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2.
Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med ; 21(11): 67, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728667

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the number of surgical and transcatheter valve replacements continue to increase in the aging population, so does the incidence of paravalvular leak (PVL). Given its impact on morbidity and mortality, this article will focus on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic assessment, and available treatments for PVL. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite being performed on inoperable and typically higher risk patients, short-term complication rates of transcatheter PVL closure appear relatively low (< 10%). When indirectly compared with surgical PVL closure, long-term mortality, reoperation rates and degree of symptom improvement are similar. Nonetheless, current transcatheter closure devices are off-label and repurposed from other indications. Further development of percutaneous closure devices is an essential next step in order to improve and optimize outcomes. In patients with surgical and especially transcatheter-replaced heart valves, clinicians need to maintain vigilance for the presence of PVL, particularly in those with new-onset heart failure or hemolysis. Multimodality imaging is essential to detect and quantify PVL. Echocardiography (both transthoracic and transesophageal) is the backbone of diagnosis and quantification, and cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging play an important role in defect characterization and in periprocedural planning. For those patients who are unable to undergo surgery, transcatheter PVL closure is an appropriate next step in management as it has similar outcomes to surgical intervention when performed in a center of expertise.

3.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746963

RESUMO

Importance: Pulmonary hypertension (pHTN) is associated with increased risk of mortality after mitral valve surgery for mitral regurgitation. However, its association with clinical outcomes in patients undergoing transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) with a commercially available system (MitraClip) is unknown. Objective: To assess the association of pHTN with readmissions for heart failure and 1-year all-cause mortality after TMVr. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study analyzed 4071 patients who underwent TMVr with the MitraClip system from November 4, 2013, through March 31, 2017, across 232 US sites in the Society of Thoracic Surgery/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy registry. Patients were stratified into the following 4 groups based on invasive mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP): 1103 with no pHTN (mPAP, <25 mm Hg [group 1]); 1399 with mild pHTN (mPAP, 25-34 mm Hg [group 2]); 1011 with moderate pHTN (mPAP, 35-44 mm Hg [group 3]); and 558 with severe pHTN (mPAP, ≥45 mm Hg [group 4]). Data were analyzed from November 4, 2013, through March 31, 2017. Interventions: Patients were stratified into groups before TMVr, and clinical outcomes were assessed at 1 year after intervention. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary end point was a composite of 1-year mortality and readmissions for heart failure. Secondary end points were 30-day and 1-year mortality and readmissions for heart failure. Linkage to Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services administrative claims was performed to assess 1-year outcomes in 2381 patients. Results: Among the 4071 patients included in the analysis, the median age was 81 years (interquartile range, 73-86 years); 1885 (46.3%) were women and 2186 (53.7%) were men. The composite rate of 1-year mortality and readmissions for heart failure was 33.6% (95% CI, 31.6%-35.7%), which was higher in those with pHTN (27.8% [95% CI, 24.2%-31.5%] in group 1, 32.4% [95% CI, 29.0%-35.8%] in group 2, 36.0% [95% CI, 31.8%-40.2%] in group 3, and 45.2% [95% CI, 39.1%-51.0%] in group 4; P < .001). Similarly, 1-year mortality (16.3% [95% CI, 13.4%-19.5%] in group 1, 19.8% [95% CI, 17.0%-22.8%] in group 2, 22.4% [95% CI, 18.8%-26.1%] in group 3, and 27.8% [95% CI, 22.6%-33.3%] in group 4; P < .001) increased across pHTN groups. The association of pHTN with mortality persisted despite multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio per 5-mm Hg mPAP increase, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.09; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that pHTN is associated with increased mortality and readmission for heart failure in patients undergoing TMVr using the MitraClip system for severe mitral regurgitation. Further efforts are needed to determine whether earlier intervention before pHTN develops will improve clinical outcomes.

