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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047895

RESUMO

The 2019-novel-coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was detected in the self-collected saliva of 91.7% (11/12) of patients. Serial saliva viral load monitoring generally showed a declining trend. Live virus was detected in saliva by viral culture. Saliva is a promising non-invasive specimen for diagnosis, monitoring, and infection control in patients with 2019-nCoV infection.

2.
Hepatology ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) variants causing human infection predominantly belong to HEV species A (HEV-A). HEV species C genotype 1 (HEV-C1) circulates in rats and is highly divergent from HEV-A. It was previously considered unable to infect humans, but the first case of human HEV-C1 infection was recently discovered in Hong Kong. The aim of this study is to further describe the features of this novel zoonosis in Hong Kong. APPROACH & RESULTS: We conducted a territory-wide prospective screening study for HEV-C1 infection over a 31-month period. Blood samples from 2,860 patients with abnormal liver function (n = 2,201) or immunosuppressive conditions (n = 659) were screened for HEV-C1 RNA. In addition, 186 captured commensal rats were screened for HEV-C1 RNA. Sequences of human-derived and rat-derived HEV-C1 isolates were compared. Epidemiological and clinical features of HEV-C1 infection were analyzed. HEV-C1 RNA was detected in 6/2,201 (0·27%) patients with hepatitis and 1/659 (0·15%) immunocompromised persons. Including the previously reported case, eight HEV-C1 infections were identified including five in immunosuppressed patients. Three patients had acute hepatitis, four had persistent hepatitis while one had subclinical infection without hepatitis. One patient died of meningoencephalitis and HEV-C1 was detected in cerebrospinal fluid. HEV-C1 hepatitis was generally milder than HEV-A hepatitis. 7/186 (3·76%) rats tested positive for HEV-C1. One HEV-C1 isolate obtained from a rat captured near the residences of patients was closely related to the major outbreak strain. CONCLUSIONS: HEV-C1 is a cause of hepatitis E in humans in Hong Kong. Immunosuppressed individuals are susceptible to persistent HEV-C1 infection and extrahepatic manifestations. Subclinical HEV-C1 infection threatens blood safety. Tests for HEV-C1 are required in clinical laboratories.

3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 221-236, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987001

RESUMO

A mysterious outbreak of atypical pneumonia in late 2019 was traced to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan of China. Within a few weeks, a novel coronavirus tentatively named as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was announced by the World Health Organization. We performed bioinformatics analysis on a virus genome from a patient with 2019-nCoV infection and compared it with other related coronavirus genomes. Overall, the genome of 2019-nCoV has 89% nucleotide identity with bat SARS-like-CoVZXC21 and 82% with that of human SARS-CoV. The phylogenetic trees of their orf1a/b, Spike, Envelope, Membrane and Nucleoprotein also clustered closely with those of the bat, civet and human SARS coronaviruses. However, the external subdomain of Spike's receptor binding domain of 2019-nCoV shares only 40% amino acid identity with other SARS-related coronaviruses. Remarkably, its orf3b encodes a completely novel short protein. Furthermore, its new orf8 likely encodes a secreted protein with an alpha-helix, following with a beta-sheet(s) containing six strands. Learning from the roles of civet in SARS and camel in MERS, hunting for the animal source of 2019-nCoV and its more ancestral virus would be important for understanding the origin and evolution of this novel lineage B betacoronavirus. These findings provide the basis for starting further studies on the pathogenesis, and optimizing the design of diagnostic, antiviral and vaccination strategies for this emerging infection.

