

Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose for bioethanol production shows a great potential to remit the rapid consumption of fossil fuels, given the fact that lignocellulose feedstocks are abundant, cost-efficient, and renewable. Lignin results in low enzymatic saccharification by forming the steric hindrance, non-productive adsorption of cellulase onto lignin, and deactivating the cellulase. In general, the non-productive binding of cellulase on lignin is widely known as the major cause for inhibiting the enzymatic hydrolysis. Pretreatment is an effective way to remove lignin and improve the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulose. Along with removing lignin, the pretreatment can modify the lignin structure, which significantly affects the non-productive adsorption of cellulase onto lignin. To relieve the inhibitory effect of lignin on enzymatic hydrolysis, enormous efforts have been made to elucidate the correlation of lignin structure with lignin-enzyme interactions but with different views. In addition, contrary to the traditional belief that lignin inhibits enzymatic hydrolysis, in recent years, the addition of water-soluble lignin such as lignosulfonate or low molecular-weight lignin exerts a positive effect on enzymatic hydrolysis, which gives a new insight into the lignin-enzyme interactions. For throwing light on their structure-interaction relationship during enzymatic hydrolysis, the effect of residual lignin in substrate and introduced lignin in hydrolysate on enzymatic hydrolysis are critically reviewed, aiming at realizing the targeted regulation of lignin structure for improving the saccharification of lignocellulose. The review is also focused on exploring the lignin-enzyme interactions to mitigate the negative impact of lignin and reducing the cost of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose.

9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 614057, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676221

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to determine the association between prognosis of COVID-19 patients with and without cancer. Moreover, we compared the prognosis of cancer patients subjected to anti-tumor therapy with those who have not undergone anti-tumor therapy in the past 6 months. Methods and Results: A total of 7,926 adult patients with COVID-19 were retrospectively enrolled in Hubei Province,China between December 31, 2019 and February 20, 2020. Two hundred and seventy seven cancer patients (cancer group, median age 64 [IQR 56-70] years; 50.90% male) and 7,649 non-cancer patients were identified (non-cancer group, median age 55 [IQR 42-64] years; 48.19% male). The mortality rate was lower in the non-cancer group compared to the cancer group (4.50 vs. 9.03%; P < 0.001). The duration between onset and admission shorter in the cancer group (Days, 9 [IQR 5-18]) compared to the non-cancer group (Days, 10; [IQR 6-19]; P = 0.036). ICU occupancy was higher in the cancer group (n[%], 30[10.83%]) than in the non-cancer group (n[%], 314[4.11%]). In reviewing the anti-tumor therapy, data from 277 selected cancer patients were obtained out of which 74 patients had undergone anti-tumor therapy (mean age 65 [IQR 51-67] years; 45.95% male), 203 had not undergone anti-tumor therapy (non-anti-tumor therapy group, mean age 63 [IQR 53-75] years; 49.75% male) in the past 6 months. The mortality rate for the anti-tumor therapy group and the non-anti-tumor therapy group was similar (9.46 vs. 8.87%; P = 0.879). Conclusion: The mortality rate was higher in COVID-19 patients with cancer compared to those without cancer. Moreover, anti-tumor therapy in the past 6 months did not worsen the prognosis of cancer patients with COVID-19.

10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 347, 2021 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564690

