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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 135475, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767296

RESUMO

Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are closely related to vegetation compositions, edaphic properties, and site-specific processes. However, the coevolutionary mechanisms underlying the spatial distributions in floristic and ECM fungal composition in the context of biotic adaptations and abiotic variances remain unclear. We combine a total of 25 ECM fungus-associated environmental variables to impose three types of composite scores and then quantify the environmental gradients of geographical site, soil chemical property and vegetation functional trait across 122 grids of 20 m × 20 m in a 25-hm2 forest plot. Significant dissimilarities in vegetational and ECM fungal abundance and composition existed along the above environmental gradients. Specifically, a contrasting floristic distribution (e.g., Betula platyphylla vs. Tilia mandshurica) existed between the northeastern and southwestern areas and was closely related to the nutrient and moisture gradients (with high levels in the west and low levels in the east). Furthermore, the ECM fungal communities were more abundant in the nutrient-poor and low-moisture environments than in the nutrient-rich and high-moisture environments, and the mixed-forest in the middle-gradient sites between the northeastern and southwestern areas harbored the highest ECM fungal diversity. These findings suggest that predictable within-site vegetation succession is closely related to ECM-associated determinants and the natural spatial heterogeneity of edaphic properties at a local scale.

2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(5): 1445-1462, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106998

RESUMO

We examined the effects of nitrogen, soil microbe and their interactions on biomass allocation, growth and photosynthesis of Fraxinus mandschurica, a typical tree species in Changbai Mountain, through outdoor control experiments. In June 2017, an experiment with two-factor randomized block design was carried out. There were four treatments: control (F), nitrogen addition (FN), sterilization (FS), sterilization and nitrogen addition (FSN), six repetitive blocks, three repetitions per block, including 18 repetitions of each treatment. In mid-August 2018, we measured photosynthetic parameters and then harvested seedlings to measure biomass and growth parameters in September. The results showed that compared with F, FN significantly increased total biomass by 14%, basal diameter by 9%, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conduc-tance (gs), transpiration rate (Tr) by 75%, 318%, 231%, 227% respectively. FS significantly increased total biomass by 13%, basal diameter by 9% and chlorophyll content, Pn, gs and Tr increased by 34%, 213%, 120% and 115%, respectively. FSN increased total biomass by 23%, basal diameter by 14%, chlorophyll content, Pn, gs and Tr increased by 81%, 672%, 312% and 273%, respectively. Nitrogen, soil microbe and their interactions had significant effects on biomass, growth and photosynthesis of F. mandschurica seedlings. Soil microbe would regulate the response of F. mandschurica seedlings to nitrogen.


Assuntos
Fraxinus/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/análise , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Biomassa , Folhas de Planta , Plântula , Solo/química
3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(5): 1487-1493, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107003

RESUMO

Seeds are the basis for forest regeneration. To examine the composition and spatio-temporal dynamics of seed rains, a total of 150 seed traps of 0.5 m2 were installed in a 25 hm2 broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest plot in Changbai Mountains. With a total of 252 collections from May 2006 to September 2017, we collected 764299 mature and immature seeds which were belonged to 27 species, 17 genera, and 12 families. More than 90% of all collected seeds (704231 seeds) were from 13 canopy species. Seeds of four tree species, including Tilia amurensis, Fraxinus mandschurica, Acer mono, and Acer pseudo-sieboldianum could be collected every year from each trap. Mast-seeding was found in every canopy layer, but it happened one to two years earlier in the overstorey layer than midstorey and understorey layer. Almost all species produced seeds in autumn, with considerable spatiotemporal variation. Generally, the spatial variation of seeds was larger than temporal variation. Compared with annual variation coefficient of seeds in tropical forest of the Barro Colorado Island (BCI) and subtropical evergreen forest in the Gutianshan, annual variation coefficient of seeds in Changbai Mountains was higher, which supported the hypothesis that annual variation in seed rains would be lower in the tropics than that in higher latitudes.