4.
mSphere ; 5(1)2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969478

RESUMO

So far, dromedary camels are the only known animal reservoir for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Previous published serological studies showed that sera of Bactrian camels were all negative for MERS-CoV antibodies. However, a recent study revealed that direct inoculation of Bactrian camels intranasally with MERS-CoV can lead to infection with abundant virus shedding and seroconversion. In this study, we examined the presence of MERS-CoV antibodies in Bactrian and hybrid camels in Dubai, the United Arab Emirates (where dromedaries are also present), and Bactrian camels in Xinjiang, China (where dromedaries are absent). For the 29 serum samples from Bactrian camels in Dubai tested by the MERS-CoV spike (S) protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (S-ELISA) and neutralization antibody test, 14 (48%) and 12 (41%), respectively, were positive for MERS-CoV antibodies. All the 12 serum samples that were positive with the neutralization antibody test were also positive for the S-ELISA. For the 11 sera from hybrid camels in Dubai tested with the S-ELISA and neutralization antibody test, 6 (55%) and 9 (82%), respectively, were positive for MERS-CoV antibodies. All the 6 serum samples that were positive for the S-ELISA were also positive with the neutralization antibody test. There was a strong correlation between the antibody levels detected by S-ELISA and neutralizing antibody titers, with a Spearman coefficient of 0.6262 (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval, 0.5062 to 0.7225). All 92 Bactrian camel serum samples from Xinjiang were negative for MERS-CoV antibodies tested using both S-ELISA and the neutralization antibody test. Bactrian and hybrid camels are potential sources of MERS-CoV infection.IMPORTANCE Since its first appearance in 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) has affected >25 countries, with >2,400 cases and an extremely high fatality rate of >30%. The total number of mortalities due to MERS is already greater than that due to severe acute respiratory syndrome. MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been confirmed to be the etiological agent. So far, dromedaries are the only known animal reservoir for MERS-CoV. Previously published serological studies showed that sera of Bactrian camels were all negative for MERS-CoV antibodies. In this study, we observed that 41% of the Bactrian camel sera and 55% of the hybrid camel sera from Dubai (where dromedaries are also present), but none of the sera from Bactrian camels in Xinjiang (where dromedaries are absent), were positive for MERS-CoV antibodies. Based on these results, we conclude that in addition to dromedaries, Bactrian and hybrid camels are also potential sources of MERS-CoV infection.

5.
Lancet ; 395(10223): 514-523, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An ongoing outbreak of pneumonia associated with a novel coronavirus was reported in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China. Affected patients were geographically linked with a local wet market as a potential source. No data on person-to-person or nosocomial transmission have been published to date. METHODS: In this study, we report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and microbiological findings of five patients in a family cluster who presented with unexplained pneumonia after returning to Shenzhen, Guangdong province, China, after a visit to Wuhan, and an additional family member who did not travel to Wuhan. Phylogenetic analysis of genetic sequences from these patients were done. FINDINGS: From Jan 10, 2020, we enrolled a family of six patients who travelled to Wuhan from Shenzhen between Dec 29, 2019 and Jan 4, 2020. Of six family members who travelled to Wuhan, five were identified as infected with the novel coronavirus. Additionally, one family member, who did not travel to Wuhan, became infected with the virus after several days of contact with four of the family members. None of the family members had contacts with Wuhan markets or animals, although two had visited a Wuhan hospital. Five family members (aged 36-66 years) presented with fever, upper or lower respiratory tract symptoms, or diarrhoea, or a combination of these 3-6 days after exposure. They presented to our hospital (The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen) 6-10 days after symptom onset. They and one asymptomatic child (aged 10 years) had radiological ground-glass lung opacities. Older patients (aged >60 years) had more systemic symptoms, extensive radiological ground-glass lung changes, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and increased C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase levels. The nasopharyngeal or throat swabs of these six patients were negative for known respiratory microbes by point-of-care multiplex RT-PCR, but five patients (four adults and the child) were RT-PCR positive for genes encoding the internal RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and surface Spike protein of this novel coronavirus, which were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of these five patients' RT-PCR amplicons and two full genomes by next-generation sequencing showed that this is a novel coronavirus, which is closest to the bat severe acute respiatory syndrome (SARS)-related coronaviruses found in Chinese horseshoe bats. INTERPRETATION: Our findings are consistent with person-to-person transmission of this novel coronavirus in hospital and family settings, and the reports of infected travellers in other geographical regions. FUNDING: The Shaw Foundation Hong Kong, Michael Seak-Kan Tong, Respiratory Viral Research Foundation Limited, Hui Ming, Hui Hoy and Chow Sin Lan Charity Fund Limited, Marina Man-Wai Lee, the Hong Kong Hainan Commercial Association South China Microbiology Research Fund, Sanming Project of Medicine (Shenzhen), and High Level-Hospital Program (Guangdong Health Commission).

