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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 286, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941904

RESUMO

A prominent tree species coexistence mechanism suggests host-specific natural enemies inhibit seedling recruitment at high conspecific density (negative conspecific density dependence). Natural-enemy-mediated conspecific density dependence affects numerous tree populations, but its strength varies substantially among species. Understanding how conspecific density dependence varies with species' traits and influences the dynamics of whole communities remains a challenge. Using a three-year manipulative community-scale experiment in a temperate forest, we show that plant-associated fungi, and to a lesser extent insect herbivores, reduce seedling recruitment and survival at high adult conspecific density. Plant-associated fungi are primarily responsible for reducing seedling recruitment near conspecific adults in ectomycorrhizal and shade-tolerant species. Insects, in contrast, primarily inhibit seedling recruitment of shade-intolerant species near conspecific adults. Our results suggest that natural enemies drive conspecific density dependence in this temperate forest and that which natural enemies are responsible depends on the mycorrhizal association and shade tolerance of tree species.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 135475, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767296

RESUMO

Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are closely related to vegetation compositions, edaphic properties, and site-specific processes. However, the coevolutionary mechanisms underlying the spatial distributions in floristic and ECM fungal composition in the context of biotic adaptations and abiotic variances remain unclear. We combine a total of 25 ECM fungus-associated environmental variables to impose three types of composite scores and then quantify the environmental gradients of geographical site, soil chemical property and vegetation functional trait across 122 grids of 20 m × 20 m in a 25-hm2 forest plot. Significant dissimilarities in vegetational and ECM fungal abundance and composition existed along the above environmental gradients. Specifically, a contrasting floristic distribution (e.g., Betula platyphylla vs. Tilia mandshurica) existed between the northeastern and southwestern areas and was closely related to the nutrient and moisture gradients (with high levels in the west and low levels in the east). Furthermore, the ECM fungal communities were more abundant in the nutrient-poor and low-moisture environments than in the nutrient-rich and high-moisture environments, and the mixed-forest in the middle-gradient sites between the northeastern and southwestern areas harbored the highest ECM fungal diversity. These findings suggest that predictable within-site vegetation succession is closely related to ECM-associated determinants and the natural spatial heterogeneity of edaphic properties at a local scale.

3.
Ecol Indic ; 1072019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478008

RESUMO

Understanding the effects of plant species diversity and trait composition on aboveground biomass is a central focus of ecology and has important implications for biodiversity conservation. However, the simultaneous direct and indirect effects of soil nutrients, species asynchrony, functional trait diversity, and trait composition for explaining the community temporal stability of aboveground biomass remain underrepresented in natural forests. Here, we hypothesized that species asynchrony relative to soil nutrients, functional trait diversity, and trait composition plays a central role in stabilizing the community temporal stability of natural forests. We tested this hypothesis using a structural equation model based on 10-year continuous monitoring data (i.e., three-time repeated forest inventories) in both second-growth and old-growth temperate forests in northeast China. Our results showed that the community temporal stability of aboveground biomass was driven by a strong direct positive effect of species asynchrony in both second-growth and old-growth temperate forests, whereas functional trait diversity and composition (i.e. community-weighted mean of leaf nitrogen content) were of additional importance in an old-growth forest only. Functional trait diversity decreased community-weighted mean of leaf nitrogen content in an old-growth forest, whereas this relationship was non-significant in a second-growth forest. Soil nutrients had non-significant effects on the community temporal stability of both second-growth and old-growth forests. Species asynchrony was the direct determinant of the community temporal stability of aboveground biomass in temperate forests. The direct effect of species asynchrony increased with forest succession, implying that temporal niche differentiation and facilitation increase over time. This study suggests that managing forests with mixtures of both early and late successional species or shade intolerant and tolerant species, not only species diversity, is important for maintaining forest stability in a changing environment. We argue that the species asynchrony effect is crucial to understand the underlying ecological mechanisms for a diversity-biomass relationship in natural forests.