4.
Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med ; 21(10): 60, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506851

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (TMVr) has been increasingly used in the treatment of patients with severe symptomatic mitral regurgitation who are at high or prohibitive risk for surgical intervention. Pre-existing pulmonary hypertension is known to pertain worse prognosis for patients who are undergoing surgical intervention. The aim of this review is to discuss the current literature on the effects of pulmonary hypertension on the transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Large registry data in patients undergoing TMVr for treatment of severe mitral regurgitation reveal a significant negative impact of baseline pulmonary hypertension on post-procedural outcomes. Pulmonary hypertension is associated with increased mortality and heart failure readmissions in patients undergoing TMVr using MitraClip. Further prospective studies are needed to determine whether earlier intervention will improve clinical outcomes.

5.
Echocardiography ; 36(8): 1450-1458, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) is common in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We aimed to define CRT effects on left ventricular (LV) and mitral valve (MV) geometry, and their correlation with MR severity. METHODS: Forty-one patients with LBBB and ≥mild secondary MR underwent CRT between 2009 and 2012, and had baseline and follow-up echocardiograms available. Repeated measure and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for changes in MV and LV geometry and MR severity, and associations with follow-up MR grade. RESULTS: The mean age and baseline QRS duration were 65.5 ± 14.9 years and 160 ± 24 ms. At a mean follow-up of 2.6 ± 1.8 years, there was an increase in LV ejection fraction and reductions in LV end-systolic volume index, MR grade, and end-systolic interpapillary muscle distance (P < .05 for all). Linear correlations were observed between follow-up MR grade and baseline MV tenting height (r = .44), left atrial volume index (r = .41), LV end-systolic volume index (r = .4), MV tenting area (r = .38), LV ejection fraction (r = -.34), and end-systolic interpapillary muscle distance (r = .34) (P < .05 for all). Multiple regression analysis revealed associations between follow-up MR grade and baseline MV tenting height (ß/mm = 0.42, P = .006) and left atrial volume index (ß/mL/m2  = 0.4, P = .008), independent of QRS duration (ß/ms=-0.07; P = 0.6) and nonischemic cardiomyopathy (ß = -0.34, P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with LBBB and secondary MR results in LV and MV geometric reverse remodeling and decreases MR severity. Extent of baseline MV tethering is independently associated with persistent MR at follow-up.

7.
Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med ; 21(4): 19, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929092

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mitral annular calcification (MAC) and associated calcific mitral stenosis (MS) are frequent in the aging population, although optimal management remains debated and outcomes are poor. This article summarizes challenges in the diagnosis and therapy of calcific MS, the indications for valve intervention, procedural concerns, and emerging treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: Surgical mitral valve replacement is the procedure of choice in symptomatic patients at acceptable surgical risk, with transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) being evaluated in clinical trials as an alternative for patients at prohibitive surgical risk. Significant challenges exist with the currently available technology and outcomes have been suboptimal. Optimizing the patient-selection process by using multimodality imaging tools has proven to be essential. MAC and calcific MS is an increasingly prevalent, challenging issue with poor outcomes. While surgical valve replacement can be performed in patients with acceptable surgical risk, TMVR can be considered for patients at higher risk. Clinical trials are underway to optimize outcomes. Dedicated device designs and techniques to minimize risk of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, paravalvular leakage, and device embolization are to be awaited.

8.
Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med ; 20(7): 52, 2018 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923126

RESUMO

Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common valvular disease in the elderly and is associated with poor outcomes. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in high-risk patients. Herein, we describe the gender-related differences in baseline characteristics and pathophysiologic response to severe AS, imaging considerations unique to females, and short- and long-term outcomes after TAVR. Women undergoing TAVR are older and frailer, have less cardiovascular comorbidities, smaller femoral artery size, better left ventricular systolic function, hypertrophied and small left ventricles leading to a higher incidence of paradoxical low-flow low-gradient AS, and a greater prevalence of porcelain aorta, smaller aortic annulus size, and lower coronary ostia heights. Imaging and histopathological data also suggests a sex-related myocardial response to pressure overload from AS. Women experience more vascular complications and blood transfusion requirements, serious procedural complications, and a greater incidence of stroke, but have better long-term outcomes than men. Patient-prosthesis mismatch, which is a concern in patients with a small aortic annulus size undergoing SAVR, has not been problematic with TAVR. The aforementioned findings suggest that TAVR may be preferable for women with severe AS. Further studies are warranted to directly compare TAVR with SAVR in women.