Assuntos
Florestas , Pinus , China , Ecossistema , Sementes , Árvores
4.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 28(5): 1407-1413, 2017 May 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29745174

RESUMO

To understand the factors influencing tree radial growth, we analyzed the seasonal dynamics of tree growth of 3 common species (Pinus koraiensis, Tilia amurensis, Quercus mongolica), compared interspecific growth rates and explored the effects of size, neighborhood competition, soil and topography based on five years dendrometer bands monitoring data of the 3 common species in a broad-leaved Korean pine (P. koraiensis) mixed forest plot in Changbai Mountain, Northeast China. The results showed that the growth dynamics of 3 species were consistent. Trees began to grow in late May, thrived in July, grew at declining rates from late August and stopped growing in late October. Annual relative growth rates were significantly different among the species. Q. mongolica tended to grow faster than the other two species, and the differences of growth rates among the 3 species were especially large for small and medium trees. Tree growth rates of P. koraiensis and Q. mongolica were strongly decreased by neighborhood competition, while tree growth rate of T. amurensis was significantly related to tree size, soil and topography.


Assuntos
Florestas , Pinus , China , Quercus , Árvores
5.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 25(8): 2149-57, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25509062

RESUMO

Spruce-fir forest is the best protected forest vegetation, while larch forest is intrazonal vegetation on the northern slope of Changbai Mountains. To further understand their species composition and community structure, we established a 4 hm2 forest permanent plot in each of these two forests in 2010. All free-standing plant species with DBH (diameter at breast height) ≥ 1 cm were mapped, tagged, and identified to species. The results showed that there were 9257 stems belonging to 8640 genotype individuals, 22 species, 6 genera and 12 families in the spruce-fir forest plot, while 4060 stems belonging to 3696 genotype individuals, 22 species, 8 genera and 16 families in the larch forest plot. Species composition in the two plots was very similar. Most of the species belonged to the Changbai Mountains plant flora. The analysis of species' importance values showed that there were dominant species in both communities. The spruce-fir forest was dominated by Abies nephrolepis and Larix olgensis, whose importance values accounted for 38.7% and 23.9% of the sum of importance values over all species in the plot, respectively. The larch forest was dominated solely by L. olgensis, whose importance value accounted for 61.9% of the sum of importance values over all species in the plot. Both forests were in good condition of regeneration and showed a reversed 'J' type in tree size distributions, at community level. However, different species showed different shapes in size distribution in the two forests. A. nephrolepis showed a reversed 'J' type size distribution in the spruce-fir forest, while L. olgensis with DBH ≥ 10 cm showed a hump-shaped distribution in the larch forest. Spatial distribution patterns of the main species changed differently with size class and spatial scales. Common species had different spatial distribution patterns in the two plots.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Florestas , Árvores , Abies , China , Larix , Picea
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 25(5): 1239-49, 2014 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25129921

RESUMO

The broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest represents the typical vegetation type of the eastern mountain area in Northeast China. However, due to the interference of human activities, the natural broad-leaved Korean pine forest only distributes in some residual fragments with unequal areas in Changbai Mountains and Small Hinggan Mountains. To compare and analyze the similarities and differences of broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forests in the different areas, we established six forest plots following the field protocol of the 50 hm2 forest plot in Panama (Barro Colorado Island, BCI) in 2012 in Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve in Jilin Province and the eastern mountain area in Liaoning Province. All free-standing plant species with DBH (diameter at breast height) > or = 1 cm were mapped, tagged and identified to species. The results showed that there were 69 woody species in the six plots, comprising 42 genera and24 families. Aceraceae was the most species-rich family in all six plots. Most species belonged to the plant type of North Temperate Zone, with a minor subtropical plant species component. The statistics of species abundance, basal area, mean DBH, and importance value showed that there were obviously dominant species in each community. The DBH distribution of all individuals showed a reversed "J" type. However, the percentage of individuals in small size-class and large size-class varied in the six communities, which indicated that these communities were at different successional stages. Ranked by the importance value, the DBH distribution of the top three species in the six plots showed four distribution types: reversed "J" distribution, reversed "L" distribution, unimodal distribution, and partial peak distribution. Spatial distribution patterns of the main species in the six plots changed differently with species and size-class, and the distribution patterns of the same species varied in the different plots.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Florestas , Árvores , China , Pinus
7.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 24(2): 303-10, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23705371

