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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391696

RESUMO

The employment of 2D perovskites is a promising approach to tackling the stability and voltage issues inherent in perovskite solar cells. It remains unclear, however, whether other perovskites with different dimensionalities have the same effect on efficiency and stability. Here, we report the use of quasi-3D azetidinium lead iodide (AzPbI3) as a secondary layer on top of the primary 3D perovskite film that results in significant improvements in the photovoltaic parameters. Remarkably, the utilization of AzPbI3 leads to a new passivation mechanism due to the presence of surface dipoles resulting in a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 22.4%. The open-circuit voltage obtained is as high as 1.18 V, which is among the highest reported to date for single junction perovskite solar cells, corresponding to a voltage deficit of 0.37 V for a band gap of 1.55 eV.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270679

RESUMO

As organic semiconductors attract increasing attention to application in the fields of bioelectronics and artificial photosynthesis, understanding the factors that determine their robust operation in direct contact with aqueous electrolytes becomes a critical task. Herein we uncover critical factors that influence the operational stability of donor:acceptor bulk heterojunction photocathodes for solar hydrogen production and significantly advance their performance under operational conditions. First, using the direct photoelectrochemical reduction of aqueous Eu3+ and impedance spectroscopy, we determine that replacing the commonly used fullerene-based electron acceptor with a perylene diimide-based polymer drastically increases operational stability and identify that limiting the photogenerated electron accumulation at the organic/water interface to values of ca. 100 nC cm-2 is required for stable operation (>12 h). These insights are extended to solar-driven hydrogen production using MoS3, MoP, or RuO2 water reduction catalyst overlayers where it is found that the catalyst morphology strongly affects performance due to differences in charge extraction. Optimized performance of bulk heterojunction photocathodes coated with a MoS3:MoP composite gave 1 Sun photocurrent density up to 8.7 mA cm-2 at 0 V vs RHE (pH 1). However, increased stability was gained with RuO2 where initial photocurrent density (>8 mA cm-2) deceased only 15% or 33% during continuous operation for 8 or 20 h, respectively, thus demonstrating unprecedented robustness without a protection layer. This performance represents a new benchmark for organic semiconductor photocathodes for solar fuel production and advances the understanding of stability criteria for organic semiconductor/water-junction-based devices.

3.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(36): 12696-12704, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328858

RESUMO

The facile synthesis, solution-processability, and outstanding optoelectronic properties of emerging colloidal lead halide perovskite quantum dots (LHP QDs) makes them ideal candidates for scalable and inexpensive optoelectronic applications, including photovoltaic (PV) devices. The first demonstration of integrating CsPbI3 QDs into a conventional organic solar cell (OSC) involves embedding the LHP QDs in a donor-acceptor (PTB7-Th:PC71 BM) bulk heterojunction. Optimizing the loading amount at 3 wt %, we demonstrate a power conversion efficiency of 10.8 %, which is a 35 % increase over control devices, and is a record amongst hybrid ternary OSCs. Detailed investigation into the mechanisms behind the performance enhancement shows that increased light absorption is not a factor, but that increased exciton separation in the acceptor phase and reduced recombination are responsible.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(35): 29552-29564, 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084638

RESUMO

Due to its high sensitivity to corrosion, the use of Si in direct photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting systems that convert solar energy into chemical fuels has been greatly limited. Therefore, the development of low-cost materials resistant to corrosion under oxidizing conditions is an important goal toward a suitable protection of otherwise unstable semiconductors used in PEC cells. Here, we report on the development of a protective coating based on thin and electrically conductive nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD) layers. We found that  BDD layers protect the underlying Si photoelectrodes over a wide pH range (1-14) in aqueous electrolyte solutions. A BDD layer maintains an efficient charge carrier transfer from the underlying silicon to the electrolyte solution. Si|BDD photoelectrodes show no sign of performance degradation after a continuous PEC treatment in neutral, acidic, and basic electrolytes. The deposition of a cobalt phosphate (CoPi) oxygen evolution catalyst onto the BDD layer significantly reduces the overpotential for water oxidation, demonstrating the ability of  BDD layers to substitute the transparent conductive oxide coatings, such as indium tin oxide (ITO) and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), frequently used as protective layers in Si photoelectrodes.