4.
Ecology ; 100(5): e02650, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742311

RESUMO

Forests play a key role in regulating the global carbon cycle, and yet the abiotic and biotic conditions that drive the demographic processes that underpin forest carbon dynamics remain poorly understood in natural ecosystems. To address this knowledge gap, we used repeat forest inventory data from 92,285 trees across four large permanent plots (4-25 ha in size) in temperate mixed forests in northeast China to ask the following questions: (1) How do soil conditions and stand age drive biomass demographic processes? (2) How do vegetation quality (i.e., functional trait diversity and composition) and quantity (i.e., initial biomass stocks) influence biomass demographic processes independently from soil conditions and stand age? (3) What is the relative contribution of growth, recruitment, and mortality to net biomass change? Using structural equation modeling, we showed that all three demographic processes were jointly constrained by multiple abiotic and biotic factors and that mortality was the strongest determinant on net biomass change over time. Growth and mortality, as well as functional trait diversity and the community-weighted mean of specific leaf area (CWMSLA ), declined with stand age. By contrast, high soil phosphorous concentrations were associated with greater functional diversity and faster dynamics (i.e., high growth and mortality rates), but associated with lower CWMSLA and initial biomass stock. More functionally diverse communities also had higher recruitment rates, but did not exhibit faster growth and mortality. Instead, initial biomass stocks and CWMSLA were stronger predictors of biomass growth and mortality, respectively. By integrating the full spectrum of abiotic and biotic drivers of forest biomass dynamics, our study provides critical system-level insights needed to predict the possible consequences of regional changes in forest diversity, composition, structure and function in the context of global change.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Florestas , Biomassa , Carbono , China , Demografia , Árvores
5.
New Phytol ; 223(1): 475-486, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762231

RESUMO

Soil fertility influences plant community structure, yet few studies have focused on how this influence is affected by the type of mycorrhizal association formed by tree species within local communities. We examined the relationship of aboveground biomass (AGB) and diversity of adult trees with soil fertility (nitrogen, phosphorus, organic matter, etc.) in the context of different spatial distributions of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EM) trees in a temperate forest in Northeast China. Diversity showed a positive trend along the soil fertility gradient driven mostly by a positive relationship between AM tree abundance and soil fertility. By contrast, the AGB showed a negative trend along the soil fertility gradient driven mostly by a negative relationship between EM tree AGB and soil fertility. Furthermore, the opposite trend in the AGB and tree species diversity along the soil fertility gradient led to an overall negative diversity-biomass relationship at the 50-m scale but not the 20-m scale. These results suggest that tree mycorrhizal associations play a critical role in driving forest community structure along soil fertility gradients and highlight the importance of tree mycorrhizal associations in influencing how the diversity-ecosystem function (e.g. biomass) relationships change with soil fertility.

6.
Ecol Evol ; 8(15): 7285-7296, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151149

RESUMO

Plant sexual systems appear to play an important role in community assembly: Dioecious species are found to tend to have a higher propensity to colonize communities in early successional stages. Here, we test two demographic hypotheses to explain this pattern in temperate forests. First, we test demographic differences between hermaphrodite and dioecious species in stressful younger successional stages: Previous theory predicts that hermaphrodite seed production is more harmed in stressful environments than that of dioecious populations leading to an advantage for females of dioecious species. Second, in primary forest, we hypothesized that dioecious species would show demographic advantage over monomorphic ones. We used data from two temperate forest plots in Northeast China surveyed over 10 years to compare the rates of growth and mortality of tree species with contrasting breeding systems in both secondary and primary forests. We assessed the effect of breeding system on the growth-mortality trade-off, while controlling for other traits usually considered as correlates of growth and mortality rates. We show that in the secondary forest, dioecious species showed weak advantage in demographic rates compared with monomorphic species; dioecious species showed considerably both lower relative growth and mortality rates compared to the hermaphrodites in the primary forest over 10 years, consistent with a priori predictions. Hermaphrodites showed strong growth-mortality trade-offs across forest stages, even when possibly confounding factors had been accounted for. These results suggest that sexual system influences community succession and assembly by acting on the rates of growth and mortality, and the trade-off between them. As vegetation develops, the demographic differences between breeding systems are much larger. Our results demonstrate the association between breeding system, succession, and community assembly and that this relationship is succession-stage dependent. Our findings support the suggestion that the demographic advantage of dioecious species facilitates the coexistence of sexual systems in primary forest.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(24): 6237-6242, 2018 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848630