RESUMO

Taking the 5 hm2 sampling plot in the natural secondary poplar-birch forest in Changbai Mountains as test object, and based on the two census data in 2005 and 2010, an analysis was made on the main tree species composition and quantity, size class distribution of dead individuals, and regeneration characteristics of the main tree species in different habitat types of the plot in 2005-2010. In the five years, the species number of the individuals with DBH> or = 1 cm increased from 46 to 47, among which, 3 species were newly appeared, and 2 species were disappeared. The number of the individuals changed from 16509 to 15027, among which, 2150 individuals died, accounting for 13% of the whole individuals in 2005, and 668 individuals were newly increased. The basal area of the trees increased from 28.79 m2.m-2 to 30.55 m2.m-2, with that of 41 species increased while that of 6 species decreased. The decrease of the basal area of Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana accounted for 72.3% of the total decrease. Small individuals had higher mortality, as compared with large ones, and the mortality of the individuals with DBH<5 cm occupied 65% of the total. B. platyphylla and P. davidiana contributed most in the dead individuals with large DBH. No difference was observed in the tree mortality among different habitat types, but the mortality of the individuals with different size classes showed greater variation.


Assuntos
Betula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Populus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Betula/anatomia & histologia , China , Dinâmica Populacional , Populus/anatomia & histologia , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 21(8): 1899-906, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21043093

RESUMO

Based on the shrub census of 600 quadrats (5 mx5 m) in a 25 hm2 plot of broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains, this paper analyzed the species composition, structure, and spatial distribution of shrubs in the forest. A total of 18 shrub species, including 6435 shrub individuals and 11369 stems, were found in the census, with Philadelphus schrenkii, Corylus mandshurica, and Acer barbinerve being the dominant species. P. schrenkii had the highest amounts of individuals and stems, occupying 40.6% and 33.4% of the total, respectively. There existed great differences in the clumpy ratio, stem number per clump, crown size, and basal diameter among the shrub species, and the height of different shrub species also varied significantly, with obvious vertical stratification observed in the community. The dominant species P. schrenkii had a wide distribution, while Sorbaria sorbifolia, Spiraea chamaedryfolia, S. salicifolia, and Euonymus pauciflorus had obvious heterogeneous distributions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Acer/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinâmica Populacional
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 21(9): 2171-8, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21265134

RESUMO

In order to understand the composition and spatiotemporal dynamics of the litter falls at community level in a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains, litter falls were collected from 150 containers in a 25 hm2 permanent plot in 2008. The leaf litters in the containers were from 35 tree species, accounting for 67.3% of the total number (52) of the tree species with DBH > or =1 cm in the plot. The litter falls had a weight 29.39 kg, equivalent to 3918.4 kg x hm(-2) among which, broad leaves, miscellany, needle leaves, and branches occupied 61.7%, 18.0%, 11.7%, and 8.6%, respectively. About 83.8% of the broad leaves were from Tilia amurensis, Fraxinus mandshurica, Quercus mongolica, Acer mono, and Ulmus japonica. The litter falls showed an evident seasonal dynamics, with the peaks occurred from 13 September to 10 October, e.g., the litter falls from T. amurensis and Pinus koraiensis peaked in 13-26 September, while those from Q. mongolica, U. japonica, and A. pseudo-sieboldianum peaked in 27 September to 10 October. There was a great difference in the mass of the litter falls among the containers, e.g., with 150-200 g litters in 68 containers and >500 g litters in 1 container. The species number of the litter falls in a container was 18 in maximum, and was 12 in common (32 containers). Litter falls mass was positively proportional to the sum of the basal area at breast height of parent trees in the plot, and the amount of the litter falls in the containers was related with the locations of the containers, exhibiting an evident spatial heterogeneity in the plot.


Assuntos
Pinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Fraxinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinâmica Populacional , Quercus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Tilia/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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