6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 22, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonosis in the world. In China, 90% of human brucellosis occurs in six northern agricultural provinces. However, there is a recent increase in the trend of human brucellosis in southern provinces with limited cases reported in the literature. Our study aims to describe the clinical features and epidemiology of brucellosis in a tertiary hospital in southern China. METHODS: A retrospective case series of brucellosis was conducted between January 1, 2014 and October 31. 2018. Cases were identified based on positive Brucella serology by tube agglutination test, or positive culture from clinical specimen identified by Vitek 2 and MALDL-TOF MS. Clinical details of brucellosis including patients' occupation, risk factors, and complications were analyzed. Clinical characteristics between patients from Guangdong and other provinces were also compared. RESULTS: A total of 13 cases of laboratory-confirmed brucellosis were identified. 7 (53.8%) of the patients were male, 6 (46.2%) were female, with age ranging from 29 to 73 years old (median age: 51 years). 5 patients (38.5%) were from Guangdong province, while the remaining patients (61.5%) were from other provinces. The commonest risk factors of acquisition were consumption of undercooked meat and goat placenta. Patients from Guangdong province were found to be more likely to have prior placenta consumption. The commonest clinical presentations were fever, osteoarticular pain, urinary symptoms, splenomegaly, and lymphadenopathy. Spondylodiscitis/ peripheral joint arthritis (5 patients, 38.5%) was the most prevalent complication, while extra-osteoarticular complications including abdominal aortitis, hepatosplenic abscess, chest wall abscess, and epididymo-orchitis were observed in 4 other patients. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS is reliable in Brucella identification after additional of reference spectra with standard Brucella strain. CONCLUSIONS: Brucellosis, previously thought to be only found in northern China, is now increasingly seen in highly cosmopolitan part of southern China. MALDI-TOF MS in hospitals in China should include reference spectra with standard Brucella strain to aid bacterial identification in routine clinical practice. In addition to tuberculosis, typhoid fever and typhus, brucellosis should be considered in patients with fever of unknown origin in this locality.

8.
J Med Virol ; 92(3): 382-385, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses contain amino acid deletions at positions 162 to 164 of the haemagglutinin (HA) protein. These amino acid deletions have affected the detection of B/Victoria lineage viruses by the lineage-specific conventional reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) that was recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop and evaluate a novel lineage-specific RT-PCR for rapid differentiation of the contemporary B/Victoria lineage from B/Yamagata lineage viruses. STUDY DESIGN: Primers of our in-house RT-PCR were designed to avoid amino acid positions 162 to 164 and to target conserved regions of the HA gene that are specific for B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineage viruses. Our in-house RT-PCR and WHO RT-PCR were evaluated using influenza B positive clinical specimens or virus culture isolates. Influenza B virus lineage was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: A total of 105 clinical specimens or virus culture isolates were retrieved, including 83 with B/Victoria lineage and 22 with B/Yamagata lineage viruses. Our in-house RT-PCR correctly identified B/Victoria lineage viruses in all 83 samples, including 82 samples with double or triple amino acid deletion in the HA protein. Conversely, the WHO lineage-specific conventional RT-PCR failed to detect any of the 82 samples with HA amino acid deletions. For the 22 samples with B/Yamagata lineage viruses, both RT-PCR assays have correctly identified B/Yamagata lineage in all samples. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel lineage-specific RT-PCR has successfully detected all contemporary B/Victoria lineage viruses with amino acid deletions in HA. This protocol is especially useful for laboratories without the equipment for real-time PCR.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779252

RESUMO

Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are the most common causes of hand, foot, and mouth disease. Severe EV-A71 and CV-A16 infections may be associated with life-threatening complications. However, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying these severe clinical and pathological features remain incompletely understood. Lipids are known to play critical roles in multiple stages of the virus replication cycle. The specific lipid profile induced upon virus infection is required for optimal virus replication. The perturbations in the host cell lipidomic profiles upon enterovirus infection have not been fully characterized. To this end, we performed ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS)-based lipidomics to characterize the change in host lipidome upon EV-A71 and CV-A16 infections. Our results revealed that 47 lipids within 11 lipid classes were significantly perturbed after EV-A71 and CV-A16 infection. Four polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), namely, arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), were consistently upregulated upon EV-A71 and CV-A16 infection. Importantly, exogenously supplying three of these four PUFAs, including AA, DHA, and EPA, in cell cultures significantly reduced EV-A71 and CV-A16 replication. Taken together, our results suggested that enteroviruses might specifically modulate the host lipid pathways for optimal virus replication. Excessive exogenous addition of lipids that disrupted this delicate homeostatic state could prevent efficient viral replication. Precise manipulation of the host lipid profile might be a potential host-targeting antiviral strategy for enterovirus infection.