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 mutations contribute to increased viral transmissibility and immune escape, compromising the effectiveness of existing vaccines and neutralizing antibodies. An in-depth investigation on COVID-19 pathogenesis is urgently needed to develop a strategy against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here, we identified CD147 as a universal receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Meanwhile, Meplazeumab, a humanized anti-CD147 antibody, could block cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants-alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, with inhibition rates of 68.7, 75.7, 52.1, 52.1, and 62.3% at 60 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, humanized CD147 transgenic mice were susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and its two variants, alpha and beta. When infected, these mice developed exudative alveolar pneumonia, featured by immune responses involving alveoli-infiltrated macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes and activation of IL-17 signaling pathway. Mechanistically, we proposed that severe COVID-19-related cytokine storm is induced by a "spike protein-CD147-CyPA signaling axis": Infection of SARS-CoV-2 through CD147 initiated the JAK-STAT pathway, which further induced expression of cyclophilin A (CyPA); CyPA reciprocally bound to CD147 and triggered MAPK pathway. Consequently, the MAPK pathway regulated the expression of cytokines and chemokines, which promoted the development of cytokine storm. Importantly, Meplazumab could effectively inhibit viral entry and inflammation caused by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Therefore, our findings provided a new perspective for severe COVID-19-related pathogenesis. Furthermore, the validated universal receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and its variants can be targeted for COVID-19 treatment.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Basigina/antagonistas & inibidores , Basigina/metabolismo , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/metabolismo , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Animais , Basigina/genética , COVID-19/genética , Chlorocebus aethiops , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/genética , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Células Vero
11.
Front Oncol ; 11: 733595, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527595

RESUMO

Background: High glycolysis efficiency in tumor cells can promote tumor growth. lncRNAs play an important role in the proliferation, metabolism and migration of cancer cells, but their regulation of tumor glycolysis is currently not well researched. Methods: We analyzed the co-expression of glycolysis-related genes and lncRNAs in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to screen glycolysis-related lncRNAs. Further prognostic analysis and differential expression analysis were performed. We further analyzed the relationship between lncRNAs and tumor immune infiltration. Since WAC antisense RNA 1 (WAC-AS1) had the greatest effect on the prognosis among all screened lncRNAs and had a larger coefficient in the prognostic model, we chose WAC-AS1 for further verification experiments and investigated the function and mechanism of action of WAC-AS1 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Results: We screened 502 lncRNAs that have co-expression relationships with glycolytic genes based on co-expression analysis. Among them, 112 lncRNAs were abnormally expressed in liver cancer, and 40 lncRNAs were related to the prognosis of patients. Eight lncRNAs (WAC-AS1, SNHG3, SNHG12, MSC-AS1, MIR210HG, PTOV1-AS1, AC145207.5 and AL031985.3) were used to established a prognostic model. Independent prognostic analysis (P<0.001), survival analysis (P<0.001), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (AUC=0.779) and clinical correlation analysis (P<0.001) all indicated that the prognostic model has good predictive power and that the risk score can be used as an independent prognostic factor (P<0.001). The risk score and lncRNAs in the model were found to be related to a variety of immune cell infiltration and immune functions. WAC-AS1 was found to affect glycolysis and promote tumor proliferation (P<0.01). WAC-AS1 affected the expression of several glycolysis-related genes (cAMP regulated phosphoprotein 19 (ARPP19), CHST12, MED24 and KIF2A) (P<0.01). Under hypoxic conditions, WAC-AS1 regulated ARPP19 by sponging miR-320d to promote glucose uptake and lactate production (P<0.01). Conclusion: We constructed a model based on glycolysis-related lncRNAs to evaluate the prognostic risk of patients. The risk score and lncRNAs in the model were related to immune cell infiltration. WAC-AS1 can regulate ARPP19 to promote glycolysis and proliferation by sponging miR-320d.