9.
Echocardiography ; 35(7): 941-948, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29577407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is associated with progressive LV systolic dysfunction and dilated cardiomyopathy. We aimed to investigate the echocardiographic and clinical characteristics associated with LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and moderate or greater systolic dysfunction in patients with LVNC. METHODS: Our institutional echocardiography database was retrospectively reviewed between 2008 and 2014, and 62 patients with LVNC were identified. Forty-three (69%) had moderate or greater LV systolic dysfunction (LVEF ≤ 40%) and were compared with 19 (31%) patients with preserved or mildly reduced LVEF (>40%). Linear regression analyses were utilized to identify markers associated with LVEF. RESULTS: The mean age was 63 ± 17 years and noncompacted-to-compacted ratio was 2.3 ± 0.5, and was larger in patients with LVEF ≤ 40% (2.4 vs 2.1; P = .02). Patients with LVEF ≤ 40% were older, had more congestive heart failure, significant QRS interval prolongation, and greater LV remodeling and worse mean global longitudinal strain (GLS). Multivariate regression analysis revealed increased age (standardized regression coefficient (ß) = -0.17; P = .04) and QRS duration (ß = -0.13; P = .08), congestive heart failure (ß = -0.18; P = .04), and worsened GLS (ß = -0.40; P = .001) were independently associated with decreased LVEF in the cohort (overall model fit R2  = 0.71; P < .0001). Increased age (ß = -0.49; P = .01) and QRS duration (ß = -0.50; P = .002), and worsened GLS (ß = -0.33; P = .04), were also associated with a lower LVEF in patients with LVEF > 40%. CONCLUSIONS: The independent markers associated with LVEF and moderate or greater LV systolic dysfunction in patients with LVNC, in particular GLS and QRS duration, may detect high-risk candidates for more aggressive clinical surveillance and medical therapy.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Miocárdio Ventricular não Compactado Isolado/diagnóstico , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Miocárdio Ventricular não Compactado Isolado/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sístole
10.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 41(2): 114-121, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29222864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on secondary mitral regurgitation (MR), and mitral valve (MV) and left ventricular (LV) geometry, in patients with prior inferior myocardial infarction is not clearly defined. We assessed these outcomes utilizing two-dimensional echocardiography, and analyzed echocardiographic geometric variables that may correlate with follow-up MR severity. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2012, 229 CRT were implanted. Twenty-two had prior inferior myocardial infarction, ≥mild MR at baseline, and serial echocardiography. A left bundle branch block was present in 12 (54.5%) patients. The pre-CRT and follow-up echocardiograms were analyzed for: (1) MR severity; (2) MV and LV geometry; and (3) LV remodeling. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 2.2 years (interquartile range, 0.7-4). In 16 patients without an inferior myocardial scar, there was a reduction in MR jet area/left atrial area ratio (33.2% vs 25.8%; P = 0.06) and MR grade (2.3 vs 1.8; P = 0.05), and an increased LV ejection fraction (26.1% vs 30.9%; P = 0.04) and end-systolic posterior ventricular sulcus-anterolateral papillary muscle angle (133.9 vs 143.9 degrees; P = 0.01). In six patients with scar, there was no change in LV or MR parameters. Regression analysis revealed linear associations between baseline MV tenting height (r = 0.57; P = 0.006), LV end-diastolic diameter index (r = 0.5; P = 0.02), mitral septolateral annular diameter (r = 0.48; P = 0.03), and MV tenting area (r = 0.46; P = 0.03), with follow-up MR jet area/left atrial area ratio. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with prior inferior myocardial infarction and no scar, CRT is associated with decreased MR severity, and improved papillary muscle alignment and LV systolic function at follow-up.