RESUMO

The theory of "top-down" ecological regulation predicts that herbivory suppresses plant abundance, biomass, and survival but increases diversity through the disproportionate consumption of dominant species, which inhibits competitive exclusion. To date, these outcomes have been clear in aquatic ecosystems but not on land. We explicate this discrepancy using a meta-analysis of experimental results from 123 native animal exclusions in natural terrestrial ecosystems (623 pairwise comparisons). Consistent with top-down predictions, we found that herbivores significantly reduced plant abundance, biomass, survival, and reproduction (all P < 0.01) and increased species evenness but not richness (P = 0.06 and P = 0.59, respectively). However, when examining patterns in the strength of top-down effects, with few exceptions, we were unable to detect significantly different effect sizes among biomes, based on local site characteristics (climate or productivity) or study characteristics (study duration or exclosure size). The positive effects on diversity were only significant in studies excluding large animals or located in temperate grasslands. The results demonstrate that top-down regulation by herbivores is a pervasive process shaping terrestrial plant communities at the global scale, but its strength is highly site specific and not predicted by basic site conditions. We suggest that including herbivore densities as a covariate in future exclosure studies will facilitate the discovery of unresolved macroecology trends in the strength of herbivore-plant interactions.


Assuntos
Herbivoria/fisiologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Clima , Ecossistema , Plantas
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 630: 422-431, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29482149

RESUMO

Forests play an important role in regulating the global carbon cycle. Yet, how abiotic (i.e. soil nutrients) and biotic (i.e. tree diversity, stand structure and initial biomass) factors simultaneously contribute to aboveground biomass (coarse woody) productivity, and how the relative importance of these factors changes over succession remain poorly studied. Coarse woody productivity (CWP) was estimated as the annual aboveground biomass gain of stems using 10-year census data in old growth and secondary forests (25-ha and 4.8-ha, respectively) in northeast China. Boosted regression tree (BRT) model was used to evaluate the relative contribution of multiple metrics of tree diversity (taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity and trait composition as well as stand structure attributes), stand initial biomass and soil nutrients on productivity in the studied forests. Our results showed that community-weighted mean of leaf phosphorus content, initial stand biomass and soil nutrients were the three most important individual predictors for CWP in secondary forest. Instead, initial stand biomass, rather than diversity and functional trait composition (vegetation quality) was the most parsimonious predictor of CWP in old growth forest. By comparing the results from secondary and old growth forest, the summed relative contribution of trait composition and soil nutrients on productivity decreased as those of diversity indices and initial biomass increased, suggesting the stronger effect of diversity and vegetation quantity over time. Vegetation quantity, rather than diversity and soil nutrients, is the main driver of forest productivity in temperate mixed forest. Our results imply that diversity effect for productivity in natural forests may not be so important as often suggested, at least not during the later stage of forest succession. This finding suggests that as a change of the importance of different divers of productivity, the environmentally driven filtering decreases and competitively driven niche differentiation increases with forest succession.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , China
9.
Ecol Evol ; 7(14): 5191-5200, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28770059

RESUMO

Forest community structure may be influenced by seedling density dependence, however, the effect is loosely coupled with population dynamics and diversity in the short term. In the long term the strength of conspecific density dependence may fluctuate over time because of seedling abundance, yet few long-term studies exist. Based on 11 years of seedling census data and tree census data from a 25-ha temperate forest plot in Northeast China, we used generalized linear mixed models to test the relative effects of local neighborhood density and abiotic factors on seedling density and seedling survival. Spatial point pattern analysis was used to determine if spatial patterns of saplings and juveniles, in relation to conspecific adults, were in accordance with patterns uncovered by conspecific negative density dependence at the seedling stage. Our long-term results showed that seedling density was mainly positively affected by conspecific density, suggesting dispersal limitation of seedling development. The probability of seedling survival significantly decreased over 1 year with increasing conspecific density, indicating conspecific negative density dependence in seedling establishment. Although there was variation in conspecific negative density dependence at the seedling stage among species and across years, a dispersed pattern of conspecific saplings relative to conspecific adults at the local scale (<10 m) was observed in four of the 11 species examined. Overall, sapling spatial patterns were consistent with the impacts of conspecific density on seedling dynamics, which suggests that conspecific negative density dependence is persistent over the long term. From the long-term perspective, conspecific density dependence is an important driver of species coexistence in temperate forests.

