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1.
Pharmacol Res ; 151: 104519, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706011

RESUMO

Silybin (SB) is widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, especially this compound is much efficient for the treatments of alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, low bioavailability seriously limits wide-application of SB in biomedical niche. Prior to this study, we found that tangeretin (TG) could remarkably increase the bioavailability of SB by the inhibition of efflux transporters, which encourges us to therapeutical discovery of SB and TG combitional use against NASH. Here, we revealed that TG is capable of improving hepatic-protective activity of SB in mice with NASH by interfering liver oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid accumulation. In addition, TG was observed to enhance the exposural level of SB in the plasma and liver of mice. Our metabolome assay confirmed that amino acid metabolism and lipid biosynthesis mostly accounted for combitional use of SB and TG to teat NASH in mice, basically biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids was mostly affected. Notably, significant inhibitions in fatty acid generating and transporting proteins such as G6PD, FABP4, LPL and CD36/FAT, and cholesterol metabolism enzyme CYP27A1 as well as nuclear transcription factors FXR, PPAR-γ, and LXR were illustrated to decipher therapeutic mechanisms of SB and TG against experimental NASH. Taken together, the strategy based combitional use of SB and TG has a potential-capacity to treat NASH.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 145(5): 1334-1345, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786019

RESUMO

Oncogenic KRAS is considered a promising target for anti-cancer therapy. However, direct pharmacological strategies targeting KRAS-driven cancers remained unavailable. The prenyl-binding protein PDEδ, a transporter of KRAS, has been identified as a potential target for pharmacological inhibitor by selectively binding to its prenyl-binding pocket, impairing oncogenic KRAS signaling pathway. Here, we discovered a novel PDEδ inhibitor (E)-N'-((3-(tert-butyl)-2-hydroxy-6,7,8,9-tetrahydrodibenzo[b,dfuran-1-yl)methylene)-2,4-dihydroxybenzohydrazide(NHTD) by using a high-throughput docking-based virtual screening approach. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that NHTD suppressed proliferation, induced apoptosis and inhibited oncogenic K-RAS signaling pathways by disrupting KRAS-PDEδ interaction in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring KRAS mutations. NHTD redistributed the localization of KRAS to endomembranes by targeting the prenyl-binding pocket of PDEδ and exhibited the suppression of abnormal KRAS function. Importantly, NHTD prevented tumor growth in xenograft and KRAS mutant mouse model, which presents an effective strategy targeting KRAS-driven cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 6/antagonistas & inibidores , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Células A549 , Animais , Benzofuranos/farmacocinética , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/enzimologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 6/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrazonas/farmacocinética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Células NIH 3T3 , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
3.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 1115, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416442

RESUMO

Although hepatoprotective properties of silybin are well documented, the clinical therapeutic efficacy is limited by its low bioavailability due to absorption rates, extensive phase II metabolism, and biliary excretion. As our previous study indicated that metabolic enzymes may have limited effects on the pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior of silymarin, here, we intended to increase the oral bioavailability and bio-efficacy of silybin through the inhibition of active efflux. In Caco-2 and transfected MDCKII cell models, flavone baicalein significantly inhibited the efflux of silybin as a BCRP and MRP2 inhibitor. In addition, baicalein reduced the biliary excretion index (BEI) and biliary clearance of silybin conjugates in the sandwich-cultured rat hepatocyte (SCH) model, indicating the inhibition of baicalein in biliary excretion of conjugated silybin metabolites. PK study demonstrated that baicalein significantly increased the area under the curve (AUC) and Cmax of silybin and its conjugates, suggesting enhanced absorption in vivo. Moreover, coadministration of silybin with baicalein boosted the liver protective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects of silybin in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury model in comparison with silybin given alone. In summary, efflux transporters play a critical role in the low bioavailability of silybin, while inhibition of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and multi-drug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) by baicalein can significantly increase the absorption and bio-efficacy of silybin, which provides a new combination therapeutic approach for the treatment of chronic liver diseases.