10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 5715180, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687393

RESUMO

Several commercial PCR kits are available for detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV), but the test performance of one CE-marked in vitro diagnostic kit-RealStar® alpha Herpesvirus PCR Kit-has not been well studied. This study evaluated the performance of RealStar® alpha Herpesvirus PCR Kit 1.0 on the LightCycler® 480 Instrument II for detection and differentiation of HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV in human clinical specimens. We evaluated the analytical sensitivity of the RealStar® and in-house multiplex real-time PCR assays using serial dilutions of nucleic acids extracted from clinical specimens. The analytical sensitivity of the RealStar® assay was 10, 32, and 100 copies/reaction for HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV, respectively, which was slightly higher than that of the in-house multiplex real-time PCR assay. Reproducibility of the cycle threshold (Cp) values for each viral target was satisfactory with the intra- and interassay coefficient of variation values below 5% for both assays. One-hundred and fifty-three clinical specimens and 15 proficiency testing samples were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of RealStar® alpha Herpesvirus PCR Kit against the in-house multiplex real-time PCR assay. The RealStar® assay showed 100% sensitivity and specificity when compared to the in-house assay. Cp values of the RealStar® and in-house assays showed excellent correlation. RealStar® alpha Herpesvirus PCR is a sensitive, specific, and reliable assay for the detection of HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV, with less extensive verification requirements compared to a laboratory developed assay.

11.
Viruses ; 11(11)2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653070

RESUMO

While dromedaries are the immediate animal source of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) epidemic, viruses related to MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have also been found in bats as well as hedgehogs. To elucidate the evolution of MERS-CoV-related viruses and their interspecies transmission pathway, samples were collected from different mammals in China. A novel coronavirus related to MERS-CoV, Erinaceus amurensis hedgehog coronavirus HKU31 (Ea-HedCoV HKU31), was identified from two Amur hedgehogs. Genome analysis supported that Ea-HedCoV HKU31 represents a novel species under Merbecovirus, being most closely related to Erinaceus CoV from European hedgehogs in Germany, with 79.6% genome sequence identity. Compared to other members of Merbecovirus, Ea-HedCoV HKU31 possessed unique non-structural proteins and putative cleavage sites at ORF1ab. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Ea-HedCoV HKU31 and BetaCoV Erinaceus/VMC/DEU/2012 were closely related to NeoCoV and BatCoV PREDICT from African bats in the spike region, suggesting that the latter bat viruses have arisen from recombination between CoVs from hedgehogs and bats. The predicted HKU31 receptor-binding domain (RBD) possessed only one out of 12 critical amino acid residues for binding to human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (hDPP4), the MERS-CoV receptor. The structural modeling of the HKU31-RBD-hDPP4 binding interphase compared to that of MERS-CoV and Tylonycteris bat CoV HKU4 (Ty-BatCoV HKU4) suggested that HKU31-RBD is unlikely to bind to hDPP4. Our findings support that hedgehogs are an important reservoir of Merbecovirus, with evidence of recombination with viruses from bats. Further investigations in bats, hedgehogs and related animals are warranted to understand the evolution of MERS-CoV-related viruses.

12.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(8): ofz329, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660385

RESUMO

Background: Transmission of human hepegivirus 1 (HHpgV-1), a novel human pegivirus, is closely associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The impact of HHpgV-1 viremia on HCV infection is unknown. This study aimed to (a) evaluate the impact of HHpgV-1 viremia on HCV viral load and liver injury and (b) elucidate the clinical and molecular epidemiology of HHpgV-1 infection. Methods: Individuals with HHpgV-1 viremia (cases) were identified by screening plasma from 655 HCV-infected adults. HHpgV-1 isolates were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis, and viral load was quantified. Cases were age- and sex-matched to HCV-infected individuals without HHpgV-1 viremia (controls) in a 1:3 ratio. A retrospective case-control analysis was performed to identify differences in HCV viral load and parameters of liver injury. Results: Among HCV-infected adults, 16/655 (2.4%) had HHpgV-1 viremia. Risk groups for HHpgV-1 infection included intravenous drug users, blood product recipients, tattoo recipients, and men who have sex with men. Viral sequences clustered into 2 distinct HHpgV-1 genogroups. Cases had a higher mean HCV viral load than controls, with difference between means of 0.58 log10 IU/mL (P = .009). Cases were more likely to have an HCV viral load >5 log10 IU/mL (P = .028). Multiple regression demonstrated the impact of HHpgV-1 viral load and infection status on HCV viral load. HHpgV-1 infection was not associated with higher liver function tests, fibrosis scores, or imaging abnormalities. Conclusions: HHpgV-1 viremia is associated with a higher HCV viral load in co-infected patients. HHpgV-1 infection does not affect progression of HCV-related liver disease.