10.
Oecologia ; 182(4): 1175-1185, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27677471

RESUMO

Biodiversity can be measured by taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity. How ecosystem functioning depends on these measures of diversity can vary from site to site and depends on successional stage. Here, we measured taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity, and examined their relationship with biomass in two successional stages of the broad-leaved Korean pine forest in northeastern China. Functional diversity was calculated from six plant traits, and aboveground biomass (AGB) and coarse woody productivity (CWP) were estimated using data from three forest censuses (10 years) in two large fully mapped forest plots (25 and 5 ha). 11 of the 12 regressions between biomass variables (AGB and CWP) and indices of diversity showed significant positive relationships, especially those with phylogenetic diversity. The mean tree diversity-biomass regressions increased from 0.11 in secondary forest to 0.31 in old-growth forest, implying a stronger biodiversity effect in more mature forest. Multi-model selection results showed that models including species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and single functional traits explained more variation in forest biomass than other candidate models. The models with a single functional trait, i.e., leaf area in secondary forest and wood density in mature forest, provided better explanations for forest biomass than models that combined all six functional traits. This finding may reflect different strategies in growth and resource acquisition in secondary and old-growth forests.


Assuntos
Florestas , Filogenia , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Árvores
11.
Ecology ; 96(4): 1062-73, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26230026

RESUMO

Although trait information has been widely used to explore underlying mechanisms of forest community structure, most studies have focused on local patterns of phylogenetic or functional alpha diversity. Investigations of functional beta diversity, on the other hand, have not been conducted at local scales in a spatially explicit way. In this study, we provide a powerful methodology based on recent advances in spatial point pattern analysis using fully mapped data of large and small trees in two large temperate forest plots. This approach allowed us to assess the relative importance of different ecological processes and mechanisms for explaining patterns of local phylogenetic and functional beta diversity. For both forests and size classes, we found a clear hierarchy of scales: habitat filtering accounted for patterns of phylogenetic and functional beta diversity at larger distances (150-250 m), dispersal limitation accounted for the observed decline in beta diversity at distances below 150 m, and species interactions explained small departures from functional and phylogenetic beta diversity at the immediate plant-neighborhood scale (below 20 m). Thus, both habitat filtering and dispersal limitation influenced the observed patterns in phylogenetic and functional beta diversity at local scales. This result contrasts with a previous study from the same forests, where dispersal limitation alone approximated the observed species beta diversity for distances up to 250 m. In addition, species interactions were relatively unimportant for predicting phylogenetic and functional beta diversity. Our analysis suggests that phylogenetic and functional beta diversity can provide insights into the mechanisms of local community assembly that are missed by studies focusing exclusively on species beta diversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Clima , Florestas , Filogenia , Demografia , Modelos Biológicos , Especificidade da Espécie , Wisconsin
12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 25(8): 2149-57, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25509062

RESUMO

Spruce-fir forest is the best protected forest vegetation, while larch forest is intrazonal vegetation on the northern slope of Changbai Mountains. To further understand their species composition and community structure, we established a 4 hm2 forest permanent plot in each of these two forests in 2010. All free-standing plant species with DBH (diameter at breast height) ≥ 1 cm were mapped, tagged, and identified to species. The results showed that there were 9257 stems belonging to 8640 genotype individuals, 22 species, 6 genera and 12 families in the spruce-fir forest plot, while 4060 stems belonging to 3696 genotype individuals, 22 species, 8 genera and 16 families in the larch forest plot. Species composition in the two plots was very similar. Most of the species belonged to the Changbai Mountains plant flora. The analysis of species' importance values showed that there were dominant species in both communities. The spruce-fir forest was dominated by Abies nephrolepis and Larix olgensis, whose importance values accounted for 38.7% and 23.9% of the sum of importance values over all species in the plot, respectively. The larch forest was dominated solely by L. olgensis, whose importance value accounted for 61.9% of the sum of importance values over all species in the plot. Both forests were in good condition of regeneration and showed a reversed 'J' type in tree size distributions, at community level. However, different species showed different shapes in size distribution in the two forests. A. nephrolepis showed a reversed 'J' type size distribution in the spruce-fir forest, while L. olgensis with DBH ≥ 10 cm showed a hump-shaped distribution in the larch forest. Spatial distribution patterns of the main species changed differently with size class and spatial scales. Common species had different spatial distribution patterns in the two plots.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Florestas , Árvores , Abies , China , Larix , Picea
13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 25(5): 1239-49, 2014 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25129921