13.
Hepatology ; 74(6): 3018-3036, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: NAFLD is the most prevalent chronic liver disease worldwide, but no effective pharmacological therapeutics are available for clinical use. NASH is the more severe stage of NAFLD. During this progress, dysregulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related pathways and proteins is one of the predominant hallmarks. We aimed to reveal the role of ring finger protein 5 (RNF5), an ER-localized E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, in NASH and to explore its underlying mechanism. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We first inspected the expression level of RNF5 and found that it was markedly decreased in livers with NASH in multiple species including humans. We then introduced adenoviruses for Rnf5 overexpression or knockdown into primary mouse hepatocytes and found that palmitic acid/oleic acid (PAOA)-induced lipid accumulation and inflammation in hepatocytes were markedly attenuated by Rnf5 overexpression but exacerbated by Rnf5 gene silencing. Hepatocyte-specific Rnf5 knockout significantly exacerbated hepatic steatosis, inflammatory response, and fibrosis in mice challenged with diet-induced NASH. Mechanistically, we identified 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase degradation protein 1 (HRD1) as a binding partner of RNF5 by systematic interactomics analysis. RNF5 directly bound to HRD1 and promoted its lysine 48 (K48)-linked and K33-linked ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Furthermore, Hrd1 overexpression significantly exacerbated PAOA-induced lipid accumulation and inflammation, and short hairpin RNA-mediated Hrd1 knockdown exerted the opposite effects. Notably, Hrd1 knockdown significantly diminished PAOA-induced lipid deposition, and up-regulation of related genes resulted from Rnf5 ablation in hepatocytes. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that RNF5 inhibits NASH progression by targeting HRD1 in the ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal pathway. Targeting the RNF5-HRD1 axis may provide insights into the pathogenesis of NASH and pave the way for developing strategies for NASH prevention and treatment.

14.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 178, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247194

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, accounting for over 700,000 deaths each year. The lack of predictive and prognostic biomarkers for HCC, with effective therapy, remains a significant challenge for HCC management. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a key role in tumorigenesis and have clinical value as potential biomarkers in the early diagnosis and prediction of HCC. Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (Jab1, also known as COP9 signalosome subunit 5, CSN5) is a potential oncogene that plays a critical role in the occurrence of HCC. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis for Jab1/CSN5-associated lncRNAs to predict the prognosis of HCC. The differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs between in HCC were analyzed based on the TCGA RNA-seq data. We detected 1031 upregulated lncRNAs in 371 HCC tissues and identified a seven-lncRNA signature strongly correlated with Jab1/CSN5 (SNHG6, CTD3065J16.9, LINC01604, CTD3025N20.3, KB-1460A1.5, RP13-582O9.7, and RP11-29520.2). We further evaluated the prognostic significance of these lncRNAs by GEPIA ( http://gepia.cancer-pku.cn/ ). The expression data in 364 liver tumors indicated that this seven-lncRNA signature could better predict worse survival in HCC patients. Moreover, 35 clinical HCC samples were evaluated to assess the validity and reproducibility of the bioinformatic analysis. We found that the targeted lncRNAs were upregulated, with a strong association with Jab1/CSN5 and prognostic value in HCC. Functional enrichment analysis by Gene Ontology (GO) showed that these seven prognostic lncRNAs exhibit oncogenic properties and are associated with prominent hallmarks of cancer. Overall, our findings demonstrate the clinical implication of Jab1/CSN5 with the seven-lncRNAs in predicting survival for patients with HCC.

15.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(7): 691, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244479

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. However, there still remains a lack of effective diagnostic and therapeutic targets for this disease. Increasing evidence demonstrates that RNA modifications play an important role in the progression of HCC, but the role of the N7-methylguanosine (m7G) methylation modification in HCC has not been properly evaluated. Thus, the goal of the present study was to investigate the function and mechanism of the m7G methyltransferase WD repeat domain 4 (WDR4) in HCC as well as its clinical relevance and potential value. We first verified the high expression of WDR4 in HCC and observed that upregulated WDR4 expression increased the m7G methylation level in HCC. WDR4 promoted HCC cell proliferation by inducing the G2/M cell cycle transition and inhibiting apoptosis in addition to enhancing metastasis and sorafenib resistance through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, we observed that c-MYC (MYC) can activate WDR4 transcription and that WDR4 promotes CCNB1 mRNA stability and translation to enhance HCC progression. Mechanistically, we determined that WDR4 enhances CCNB1 translation by promoting the binding of EIF2A to CCNB1 mRNA. Furthermore, CCNB1 was observed to promote PI3K and AKT phosphorylation in HCC and reduce P53 protein expression by promoting P53 ubiquitination. In summary, we elucidated the MYC/WDR4/CCNB1 signalling pathway and its impact on PI3K/AKT and P53. Furthermore, the result showed that the m7G methyltransferase WDR4 is a tumour promoter in the development and progression of HCC and may act as a candidate therapeutic target in HCC treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina B1/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/secundário , Ciclina B1/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
Cell Metab ; 33(8): 1640-1654.e8, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107313