13.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 40(12): 1407-1415, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report an outbreak of measles with epidemiological link between Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) and a hospital. METHODS: Epidemiological investigations, patients' measles serology, and phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin (H) and nucleoprotein (N) genes of measles virus isolates were conducted. RESULTS: In total, 29 HKIA staff of diverse ranks and working locations were infected with measles within 1 month. Significantly fewer affected staff had history of travel than non-HKIA-related measles patients [10 of 29 (34.5%) vs 28 of 35 (80%); P < .01]. Of 9 airport staff who could recall detailed exposure history, 6 (66.7%) had visited self-service food premises at HKIA during the incubation period, where food trays, as observed during the epidemiological field investigation, were not washed after use. Furthermore, 1 airport baggage handler who was admitted to hospital A before rash onset infected 2 healthcare workers (HCWs) known to have 2 doses of MMR vaccination with positive measles IgG and lower viral loads in respiratory specimens. Infections in these 2 HCWs warranted contact tracing of another 168 persons (97 patients and 71 HCWs). Phylogenetic comparison of H and N gene sequences confirmed the clonality of outbreak strains. CONCLUSION: Despite good herd immunity with overall seroprevalence of >95% against measles, major outbreaks of measles occurred among HKIA staff having daily contact with many international pssengers. Lessons from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and measles outbreaks suggested that an airport can be a strategic epidemic center. Pre-exanthem transmission of measles from airport staff to HCWs with secondary vaccine failure poses a grave challenge to hospital infection control.

14.
Epidemiol Infect ; 147: e279, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556360

RESUMO

Seasonal influenza virus epidemics have a major impact on healthcare systems. Data on population susceptibility to emerging influenza virus strains during the interepidemic period can guide planning for resource allocation of an upcoming influenza season. This study sought to assess the population susceptibility to representative emerging influenza virus strains collected during the interepidemic period. The microneutralisation antibody titers (MN titers) of a human serum panel against representative emerging influenza strains collected during the interepidemic period before the 2018/2019 winter influenza season (H1N1-inter and H3N2-inter) were compared with those against influenza strains representative of previous epidemics (H1N1-pre and H3N2-pre). A multifaceted approach, incorporating both genetic and antigenic data, was used in selecting these representative influenza virus strains for the MN assay. A significantly higher proportion of individuals had a ⩾four-fold reduction in MN titers between H1N1-inter and H1N1-pre than that between H3N2-inter and H3N2-pre (28.5% (127/445) vs. 4.9% (22/445), P < 0.001). The geometric mean titer (GMT) of H1N1-inter was significantly lower than that of H1N1-pre (381 (95% CI 339-428) vs. 713 (95% CI 641-792), P < 0.001), while there was no significant difference in the GMT between H3N2-inter and H3N2-pre. Since A(H1N1) predominated the 2018-2019 winter influenza epidemic, our results corroborated the epidemic subtype.

15.
J Infect Dis ; 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) poses an ongoing threat to public health worldwide. The studies of MERS patients with severe disease and experimentally-infected animals showed that robust viral replication and intensive proinflammatory response in lung tissues contribute to high pathogenicity of MERS-CoV. We sought to identify pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signaling pathway(s) that mediates the inflammatory cascade in human macrophages upon MERS-CoV infection. METHODS: The potential signaling pathways were manipulated individually by pharmacological inhibition, siRNA depletion and antibody blocking. MERS-CoV-induced proinflammatory response was evaluated by measuring the expression levels of key cytokines/chemokines. RT-qPCR assay, flow cytometry analysis and Western blotting were applied to evaluate the activation of related PRRs and engagement of adaptors. RESULTS: MERS-CoV replication significantly upregulated C-type lectin receptor (CLR) Mincle. The role of Mincle for MERS-CoV-triggered cytokine/chemokine induction was established based on the results of antibody blockage, siRNA depletion of Mincle and its adaptor Syk, and Syk pharmacological inhibition. The cytokine/chemokine induction was significantly attenuated by siRNA depletion of RIG-I-like receptors (RLR) or adaptor, indicating RLR signaling also contributed to MERS-CoV-induced proinflammatory response. CONCLUSION: CLR and RLR pathways are activated and contribute to the proinflammatory response in MERS-CoV-infected macrophages.