Assuntos
Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Infarto Miocárdico de Parede Inferior/complicações , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/terapia , Idoso , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia
11.
Cardiol Rev ; 26(1): 22-28, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29206746

RESUMO

Secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common finding in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, and it is associated with poor outcomes. It is the result of incomplete systolic closure of the mitral valve (MV) as a consequence of left ventricular dilatation, papillary muscle displacement with impaired systolic shortening, and mitral leaflet tethering. MV surgery may be performed in cases of significant secondary MR despite guideline-directed medical therapy. However, MV repair, which is most commonly performed with an undersized ring annuloplasty, is associated with a 30-60% recurrence of moderate or greater MR at mid-term follow-up. To improve MV repair durability, several adjunctive subvalvular procedures have been proposed, one of which is the addition of papillary muscle approximation utilizing a papillary muscle sling. Recent studies comparing the outcomes of a conventional undersized ring annuloplasty with a MV repair utilizing a papillary muscle sling have reported a significant reduction in recurrent moderate or severe MR, greater left ventricular reverse remodeling, and improved MV apparatus geometry with the addition of the papillary muscle sling. We present a comprehensive review of the pathophysiology of secondary MR, and the rationale and clinical outcomes of MV repair with papillary muscle sling placement for the treatment of secondary MR.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/complicações , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Músculos Papilares/cirurgia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Remodelação Ventricular , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/cirurgia , Humanos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Echocardiography ; 34(11): 1561-1567, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28895197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) may improve secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) in patients with cardiomyopathy. The effects on mitral valve (MV) and left ventricular (LV) geometry, however, have not been clearly defined. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2012, 229 CRT implants were performed at a single academic center. Seventy-one had ≥mild MR at baseline and serial echocardiography, without subsequent MV intervention. The pre-CRT and follow-up echocardiograms were retrospectively reviewed for (1) MV and LV geometry measurements; (2) MR grade; and (3) LV remodeling indices. RESULTS: The mean age was 67 ± 15 years, and the cardiomyopathy was ischemic in 37 (52%). At a mean follow-up of 4.0 ± 1.9 years, there were significant improvements in LV ejection fraction and size, MR grade, MV tenting area and anterior leaflet tethering angle, and end-systolic interpapillary muscle distance (IPMD), and reductions in moderate-to-severe or severe MR (27% vs 15%; P = .04) and New York Heart Association functional class III/IV symptoms (83% vs 41%; P < .001). Multivariable analysis revealed the pre-CRT MV tenting height (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.56; P = .04) and end-systolic IPMD (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.99-1.32; P = .08) as independently associated with moderate or greater MR at follow-up. Finally, at 5 years post-CRT implantation, the estimated survival and freedom from LV assist device or cardiac transplantation was 61%. CONCLUSIONS: CRT results in favorable effects on MV and LV geometry and decreases the prevalence of moderate-to-severe or severe MR and heart failure symptoms. The pre-CRT MV tenting height and IPMD are independently associated with persistent MR at follow-up.


Assuntos
Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Cardiomiopatias/complicações , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/complicações , Valva Mitral/patologia , Idoso , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Remodelação Ventricular
13.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 30(11): 1111-1118, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28927558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with acute leukemia (AL) have a higher rate of congestive heart failure than patients with other cancers. AL may predispose to cardiac dysfunction before chemotherapy because of high cytokine release or direct leukemic myocardial infiltration. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether AL is associated with abnormalities of myocardial structure and function before chemotherapy and to identify possible risk factors associated with these myocardial changes. METHODS: Using an echocardiographic database, 76 patients with AL and 76 patients without cancer matched for age, gender, hypertension, and the presence of diabetes were retrospectively selected. Subsequently, to assess the effect of a nonhematologic malignancy, 28 women in each group were matched with women with breast cancer. Left ventricular (LV) mass, volumes, ejection fraction, and global longitudinal strain (GLS) were measured before chemotherapy. RESULTS: The patients were predominantly male (63%), with a median age of 51 years, and had low prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Despite similar LV ejection fractions, patients with AL had higher LV mass and volumes and lower GLS (-19.3 ± 2.7% vs -20.9 ± 1.9%, P < .001) than patients without cancer. Similarly, GLS was lower in women with AL compared with women with breast cancer or without cancer. Among patients with AL, high body mass index, low LV ejection fraction, and a small number of circulating lymphocytes were all independently associated with low GLS. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AL had higher LV volumes and lower GLS than patients without cancer and lower GLS than patients with breast cancer, suggesting that AL by itself may be associated with these cardiac alterations.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Leucemia/complicações , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia
14.
Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med ; 19(9): 73, 2017 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28828743