RESUMO

Obesity is characterized by the excessive accumulation of the white adipose tissue (WAT), but healthy expansion of WAT via adipocyte hyperplasia can offset the negative metabolic effects of obesity. Thus, identification of novel adipogenesis regulators that promote hyperplasia may lead to effective therapies for obesity-induced metabolic disorders. Using transcriptomic approaches, we identified transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif-containing 1 (TMBIM1) as an inhibitor of adipogenesis. Gain or loss of function of TMBIM1 in preadipocytes inhibited or promoted adipogenesis, respectively. In vivo, in response to caloric excess, adipocyte precursor (AP)-specific Tmbim1 knockout (KO) mice displayed WAT hyperplasia and improved systemic metabolic health, while overexpression of Tmbim1 in transgenic mice showed the opposite effects. Moreover, mature adipocyte-specific Tmbim1 KO did not affect WAT cellularity or nutrient homeostasis. Mechanistically, TMBIM1 binds to and promotes the autoubiquitination and degradation of NEDD4, which is an E3 ligase that stabilizes PPARγ. Our data show that TMBIM1 is a potent repressor of adipogenesis and a potential therapeutic target for obesity-related metabolic disease.

17.
Am J Cancer Res ; 11(5): 2238-2251, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34094681

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common digestive tumor with high fatality worldwide. Previous studies have shown that Reticulocalbin-2 (RCN2) was a crucial factor for HCC proliferation, but invasion and migration mechanism of RCN2 contributing to HCC is poorly investigated. In this study, we estimated the RCN2 expression in both patient tissues and cell lines by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting (WB), as well as the clinical information of HCC patients from public databases. Biological function induced by RCN2 in vitro and vivo was also researched through multiple functional experiments. Upstream and downstream signal of RCN2 was identified by bioinformatics. We found that up-regulated RCN2 was related to poorer prognosis in HCC patients and attached significance to HCC proliferation, invasion and migration. Luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation validated that YY1 as the upstream transcription factor of RCN2, facilitating the expression of RCN2. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated that HCC progression induced by RCN2 might be related to MYC signaling. Furthermore, we demonstrated RCN2 reduced proteasomal degradation of MYC and lead to HCC progression. The effects of overexpressed RCN2 in HCC were attenuated by MYC silencing. In conclusion, our study highlighted the vital role of RCN2 in tumor progression and the potential benefit for the treatment of HCC.

18.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 654405, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34055936