5.
Small ; 13(34)2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28722350

RESUMO

Mesoscopic solar cells based on nanostructured oxide semiconductors are considered as a promising candidates to replace conventional photovoltaics employing costly materials. However, their overall performances are below the sufficient level required for practical usages. Herein, this study proposes an anodized Ti foam (ATF) with multidimensional and hierarchical architecture as a highly efficient photoelectrode for the generation of a large photocurrent. ATF photoelectrodes prepared by electrochemical anodization of freeze-cast Ti foams have three favorable characteristics: (i) large surface area for enhanced light harvesting, (ii) 1D semiconductor structure for facilitated charge collection, and (iii) 3D highly conductive metallic current collector that enables exclusion of transparent conducting oxide substrate. Based on these advantages, when ATF is utilized in dye-sensitized solar cells, short-circuit photocurrent density up to 22.0 mA cm-2 is achieved in the conventional N719 dye-I3- /I- redox electrolyte system even with an intrinsically inferior quasi-solid electrolyte.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(23): 6583-6588, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28471078

RESUMO

Nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors have shown outstanding performances in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, but limitations in light harvesting and charge collection have necessitated further advances in photoelectrode design. Herein, we propose anodized Fe foams (AFFs) with multidimensional nano/micro-architectures as a highly efficient photoelectrode for PEC water splitting. Fe foams fabricated by freeze-casting and sintering were electrochemically anodized and directly used as photoanodes. We verified the superiority of our design concept by achieving an unprecedented photocurrent density in PEC water splitting over 5 mA cm-2 before the dark current onset, which originated from the large surface area and low electrical resistance of the AFFs. A photocurrent of over 6.8 mA cm-2 and an accordingly high incident photon-to-current efficiency of over 50 % at 400 nm were achieved with incorporation of Co oxygen evolution catalysts. In addition, research opportunities for further advances by structual and compositional modifications are discussed, which can resolve the low fill factoring behavior and improve the overall performance.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(1): 66-71, 2015 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26263093

RESUMO

The complex refractive index (dielectric function) of planar CH3NH3PbI3 thin films at room temperature is investigated by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry. Knowledge of the complex refractive index is essential for designing photonic devices based on CH3NH3PbI3 thin films such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, or lasers. Because the directly measured quantities (reflectance, transmittance, and ellipsometric spectra) are inherently affected by multiple reflections, the complex refractive index has to be determined indirectly by fitting a model dielectric function to the experimental spectra. We model the dielectric function according to the Forouhi-Bloomer formulation with oscillators positioned at 1.597, 2.418, and 3.392 eV and achieve excellent agreement with the experimental spectra. Our results agree well with previously reported data of the absorption coefficient and are consistent with Kramers-Kronig transformations. The real part of the refractive index assumes a value of 2.611 at 633 nm, implying that CH3NH3PbI3-based solar cells are ideally suited for the top cell in monolithic silicon-based tandem solar cells.

8.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(3): 401-6, 2015 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26261955

RESUMO

Micro-Raman spectroscopy provides laterally resolved microstructural information for a broad range of materials. In this Letter, we apply this technique to tri-iodide (CH3NH3PbI3), tribromide (CH3NH3PbBr3), and mixed iodide-bromide (CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx) organic-inorganic halide perovskite thin films and discuss necessary conditions to obtain reliable data. We explain how to measure Raman spectra of pristine CH3NH3PbI3 layers and discuss the distinct Raman bands that develop during moisture-induced degradation. We also prove unambiguously that the final degradation products contain pure PbI2. Moreover, we describe CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx Raman spectra and discuss how the perovskite crystallographic symmetries affect the Raman band intensities and spectral shapes. On the basis of the dependence of the Raman shift on the iodide-to-bromide ratio, we show that Raman spectroscopy is a fast and nondestructive method for the evaluation of the relative iodide-to-bromide ratio.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(3): 1619-29, 2015 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25437303

RESUMO

Tandem solar cells constructed from a crystalline silicon (c-Si) bottom cell and a low-cost top cell offer a promising way to ensure long-term price reductions of photovoltaic modules. We present a four-terminal tandem solar cell consisting of a methyl ammonium lead triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3) top cell and a c-Si heterojunction bottom cell. The CH3NH3PbI3 top cell exhibits broad-band transparency owing to its design free of metallic components and yields a transmittance of >55% in the near-infrared spectral region. This allows the generation of a short-circuit current density of 13.7 mA cm(-2) in the bottom cell. The four-terminal tandem solar cell yields an efficiency of 13.4% (top cell: 6.2%, bottom cell: 7.2%), which is a gain of 1.8%abs with respect to the reference single-junction CH3NH3PbI3 solar cell with metal back contact. We employ the four-terminal tandem solar cell for a detailed investigation of the optical losses and to derive guidelines for further efficiency improvements. Based on a power loss analysis, we estimate that tandem efficiencies of ∼28% are attainable using an optically optimized system based on current technology, whereas a fully optimized, ultimate device with matched current could yield up to 31.6%.

10.
Chemphyschem ; 15(6): 1033-6, 2014 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24590767

RESUMO

A new phthalocyanine (Pc) bearing bulky peripheral substituents and a carboxylic anchoring group directly attached to the macrocycle has been prepared and used as a sensitizer in DSSCs, reaching 5.57% power conversion efficiency. In addition, an enhanced performance for the TT40 dye, previously reported by us, was achieved in optimized devices, obtaining a new record efficiency with Pc-sensitized cells.