RESUMO

OPINION STATEMENT: Advances in cardiac surgical interventions in infancy and childhood have led to an increased number of women with congenital heart disease of childbearing age. For these women, individualized preconception counseling and pregnancy planning should be a vital component of their medical management, and presentation for obstetric care may even be an opportunity to re-establish cardiovascular care for patients who have been lost to follow-up. These patients have unique cardiovascular anatomy and physiology, which is dependent upon the surgical intervention they may have undergone during childhood or adolescence. These factors are associated with a variety of long-term complications, and the normal hemodynamic changes of pregnancy may unmask cardiac dysfunction and pose significant risk. Among three published risk assessment algorithms, the World Health Organization classification is the most sensitive in predicting maternal cardiovascular events in this population. Women with simple congenital heart defects generally tolerate pregnancy well and can be cared for in the community with careful monitoring. Conversely, women with complex congenital defects, with or without surgical repair and/or residual defects, should be managed in tertiary care centers under a multidisciplinary team of physicians experienced in adult congenital heart disease and high-risk obstetrics, who collaboratively participate in pregnancy planning, management, and care through childbirth and postpartum. Women who are cyanotic with oxygen saturation less than 85%, have significant pulmonary arterial hypertension of any cause, or have systemic ventricular dysfunction should be counseled to avoid pregnancy due to a very high risk of maternal and fetal mortality.

15.
J Thorac Dis ; 9(Suppl 7): S563-S568, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28740708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for concomitant two-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) and moderate to severe ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) remains unclear. We compared the results of a staged percutaneous coronary intervention followed by minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (PCI+MIVS) versus combined coronary artery bypass graft and mitral valve surgery (CABG+MVS) in this population. METHODS: All consecutive patients with two-vessel CAD and moderate to severe IMR, who underwent PCI+MIVS or CABG+MVS at our institution between February 2009 and April 2014, were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: There were nine patients identified who underwent PCI+MIVS, and 15 who underwent CABG+MVS, with a mean age of 71±7, and 70±7 years, respectively (P=0.86). The remaining baseline characteristics were similar between both groups, with the exception of a higher prevalence of pre-operative clopidogrel administration (78% versus 27%, P=0.03) and left anterior descending plus left circumflex CAD (78% versus 27%, P=0.03), in those who underwent PCI+MIVS. The PCI+MIVS approach was associated with decreased mean cardiopulmonary bypass (111±41 versus 167±49 min, P=0.01) and aortic cross-clamp (79±32 versus 129±35 min, P=0.003) times, and less median number of intraoperative packed red blood transfusions {2 [interquartile range (IQR), 0-2] versus 3 units (IQR, 1-4), P=0.05}, when compared with CABG+MVS. The rate of mitral valve repair, postoperative complications, 30-day mortality, and 1-year survival did not differ between the surgical approaches. CONCLUSIONS: PCI+MIVS for two-vessel CAD and moderate to severe IMR is feasible, and associated with satisfactory outcomes, as compared with CABG+MVS.