16.
mBio ; 10(5)2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530680

RESUMO

Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza virus is a key virulence element with multifunctional roles in virus replication and a potent antagonist of host immune response. Deletion of NS1 (DelNS1) would create a safer and more extensively immunogenic live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccine. However, DelNS1 viruses are very difficult to grow in regular vaccine-producing systems, which has hampered the application of DelNS1 LAIV vaccines in humans. We have developed two master backbones of deleted-NS1 (DelNS1) viral genomes from influenza A or B viruses which contain novel adaptive mutations to support DelNS1-LAIV replication. These DelNS1-LAIVs are highly attenuated in human cells in vitro and nonpathogenic in mice but replicate well in vaccine-producing cells. Both influenza A and influenza B DelNS1 LAIVs grow better at 33°C than at 37 to 39°C. Vaccination with DelNS1 LAIV performed once is enough to provide potent protection against lethal challenge with homologous virus and strong long-lasting cross protection against heterosubtypic or antigenically distantly related influenza viruses in mice. Mechanistic investigations revealed that DelNS1-LAIVs induce cross protective neutralizing antibody and CD8+ and CD4+ T cell immunities. Importantly, it has been shown that DelNS1-LAIV can be used to enhance specific anti-influenza immunity through expression of additional antigens from the deleted-NS1 site. Generation of DelNS1 viruses which are nonpathogenic and able to grow in vaccine-producing systems is an important strategy for making highly immunogenic LAIV vaccines that induce broad cross protective immunity against seasonal and emerging influenza.IMPORTANCE Current seasonal influenza vaccines are suboptimal and low in immunogenicity and do not provide long-lasting immunity and cross protection against influenza virus strains that have antigenically drifted. More-effective influenza vaccines which can induce both humoral immunity and T cell immunity are needed. The NS1 protein of influenza virus is a virulence element and the critical factor for regulation of the host immune response during virus infection. Deletion of the NS1 protein is a strategy to make an optimal LAIV vaccine. However, DelNS1 viruses are very difficult to grow in regular vaccine-producing systems, hampering the application of DelNS1 LAIV vaccines in humans. We have generated a panel of both influenza A and influenza B DelNS1 LAIVs which are able to grow in regular vaccine-producing cells. These DelNS1 LAIV vaccines are completely nonpathogenic, exhibit potent and long-lasting immunity, and can be used to express extra viral antigen to induce cross protective immunity against seasonal and emerging influenza.

17.
mSphere ; 4(5)2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484738

RESUMO

The demand for a prophylactic vaccine against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has motivated numerous dedicated research groups to design and develop such a vaccine. In this study, we have developed a multivalent vaccine, Sta-V5, composed of five conserved antigens involved in three important virulence mechanisms. This prototype vaccine conferred up to 100% protection against multiple epidemiologically relevant S. aureus isolates in five different murine disease models. The vaccine not only elicits functional antibodies that mediate opsonophagocytic killing of S. aureus but also mounts robust antigen-specific T-cell responses. In addition, our data implied that γδ T cells contribute to the protection induced by Sta-V5 in a murine skin infection model.IMPORTANCE Staphylococcus aureus infections, especially MRSA infections, are becoming a major global health issue and are resulting in mortality rates that are increasing every year. However, an effective vaccine is lacking due to the complexity of the infection process of S. aureus In this study, we found that the addition of two novel protein components to three well-studied vaccine candidates significantly improved the efficacy of the combined vaccine. Furthermore, the five-component vaccine not only elicits a robust antibody response but also induces cytokine secretion by T cells, making it a promising vaccine candidate to fill the void.