11.
Chemistry ; 20(7): 2016-21, 2014 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24443172

RESUMO

A series of subphthalocyanines (SubPcs) bearing a carboxylic acid group either at the peripheral or axial position have been designed and synthesized to investigate the influence of the COOH group positions on the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) performance. The DSSC devices based on SubPcs with axially substituted carboxylic acid groups showed low photovoltaic performance, whereas peripherally substituted one exhibited higher power conversion efficiency owing to improved injection from LUMO of SubPcs to the TiO2 conduction band.

12.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 5(6): 1035-9, 2014 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26270984

RESUMO

Solar cells based on organometallic halide perovskite absorber layers are emerging as a high-performance photovoltaic technology. Using highly sensitive photothermal deflection and photocurrent spectroscopy, we measure the absorption spectrum of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films at room temperature. We find a high absorption coefficient with particularly sharp onset. Below the bandgap, the absorption is exponential over more than four decades with an Urbach energy as small as 15 meV, which suggests a well-ordered microstructure. No deep states are found down to the detection limit of ∼1 cm(-1). These results confirm the excellent electronic properties of perovskite thin films, enabling the very high open-circuit voltages reported for perovskite solar cells. Following intentional moisture ingress, we find that the absorption at photon energies below 2.4 eV is strongly reduced, pointing to a compositional change of the material.

13.
ChemSusChem ; 6(11): 2170-80, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23926052

RESUMO

We report a facile synthetic route to obtain functionalized quaterpyridine ligand and its trans-dithiocyanato ruthenium complex, based on a microwave-assisted procedure. The ruthenium complex has been purified using a silica chromatographic column by protecting carboxylic acid groups as iso-butyl ester, which are subsequently hydrolyzed. The highly pure complex exhibits panchromatic response throughout the visible region. DFT/time-dependent DFT calculations have been performed on the ruthenium complex in solution and adsorbed onto TiO2 to analyze relative electronic and optical properties. The ruthenium complex endowed with the functionalized quaterpyridine ligand was used as a sensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cell yielding a short-circuit photocurrent density of more than 19 mA cm(-2) with a broad incident photon to current conversion efficiency spectra ranging from 400 to 900 nm, exceeding 80 % at 700 nm.


Assuntos
Corantes/química , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Rutênio/química , Luz Solar , Adsorção , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Eletroquímica , Elétrons , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Teoria Quântica , Titânio/química
14.
Sci Rep ; 3: 2446, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23945746

RESUMO

The paradigm shift in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) - towards donor- π bridge-acceptor (D-π-A) dyes - increases the performances of DSCs and challenges established design principles. Framed by this shifting landscape, a series of four diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based sensitizers utilizing the donor-chromophore-anchor (D-C-A) motif were investigated computationally, spectroscopically, and fabricated by systematic evaluation of finished photovoltaic cells. In all cases, the [Co(bpy)3](3+/2+) redox-shuttle afforded superior performance compared to I3(-)/I(-). Aesthetically, careful molecular engineering of the DPP chromophore yielded the first example of a high-performance blue DSC - a challenge unmet since the inception of this photovoltaic technology: DPP17 yields over 10% power conversion efficiency (PCE) with the [Co(bpy)3](3+/2+) electrolyte at full AM 1.5 G simulated sun light.


Assuntos
Corantes/química , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Polímeros/química , Pirróis/química , Energia Solar , Cor , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Luz , Polímeros/efeitos da radiação , Pirróis/efeitos da radiação
15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(27): 11306-12, 2013 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23733016

RESUMO

High solubility is a requirement for energy relay dyes (ERDs) to absorb a large portion of incident light and significantly improve the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Two benzonitrile-soluble ERDs, BL302 and BL315, were synthesized, characterized, and resulted in a 65% increase in the efficiency of TT1-sensitized DSSCs. The high solubility (180 mM) of these ERDs allows for absorption of over 95% of incident light at their peak wavelength. The overall power conversion efficiency of DSSCs with BL302 and BL315 was found to be limited by their energy transfer efficiency of approximately 70%. Losses due to large pore size, dynamic collisional quenching of the ERD, energy transfer to desorbed sensitizing dyes and static quenching by complex formation were investigated and it was found that a majority of the losses are caused by the formation of statically quenched ERDs in solution.


Assuntos
Corantes/química , Nitrilos/química , Energia Solar , Corantes/síntese química , Estrutura Molecular , Nitrilos/síntese química , Solubilidade
16.
Org Lett ; 15(4): 784-7, 2013 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23384416

RESUMO

Introduction of a naphthalocyanine moiety to phthalocyanine allows for a gradual red shift of the absorption spectrum in the resulting chromophore. Using silicon as a core atom allows for the introduction of additional siloxane side chains which mitigate dye aggregation. A dye-sensitized solar cell with this hybrid sensitizer exhibits a broad and flat IPCE of 80% between 600 and 750 nm and high photocurrent densities of 19.0 mA/cm(2).