16.
J Thorac Dis ; 9(Suppl 7): S582-S594, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28740711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combining a ring annuloplasty (Ring) with a mitral subvalvular intervention (Ring + subvalvular) in patients with secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) may improve mitral valve (MV) repair durability. However, the outcomes of this strategy compared with a Ring only, have not been clearly defined. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed utilizing randomized controlled and propensity matched studies which compared a Ring + subvalvular versus Ring MV repair for the treatment of secondary MR. Risk ratio (RR), weighted mean difference (MD), and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by the Mantel-Haenszel and inverse-variance methods, for clinical outcomes and echocardiographic measures of follow-up MR, left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling, and MV apparatus geometry. RESULTS: Five studies were identified, with a total of 397 patients. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, and all patients had moderate to severe secondary MR, with the vast majority in the setting of ischemic cardiomyopathy. A Ring + subvalvular repair consisted of papillary muscle approximation (n=2), papillary muscle relocation (n=2), or secondary chordal cutting (n=1). Follow-up ranged from 10.1 (mean range =0.25-42) to 69 [interquartile range (IQR) =23-82] months. When compared with Ring only at last follow-up, a Ring + subvalvular MV repair was associated with: (I) a smaller MR grade (MD =-0.44, 95% CI -0.69 to -0.19; P=0.0005); (II) a reduced risk of moderate or greater recurrent MR (RR =0.43, 95% CI, 0.27-0.66; P=0.0002); (III) a smaller mean LV end-diastolic diameter (MD =-3.56 mm, 95% CI -5.40 to -1.73; P=0.0001) and a greater ejection fraction (MD =2.64%, 95% CI, 0.13-5.15; P=0.04); and, (IV) an improved MV apparatus geometry. There were no differences in operative mortality, post-operative morbidity, or follow-up survival between surgical approaches. CONCLUSIONS: When compared with Ring only, a Ring + subvalvular MV repair is associated with greater LV reverse remodeling and systolic function, less recurrence of moderate or greater MR, and an improved geometry of the MV apparatus at short and mid-term follow-up.

17.
J Thorac Dis ; 9(Suppl 7): S614-S623, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28740715

RESUMO

The use of minimally, or less invasive, approaches to cardiac valve surgery has increased over the past decade. Because of its less traumatic nature, early studies in lower risk patients demonstrated the approach to be associated with an enhanced recovery, increased patient satisfaction, and good operative outcomes. With time, despite a steep learning curve, surgeons expanded this approach to perform more complex procedures, and include patients with more co-morbidity. The aim of this publication is to review the current literature involving the use of minimally invasive valve surgery (MIVS) in higher-risk patients.

19.
Echocardiography ; 34(5): 776-778, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28345243

RESUMO

Pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) is the most common adult congenital cardiac operation performed. Valve degeneration leading to prosthetic stenosis and/or regurgitation is a long-term risk in this population and may be associated with paravalvular leak (PVL). Complications involving the proximal pulmonary artery, including dissection, are less clearly defined. Herein, we report the case of a 30-year-old patient with a history of multiple pulmonary valve interventions secondary to congenital pulmonic stenosis, who developed dehiscence of a bioprosthetic PVR associated with significant paravalvular leak (PVL) and further complicated by a focal dissection of the proximal pulmonary artery.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/complicações , Bioprótese/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Estenose da Valva Pulmonar/complicações , Estenose da Valva Pulmonar/cirurgia , Estenose de Artéria Pulmonar/congênito , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/etiologia , Adulto , Aneurisma Dissecante/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Humanos , Masculino , Estenose de Artéria Pulmonar/complicações , Estenose de Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 103(3): 991-1004, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28168964

RESUMO

Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is associated with significant morbidity, and the optimal treatment strategy has not been clearly defined. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 32 studies comparing valve reoperation and medical therapy was performed; it included 2,636 patients, with a mean follow-up of 22 months. A valve reoperation was associated with a lower risk of 30-day mortality, greater survival at follow-up, and a similar rate of PVE recurrence. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to clarify clinical decision-making regarding the timing and necessity of a valve reoperation, as opposed to treatment with medical therapy alone.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite Bacteriana/cirurgia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Endocardite Bacteriana/etiologia , Humanos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Reoperação
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