RESUMO

The broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest represents the typical vegetation type of the eastern mountain area in Northeast China. However, due to the interference of human activities, the natural broad-leaved Korean pine forest only distributes in some residual fragments with unequal areas in Changbai Mountains and Small Hinggan Mountains. To compare and analyze the similarities and differences of broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forests in the different areas, we established six forest plots following the field protocol of the 50 hm2 forest plot in Panama (Barro Colorado Island, BCI) in 2012 in Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve in Jilin Province and the eastern mountain area in Liaoning Province. All free-standing plant species with DBH (diameter at breast height) > or = 1 cm were mapped, tagged and identified to species. The results showed that there were 69 woody species in the six plots, comprising 42 genera and24 families. Aceraceae was the most species-rich family in all six plots. Most species belonged to the plant type of North Temperate Zone, with a minor subtropical plant species component. The statistics of species abundance, basal area, mean DBH, and importance value showed that there were obviously dominant species in each community. The DBH distribution of all individuals showed a reversed "J" type. However, the percentage of individuals in small size-class and large size-class varied in the six communities, which indicated that these communities were at different successional stages. Ranked by the importance value, the DBH distribution of the top three species in the six plots showed four distribution types: reversed "J" distribution, reversed "L" distribution, unimodal distribution, and partial peak distribution. Spatial distribution patterns of the main species in the six plots changed differently with species and size-class, and the distribution patterns of the same species varied in the different plots.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Florestas , Árvores , China , Pinus
14.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e98200, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24887513

RESUMO

A multi-stemmed growth form may be an important trait enabling the persistence of individual shrubs in the forest understory. With the aim of evaluating the role of multiple stems, neighbor competition and soil nutrients in shrub performance, we study the dynamics of two temperate multi-stemmed shrub species. We modeled stem growth and survival of Corylus mandshurica and Acer barbinerve in two temperate forests with differing structure in northeastern China. One forest was an old growth broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest; the other was a secondary poplar-birch forest. Growth of the two species and survival of C. mandshurica increased with stem number in the old growth forest, but not the secondary forest, suggesting the benefits of a multi-stemmed growth form are facultative. C. mandshurica also suffered more from overstory neighbor competition in the old growth forest, which may suggest that this species is less shade-tolerant than A. barbinerve. Moreover, the performance of the two species were clearly influenced by understory neighbors and soil variables in the old growth forest relative to the secondary forest, which may be due to different forest structure. We conclude that multiple stems are not always important for the persistence of shrub species. Even within the same species, the multi-stemmed benefits might be facultative, differing among forests and neighborhood compositions.


Assuntos
Florestas , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas/anatomia & histologia , China , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Solo
15.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 24(2): 303-10, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23705371

RESUMO

Taking the 5 hm2 sampling plot in the natural secondary poplar-birch forest in Changbai Mountains as test object, and based on the two census data in 2005 and 2010, an analysis was made on the main tree species composition and quantity, size class distribution of dead individuals, and regeneration characteristics of the main tree species in different habitat types of the plot in 2005-2010. In the five years, the species number of the individuals with DBH> or = 1 cm increased from 46 to 47, among which, 3 species were newly appeared, and 2 species were disappeared. The number of the individuals changed from 16509 to 15027, among which, 2150 individuals died, accounting for 13% of the whole individuals in 2005, and 668 individuals were newly increased. The basal area of the trees increased from 28.79 m2.m-2 to 30.55 m2.m-2, with that of 41 species increased while that of 6 species decreased. The decrease of the basal area of Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana accounted for 72.3% of the total decrease. Small individuals had higher mortality, as compared with large ones, and the mortality of the individuals with DBH<5 cm occupied 65% of the total. B. platyphylla and P. davidiana contributed most in the dead individuals with large DBH. No difference was observed in the tree mortality among different habitat types, but the mortality of the individuals with different size classes showed greater variation.


Assuntos
Betula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Populus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Betula/anatomia & histologia , China , Dinâmica Populacional , Populus/anatomia & histologia , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Oecologia ; 170(3): 755-65, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22644047

RESUMO

Seedling dynamics play a crucial role in determining species distributions and coexistence. Exploring causes of variation in seedling dynamics can therefore provide key insights into the factors affecting these phenomena. We examined the relative importance of biotic neighborhood processes and habitat heterogeneity using survival data for 5,827 seedlings in 39 tree and shrub species over 2 years from an old-growth temperate forest in northeastern China. We found significant negative density-dependence effects on survival of tree seedlings, and limited effects of habitat heterogeneity (edaphic and topographic variables) on survival of shrub seedlings. The importance of negative density dependence on young tree seedling survival was replaced by habitat in tree seedlings ≥ 4 years old. As expected, negative density dependence was more apparent in gravity-dispersed species compared to wind-dispersed and animal-dispersed species. Moreover, we found that a community compensatory trend existed for trees. Therefore, although negative density dependence was not as pervasive as in other forest communities, it is an important mechanism for the maintenance of community diversity in this temperate forest. We conclude that both negative density dependence and habitat heterogeneity drive seedling survival, but their relative importance varies with seedling age classes and species traits.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clima , Mortalidade , Densidade Demográfica , Dispersão de Sementes , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
PLoS One ; 7(2): e29469, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22347996