17.
Chemistry ; 19(5): 1819-27, 2013 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23255425

RESUMO

A series of squaraine-based sensitizers with various π bridges and anchors were prepared and examined in dye-sensitized solar cells. The carboxylic anchor group was attached onto a squaraine dye through π bridges with and without an ethynyl spacer. DFT studies indicate that the LUMO is delocalized throughout the dyes, whilst the HOMO resides on the squaraine core. The dye that incorporates a 4,4-di-n-hexyl-cyclopentadithiophene group that is directly attached onto the π bridge, JD10, exhibits the highest power conversion efficiency in a DSC; this result is attributed, in part, to the deaggregative properties that are associated with the gem-di-n-hexyl substituents, which extend above and below the π-conjugated dye plane. Dye JD10 demonstrates a power-conversion efficiency of 7.3% for liquid-electrolyte dye-sensitized solar cells and 7.9% for cells that are co-sensitized by another metal-free dye, D35, which substantially exceed the performance of any previously tested squaraine sensitizer. A panchromatic incident-photon-to-current-conversion efficiency curve is realized for this dye with an excellent short-circuit current of 18.0 mA cm(-2). This current is higher than that seen for other squaraine dyes, partially owing to a high molar absorptivity of >5,000 M(-1) cm(-1) from 400 nm to the long-wavelength onset of 724 nm for dye JD10.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 4(12): 6999-7006, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23182034

RESUMO

Thin semitransparent films were fabricated on F-doped SnO(2) (FTO) from single-layer graphene oxide (GO) either pure or in a composite with graphene nanoplatelets. Electrocatalytic activity of prepared films was tested for the Co(bpy)(3)(3+/2+) redox couple in acetonitrile electrolyte solution. Pristine GO showed almost no activity, resembling the properties of basal plane pyrolytic graphite. However, electrochemical performance of graphene oxide improved dramatically upon chemical reduction with hydrazine and/or heat treatment. All GO-containing films were firmly bonded to FTO, which contrasted with the poor adhesion of sole graphene nanoplatelets to this support. The activity loss during long-term aging was considerably improved, too. Enhanced stability of GO-containing films together with high electrocatalytic activity is beneficial for application in a new generation of dye-sensitized solar cells employing Co(bpy)(3)(3+/2+) as the redox shuttle.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(47): 19438-53, 2012 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23113640

RESUMO

We report a combined experimental and computational investigation to understand the nature of the interactions between cobalt redox mediators and TiO(2) surfaces sensitized by ruthenium and organic dyes, and their impact on the performance of the corresponding dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We focus on different ruthenium dyes and fully organic dyes, to understand the dramatic loss of efficiency observed for the prototype Ru(II) N719 dye in conjunction with cobalt electrolytes. Both N719- and Z907-based DSSCs showed an increased lifetime in iodine-based electrolyte compared to the cobalt-based redox shuttle, while the organic D21L6 and D25L6 dyes, endowed with long alkoxy chains, show no significant change in the electron lifetime regardless of employed electrolyte and deliver a high photovoltaic efficiency of 6.5% with a cobalt electrolyte. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show the formation of a complex between the cobalt electrolyte and the surface-adsorbed ruthenium dye, which brings the [Co(bpy)(3)](3+) species into contact with the TiO(2) surface. This translates into a high probability of intercepting TiO(2)-injected electrons by the oxidized [Co(bpy)(3)](3+) species, lying close to the N719-sensitized TiO(2) surface. Investigation of the dye regeneration mechanism by the cobalt electrolyte in the Marcus theory framework led to substantially different reorganization energies for the high-spin (HS) and low-spin (LS) reaction pathways. Our calculated reorganization energies for the LS pathways are in excellent agreement with recent data for a series of cobalt complexes, lending support to the proposed regeneration pathway. Finally, we systematically investigate a series of Co(II)/Co(III) complexes to gauge the impact of ligand substitution and of metal coordination (tris-bidentate vs bis-tridentate) on the HS/LS energy difference and reorganization energies. Our results allow us to trace structure/property relations required for further development of cobalt electrolytes for DSSCs.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 48(87): 10727-9, 2012 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23022986

RESUMO

A novel, asymmetric DPP bridge/core was synthesized and tested in DSC devices. By desymmetrising the DPP core/bridge, a remarkable IPCE of >80% and a maximum power conversion efficiency of 7.7% were achieved. With the use of a wide-bandgap co-sensitizer, 8.6% PCE was realized under standard AM1.5G sunlight.


Assuntos
Corantes/química , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Pirróis/química , Energia Solar , Corantes/síntese química , Estrutura Molecular , Pirróis/síntese química
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