18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 582, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a highly contagious herpesvirus with potential for nosocomial transmission. However, the importance of nosocomial chickenpox outbreak in China has often been ignored. With the increasing immunocompromised population in China, a thorough review of issues related to nosocomial transmission and the seroprevalence rate of VZV among healthcare workers is necessary. METHODS: Retrospective case finding for nosocomial transmission of chickenpox was conducted between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2017. Cases were identified based on clinical features compatible with chickenpox. A cross-sectional study on the seroprevalence rate of VZV among healthcare workers (HCWs) was conducted between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2017. The serum VZV antibodies of 1804 HCWs were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The seroprevalence rate of VZV antibodies, the positive predictive value and negative predictive value of self-reported history of varicella were analyzed. The economic impact associated with nosocomial transmission of VZV was also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 8 cases of chickenpox were identified in three nosocomial transmissions, including 4 HCWs who were infected nosocomially. The overall seroprevalence rate of VZV was 88.4%, which significantly increased with age (P < 0.01). The seroprevalence rates of HCWs with different genders and occupations showed no statistically significant differences. The positive and negative predictive values of a self-reported history of varicella were 80.8 and 10.6% respectively. An estimation of 163.3 person-days of work were lost in each nosocomial transmission and 86.7 infection control unit person-hours were required for each outbreak investigation. The cost of VZV IgG ELISA screening was estimated to be 83 USD per nosocomial transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Nosocomial transmission of VZV occurred repeatedly in the hospital setting. An alarming 11.6% of HCWs were seronegative for VZV, which might increase the risk of nosocomial infection and outbreak for other susceptible co-workers and patients. This is especially important in the setting of a teaching hospital where many immunocompromised patients were managed. Furthermore, the positive predictive value of self-reported varicella on seroprevalence rate in our study was lower than those reported in other countries, therefore serological testing of VZV antibodies with subsequent vaccination for all non-immune HCWs should be considered.


Assuntos
Varicela/transmissão , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção pelo Vírus da Varicela-Zoster/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Varicela/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 3/imunologia , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção pelo Vírus da Varicela-Zoster/epidemiologia
19.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(6): 442, 2019 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165725

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that avian influenza A H7N9 virus preferentially infected CD14+ monocyte in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which led to apoptosis. To better understand H7N9 pathogenesis in relation to monocyte cell death, we showed here that extensive phosphorylation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) protein occurred concurrently with the activation of caspases-8, -9 and -3 in H7N9-infected monocytes at 6 h post infection (hpi), indicating that apoptosis and necroptosis pathways were simultaneously activated. The apoptotic morphology was readily observed in H7N9-infected monocytes with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), while the pan-caspase inhibitor, IDN6556 (IDN), accelerated cell death through necroptosis as evidenced by the increased level of pMLKL accompanied with cell swelling and plasma membrane rupture. Most importantly, H7N9-induced cell death could only be stopped by the combined treatment of IDN and necrosulfonamide (NSA), a pMLKL membrane translocation inhibitor, but not by individual inhibition of caspase or RIPK3. Our data further showed that activation of apoptosis and necroptosis pathways in monocytes differentially contributed to the immune response of monocytes upon H7N9 infection. Specifically, caspase inhibition significantly enhanced, while RIPK3 inhibition reduced the early expression of type I interferons and cytokine/chemokines in H7N9-infected monocytes. Moreover, culture supernatants from IDN-treated H7N9-infected monocyte promoted the expression of co-stimulatory molecule CD80, CD83 and CD86 on freshly isolated monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDCs) and enhanced the capacity of MDCs to induce CD3+ T-cell proliferation in vitro. In contrast, these immune stimulatory effects were abrogated by using culture supernatants from H7N9-infected monocyte with RIPK3 inhibition. In conclusion, our findings indicated that H7N9 infection activated both apoptosis and necroptosis in monocytes. An intact RIPK3 activity is required for upregulation of innate immune responses, while caspase activation suppresses the immune response.

20.
Viruses ; 11(6)2019 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234565

RESUMO

Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) are mostly found in animal alimentary samples. In this study, among 576 respiratory specimens from 476 mammals and 100 chickens, genogroup I PBVs were detected in three cattle and three monkeys, and a genogroup II PBV-positive sample was collected from one cattle specimen. More than one PBV sequence type was observed in two and one genogroup I PBV-positive samples from cattle and monkeys, respectively. Twenty-four complete/near-complete segments 2 (nine from respiratory and 15 from alimentary samples) from the cattle and monkey genogroup I PBVs and one complete segment 2 from the cattle genogroup II PBV were sequenced. Similar to other studies, the cattle PBVs also showed a high diversity. In contrast, the monkey PBVs observed in this study were clustered into three distinct clades. Within each clade, all the sequences showed >99% amino acid identities. This unique phenomenon is probably due to the fact that monkeys in our locality reside in separated troops with minimal inter-troop contact.

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