RESUMO

Tree survival plays a central role in forest ecosystems. Although many factors such as tree size, abiotic and biotic neighborhoods have been proposed as being important in explaining patterns of tree survival, their contributions are still subject to debate. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine the relative importance of tree size, local abiotic conditions and the density and identity of neighbors on tree survival in an old-growth temperate forest in northeastern China at three levels (community, guild and species). Tree size and both abiotic and biotic neighborhood variables influenced tree survival under current forest conditions, but their relative importance varied dramatically within and among the community, guild and species levels. Of the variables tested, tree size was typically the most important predictor of tree survival, followed by biotic and then abiotic variables. The effect of tree size on survival varied from strongly positive for small trees (1-20 cm dbh) and medium trees (20-40 cm dbh), to slightly negative for large trees (>40 cm dbh). Among the biotic factors, we found strong evidence for negative density and frequency dependence in this temperate forest, as indicated by negative effects of both total basal area of neighbors and the frequency of conspecific neighbors. Among the abiotic factors tested, soil nutrients tended to be more important in affecting tree survival than topographic variables. Abiotic factors generally influenced survival for species with relatively high abundance, for individuals in smaller size classes and for shade-tolerant species. Our study demonstrates that the relative importance of variables driving patterns of tree survival differs greatly among size classes, species guilds and abundance classes in temperate forest, which can further understanding of forest dynamics and offer important insights into forest management.


Assuntos
Clima , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Sobrevida
18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 21(8): 1899-906, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21043093

RESUMO

Based on the shrub census of 600 quadrats (5 mx5 m) in a 25 hm2 plot of broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains, this paper analyzed the species composition, structure, and spatial distribution of shrubs in the forest. A total of 18 shrub species, including 6435 shrub individuals and 11369 stems, were found in the census, with Philadelphus schrenkii, Corylus mandshurica, and Acer barbinerve being the dominant species. P. schrenkii had the highest amounts of individuals and stems, occupying 40.6% and 33.4% of the total, respectively. There existed great differences in the clumpy ratio, stem number per clump, crown size, and basal diameter among the shrub species, and the height of different shrub species also varied significantly, with obvious vertical stratification observed in the community. The dominant species P. schrenkii had a wide distribution, while Sorbaria sorbifolia, Spiraea chamaedryfolia, S. salicifolia, and Euonymus pauciflorus had obvious heterogeneous distributions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Acer/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinâmica Populacional
19.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 21(9): 2171-8, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21265134

RESUMO

In order to understand the composition and spatiotemporal dynamics of the litter falls at community level in a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains, litter falls were collected from 150 containers in a 25 hm2 permanent plot in 2008. The leaf litters in the containers were from 35 tree species, accounting for 67.3% of the total number (52) of the tree species with DBH > or =1 cm in the plot. The litter falls had a weight 29.39 kg, equivalent to 3918.4 kg x hm(-2) among which, broad leaves, miscellany, needle leaves, and branches occupied 61.7%, 18.0%, 11.7%, and 8.6%, respectively. About 83.8% of the broad leaves were from Tilia amurensis, Fraxinus mandshurica, Quercus mongolica, Acer mono, and Ulmus japonica. The litter falls showed an evident seasonal dynamics, with the peaks occurred from 13 September to 10 October, e.g., the litter falls from T. amurensis and Pinus koraiensis peaked in 13-26 September, while those from Q. mongolica, U. japonica, and A. pseudo-sieboldianum peaked in 27 September to 10 October. There was a great difference in the mass of the litter falls among the containers, e.g., with 150-200 g litters in 68 containers and >500 g litters in 1 container. The species number of the litter falls in a container was 18 in maximum, and was 12 in common (32 containers). Litter falls mass was positively proportional to the sum of the basal area at breast height of parent trees in the plot, and the amount of the litter falls in the containers was related with the locations of the containers, exhibiting an evident spatial heterogeneity in the plot.


Assuntos
Pinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Fraxinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinâmica Populacional , Quercus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Tilia/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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