4.
Pharmacol Res ; 137: 34-46, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243842

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), majorly include Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, which treatment options remain limited. Here we examined the therapeutic effects of an isoquinoline alkaloid, Palmatine (Pal), on mice experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and explored underlying mechanisms. Colitis was induced in BALB/c mice by administering 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. Pal (50 and 100 mg kg-1) and the positive drug Sulfasalazine (SASP, 200 mg kg-1) were orally administered for 7 days. Disease activity index (DAI) was evaluated on day 8, and colonic tissues were collected for biochemistry analysis. The fecal microbiota was characterized by high-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing. And plasma metabolic changes were detected by UPLC-MS. Our results showed that Pal treatment significantly reduced DAI scores and ameliorated colonic injury in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Mucosal integrity was improved and cell apoptosis was inhibited. Moreover, gut microbiota analysis showed that mice received Pal-treatment have higher relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, but reduced amount of Proteobacteria. Moreover, Pal not only suppressed tryptophan catabolism in plasma, but also decreased the protein expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO-1, the rate-limiting enzyme of tryptophan catabolism) in colon tissue. This is consolidated by molecular docking, which suggested that Pal is a potent IDO-1 inhibitor. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Pal ameliorated DSS-induced colitis by mitigating colonic injury, preventing gut microbiota dysbiosis, and regulating tryptophan catabolism, which indicated that Pal has great therapeutic potential for colitis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Alcaloides de Berberina/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Berberina/uso terapêutico , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Triptofano/metabolismo , Animais , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/microbiologia , Colite/patologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mucinas/genética , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética
5.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 28(5): 339-357, 2018 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28665143

RESUMO

AIMS: Systemic diseases often have common characteristics. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of targeting common pathological metabolism to inhibit the progression of malignant and proliferative diseases. RESULTS: Gefitinib-resistant (G-R) nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were studied as conditions representative of malignant and proliferative diseases, respectively. Strong lipogenic activity and high expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) were found in both G-R NSCLC cells and synovial fibroblasts from RA patients (RASFs). Berberine (BBR), an effective suppressor of SREBP1 and lipogenesis regulated through reactive oxygen species (ROS)/AMPK pathway, selectively inhibited the growth of G-R NSCLC cells and RASFs but not that of normal cells. It effectively caused mitochondrial dysfunction, activated ROS/AMPK pathway, and finally suppressed cellular lipogenesis and cell proliferation. Addition of ROS blocker, AMPK inhibitor, and palmitic acid significantly reduced the effect of BBR. In an in vivo study, treatment of BBR led to significant inhibition of mouse tumor xenograft growth and remarkably slowed down the development of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Innovation and Conclusion: Targeting ROS/AMPK/lipogenesis signaling pathway selectively inhibited the growth of G-R NSCLC cells and the progress of RASFs in vitro and in vivo, which provides a new avenue for treating malignancies and proliferative diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 339-357.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Lipogênese/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Berberina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/patologia , Gefitinibe , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Oxirredução , Quinazolinas/administração & dosagem , Quinazolinas/efeitos adversos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Líquido Sinovial/efeitos dos fármacos , Líquido Sinovial/metabolismo
6.
Pharmacol Res ; 128: 153-166, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28958806

RESUMO

Biological responses of a variety of naturally occurring compounds in vivo were restrained by their poor oral bioavailability. Silybin, as one of the active ingredients of silymarin, has presented promising bioactivity for the treatment of chronic liver diseases and cancer. However, its exposure in body was limited. In this study, silybin was demonstrated to be substrates of both BCRP and MRP2 by utilizing monolayer Caco-2 cell model and confirmed in MDCK cells overexpressing specific efflux transporter. Of all compounds screened, tangeretin, a potent inhibitor of efflux transporters of BCRP, MRP2 and P-gp, was able to enhance exposure of silybin by inhibiting functions of the barriers mediating transcellular transport. Moreover, study carried out in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocyte (SCH) model showed that the biliary excretion index (BEI) and in vitro biliary clearance of silybin decreased as levels of tangeretin increased, indicating efflux transporters mediating biliary excretion of silybin might be involved. Pharmacokinetic behaviors of silybin in rats were altered by co-administration of tangeretin, in terms of increased AUC and Cmax of silybin by comparing with that of silybin given alone. In addition, results coming from CCl4-induced acute liver injury rat model revealed that protection effect of silybin against liver damage in the presence of tangeretin was significantly enhanced. All these data were evident that efflux transporters play a critical role in transcellular transport of silybin and account for its low bioavailability. Enhanced bioavailability of silybin with co-administration of tangeretin by significantly inhibiting the efflux transporters further boost its bioactivity which is of particular importance in clinical use.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Flavonas/farmacologia , Silibina/farmacocinética , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Cães , Humanos , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
Pharmacol Res ; 121: 70-82, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28456683