RESUMO

Background: Accumulating evidence has revealed that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients may be complicated with myocardial injury during hospitalization. However, data regarding persistent cardiac involvement in patients who recovered from COVID-19 are limited. Our goal is to further explore the sustained impact of COVID-19 during follow-up, focusing on the cardiac involvement in the recovered patients. Methods: In this prospective observational follow-up study, we enrolled a total of 40 COVID-19 patients (20 with and 20 without cardiac injury during hospitalization) who were discharged from Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University for more than 6 months, and 27 patients (13 with and 14 without cardiac injury during hospitalization) were finally included in the analysis. Clinical information including self-reported symptoms, medications, laboratory findings, Short Form 36-item scores, 6-min walk test, clinical events, electrocardiogram assessment, echocardiography measurement, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was collected and analyzed. Results: Among 27 patients finally included, none of patients reported any obvious cardiopulmonary symptoms at the 6-month follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of the quality of life and exercise capacity between the patients with and without cardiac injury. No significant abnormalities were detected in electrocardiogram manifestations in both groups, except for nonspecific ST-T changes, premature beats, sinus tachycardia/bradycardia, PR interval prolongation, and bundle-branch block. All patients showed normal cardiac structure and function, without any statistical differences between patients with and without cardiac injury by echocardiography. Compared with patients without cardiac injury, patients with cardiac injury exhibited a significantly higher positive proportion in late gadolinium enhancement sequences [7/13 (53.8%) vs. 1/14 (7.1%), p = 0.013], accompanied by the elevation of circulating ST2 level [median (interquartile range) = 16.6 (12.1, 22.5) vs. 12.5 (9.5, 16.7); p = 0.044]. Patients with cardiac injury presented higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, high-sensitivity troponin I, lactate dehydrogenase, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide than those without cardiac injury, although these indexes were within the normal range for all recovered patients at the 6-month follow-up. Among patients with cardiac injury, patients with positive late gadolinium enhancement presented higher cardiac biomarker (high-sensitivity troponin I) and inflammatory factor (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) on admission than the late gadolinium enhancement-negative subgroup. Conclusions: Our preliminary 6-month follow-up study with a limited number of patients revealed persistent cardiac involvement in 29.6% (8/27) of recovered patients from COVID-19 after discharge. Patients with cardiac injury during hospitalization were more prone to develop cardiac fibrosis during their recovery. Among patients with cardiac injury, those with relatively higher cardiac biomarkers and inflammatory factors on admission appeared more likely to have cardiac involvement in the convalescence phase.

19.
Cell Metab ; 33(6): 1171-1186.e9, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951476

RESUMO

Antihyperglycemic therapy is an important priority for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Excessive hepatic glucose production (HGP) is a major cause of fasting hyperglycemia. Therefore, a better understanding of its regulation would be important to develop effective antihyperglycemic therapies. Using a gluconeogenesis-targeted kinome screening approach combined with transcriptome analyses, we uncovered Nemo-like kinase (NLK) as a potent suppressor of HGP. Mechanistically, NLK phosphorylates and promotes nuclear export of CRTC2 and FOXO1, two key regulators of hepatic gluconeogenesis, resulting in the proteasome-dependent degradation of the former and the inhibition of the self-transcriptional activity and expression of the latter. Importantly, the expression of NLK is downregulated in the liver of individuals with diabetes and in diabetic rodent models and restoring NLK expression in the mouse model ameliorates hyperglycemia. Therefore, our findings uncover NLK as a critical player in the gluconeogenic regulatory network and as a potential therapeutic target for T2D.

20.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(5): 425, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931585

RESUMO

Serum deprivation-response protein (SDPR), a phosphatidylserine-binding protein, which is known to have a promising role in caveolar biogenesis and morphology. However, its function in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was still largely unknown. In this study, we discussed the characterization and identification of SDPR, and to present it as a novel apoptosis candidate in the incidence of HCC. We identified 81 HCC cases with lower SDPR expression in the tumor tissues with the help of qRT-PCR assay, and lower SDPR expression was potentially associated with poor prognostication. The phenotypic assays revealed that cell proliferation, invasion, and migration were profoundly connected with SDPR, both in vivo and in vitro. The data obtained from the gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) carried out on the liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC), and also The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) findings indicated that SDPR was involved in apoptosis and flow cytometry experiments further confirmed this. Furthermore, we identified the interaction between SDPR and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), which facilitated the ASK1 N-terminus-mediated dimerization and increased ASK1-mediated signaling, thereby activating the JNK/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and finally enhanced cell apoptosis. Overall, this work identified SDPR as a tumor suppressor, because it promoted apoptosis by activating ASK1-JNK/p38 MAPK pathways in HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 5/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Hep G2 , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transfecção
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