RESUMO

Despite the increased morbidity of ulcerative colitis (UC) in recent years, available treatments remain unsatisfactory. Pogostemon cablin has been widely applied to treat a variety of gastrointestinal disorders in clinic for centuries, in which patchouli alcohol (PA, C15H26O) has been identified as the major active component. This study attempted to determine the bioactivity of PA on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mice colitis and clarify the mechanism of action. Acute colitis was induced in mice by 3% DSS for 7 days. The mice were then given PA (10, 20 and 40mg/kg) or sulfasalazine (SASP, 200mg/kg) as positive control via oral administration for 7 days. At the end of study, animals were sacrificed and samples were collected for pathological and other analysis. In addition, a metabolite profiling and a targeted metabolite analysis, based on the Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) approach, were performed to characterize the metabolic changes in plasma. The results revealed that PA significantly reduced the disease activity index (DAI) and ameliorated the colonic injury of DSS mice. The levels of colonic MPO and cytokines involving TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 also declined. Furthermore, PA improved the intestinal epithelial barrier by enhancing the level of colonic expression of the tight junction (TJ) proteins, for instance ZO-1, ZO-2, claudin-1 and occludin, and by elevating the levels of mucin-1 and mucin-2 mRNA. The study also demonstrated that PA inhibited the DSS-induced cell death signaling by modulating the apoptosis related Bax and Bcl-2 proteins and down-regulating the necroptosis related RIP3 and MLKL proteins. By comparison, up-regulation of IDO-1 and TPH-1 protein expression in DSS group was suppressed by PA, which was in line with the declined levels of kynurenine (Kyn) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) in plasma. The therapeutic effect of PA was evidently reduced when Kyn was given to mice. In summary, the study successfully demonstrated that PA ameliorated DSS-induced mice acute colitis by suppressing inflammation, maintaining the integrity of intestinal epithelial barrier, inhibiting cell death signaling, and suppressing tryptophan catabolism. The results provided valuable information and guidance for using PA in treatment of UC.


Assuntos
Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfato de Dextrana , Sesquiterpenos/uso terapêutico , Triptofano/metabolismo , Animais , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Citocinas/análise , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pogostemon/química , Sesquiterpenos/química
9.
Pharmacol Res ; 110: 193-204, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27058921

RESUMO

Multidrug resistance (MDR) and tumor metastasis are the main causes of chemotherapeutic treatment failure and mortality in cancer patients. In this study, at achievable nontoxic plasma concentrations, citrus flavonoid tangeretin has been shown to reverse ABCB1-mediated cancer resistance to a variety of chemotherapeutic agents effectively. Co-treatment of cells with tangeretin and paclitaxel activated apoptosis as well as arrested cell cycle at G2/M-phase. Tangeretin profoundly inhibited the ABCB1 transporter activity since it significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin, and flutax-2 in A2780/T cells and decreased the efflux of ABCB1 substrates in Caco2 cells without altering the expression of ABCB1. Moreover, it stimulated the ATPase activity and inhibited verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating a direct interaction with the transporter. The molecular docking results indicated a favorable binding of tangeretin with the transmemberane region site 1 of homology modeled ABCB1 transporter. The overall results demonstrated that tangeretin could sensitize ABCB1-overexpressing cancer cells to chemotherapeutical agents by directly inhibiting ABCB1 transporter function, which encouraged further animal and clinical studies in the treatment of resistant cancers.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Células A549 , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/química , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítios de Ligação , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Doxorrubicina/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Flavonas/química , Flavonas/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Taxoides/metabolismo , Taxoides/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Talanta ; 144: 20-8, 2015 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26452787

RESUMO

Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, has been demonstrated to be a safe anti-cancer agent with multiple effects on mitochondria. Intracellular concentration and distribution around the targeting sites are determinants of efficacy, but subcellular distribution of berberine has not been fully elucidated yet, which relies on the sensitive and robustness assay. In this study, a sensitive and robust UPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated with optimized extraction solvents and detection conditions. Key factors such as the purity and integrity of isolated organelle fractions, and the effects of isolation procedures on the subcellular concentration of berberine were systemically evaluated. With the developed assay, we found that the intracellular accumulations of berberine in two gefitinib resistant NSCLC cell lines H1650 and H1975 were 2-3 folds higher than that of normal epithelial cells BEAS-2B. Moreover, significantly different subcellular distribution profiles in NSCLC cancer cells from that of BEAS-2B cells with a striking increase in content in most organelles may contribute to its selective cytotoxicity to cancer cells. Furthermore, a predominant accumulation of berberine was observed for the first time in microsomal fraction for all three cell lines. Therefore, this method could be used for quantitative evaluation of subcellular distribution and cellular accumulation of berberine and for further evaluation of the concentration-effects relationship.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Berberina/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Berberina/isolamento & purificação , Transporte Biológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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