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1.
Biomolecules ; 11(10)2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680102

RESUMO

Hyperlipidemia is a potent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. The reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) process has been shown to alleviate hyperlipidemia and protect against cardiovascular diseases. Recently, rosmarinic acid was reported to exhibit lipid-lowering effects. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. This study aims to investigate whether rosmarinic acid lowers lipids by modulating the RCT process in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic C57BL/6J mice. Our results indicated that rosmarinic acid treatment significantly decreased body weight, blood glucose, and plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in HFD-fed mice. Rosmarinic acid increased the expression levels of cholesterol uptake-associated receptors in liver tissues, including scavenger receptor B type 1 (SR-B1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R). Furthermore, rosmarinic acid treatment notably increased the expression of cholesterol excretion molecules, ATP-binding cassette G5 (ABCG5) and G8 (ABCG8) transporters, and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase A1 (CYP7A1) as well as markedly reduced cholesterol and triglyceride levels in liver tissues. In addition, rosmarinic acid facilitated fatty acid oxidation through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) induction. In conclusion, rosmarinic acid exhibited a lipid-lowering effect by modulating the expression of RCT-related proteins and lipid metabolism-associated molecules, confirming its potential for the prevention or treatment of hyperlipidemia-derived diseases.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18785, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552148

RESUMO

Previous epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the lower serum concentration of vitamin D was associated with elevated risk of open-angle glaucoma (OAG). However, few studies have examined the association between aqueous humor vitamin D concentrations and OAG. Hence, we investigated the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in aqueous humor and OAG. We measured 25(OH)D concentrations in aqueous humor and serum of 126 patients who underwent cataract surgery. 36 were patients with OAG and 90 were control patients. The 25(OH)D concentrations were measured using Elecsys Vitamin D Total Kits with the Cobas e602 module (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany), an electrochemiluminescence assay. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate factors associated with serum and aqueous humor 25(OH)D concentrations. Patients with OAG had significantly lower 25(OH)D concentrations in aqueous humor than control patients. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were higher in patients with OAG than in the control, but this was not statistically significant. 25(OH)D concentrations in aqueous humor of patients with OAG were significantly associated with axial length but not with glaucoma severity, which was determined by the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness or mean deviation. Vitamin D concentrations in aqueous humor of patients with OAG were significantly lower than those in patients without OAG.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445501

RESUMO

Lipid dysregulation in diabetes mellitus escalates endothelial dysfunction, the initial event in the development and progression of diabetic atherosclerosis. In addition, lipid-laden macrophage accumulation in the arterial wall plays a significant role in the pathology of diabetes-associated atherosclerosis. Therefore, inhibition of endothelial dysfunction and enhancement of macrophage cholesterol efflux is the important antiatherogenic mechanism. Rosmarinic acid (RA) possesses beneficial properties, including its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic and cardioprotective effects. We previously reported that RA effectively inhibits diabetic endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting inflammasome activation in endothelial cells. However, its effect on cholesterol efflux remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to assess the effect of RA on cholesterol efflux and its underlying mechanisms in macrophages. RA effectively reduced oxLDL-induced cholesterol contents under high glucose (HG) conditions in macrophages. RA enhanced ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and G1 (ABCG1) expression, promoting macrophage cholesterol efflux. Mechanistically, RA differentially regulated ABCA1 expression through JAK2/STAT3, JNK and PKC-p38 and ABCG1 expression through JAK2/STAT3, JNK and PKC-ERK1/2/p38 in macrophages. Moreover, RA primarily stabilized ABCA1 rather than ABCG1 protein levels by impairing protein degradation. These findings suggest RA as a candidate therapeutic to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease complications related to diabetes by regulating cholesterol efflux in macrophages.


Assuntos
Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Glucose/efeitos adversos , Lipoproteínas LDL/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos/citologia , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais , Células THP-1
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208226

RESUMO

We investigated the role of nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) under hyperosmotic conditions in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs). Hyperosmotic stress decreased the viability of human lens epithelial B-3 cells and significantly increased NFAT5 expression. Hyperosmotic stress-induced cell death occurred to a greater extent in NFAT5-knockout (KO) cells than in NFAT5 wild-type (NFAT5 WT) cells. Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl expression was down-regulated in NFAT5 WT cells and NFAT5 KO cells under hyperosmotic stress. Pre-treatment with a necroptosis inhibitor (necrostatin-1) significantly blocked hyperosmotic stress-induced death of NFAT5 KO cells, but not of NFAT5 WT cells. The phosphorylation levels of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) and RIP3, which indicate the occurrence of necroptosis, were up-regulated in NFAT5 KO cells, suggesting that death of these cells is predominantly related to the necroptosis pathway. This finding is the first to report that necroptosis occurs when lens epithelial cells are exposed to hyperosmolar conditions, and that NFAT5 is involved in this process.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Cristalino/patologia , Pressão Osmótica , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Soluções Hipertônicas/toxicidade , Inflamação/patologia , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/metabolismo , Pressão Osmótica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073834

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic metabolic liver disease associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Activation of the purinergic receptor P2Y2R has been reported to promote adipogenesis, inflammation and dyslipidemia in adipose tissues in obese mice. However, the role of P2Y2R and its mechanisms in NAFLD remain unknown. We hypothesized that P2Y2R deficiency may play a protective role in NAFLD by modulating lipid metabolism in the liver. In this study, we fed wild type and P2Y2R knockout mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks and analyzed metabolic phenotypes. First, P2Y2R deficiency effectively improved insulin resistance with a reduction in body weight and plasma insulin. Second, P2Y2R deficiency attenuated hepatic lipid accumulation and injury with reduced alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. Third, P2Y2R deficiency decreased the expression of fatty acid synthesis mediators (cluster of differentiation (CD36), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1)); and increased the expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a lipolytic enzyme. Mechanistically, P2Y2R deficiency increased the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity to improve mitochondrial fatty acid ß-oxidation (FAO) by regulating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A)-mediated FAO pathway. In addition, P2Y2R deficiency increased peroxisome proliferator-activated gamma co-activator-1α (PGC-1α)-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis. Conclusively, P2Y2R deficiency ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis by enhancing FAO through AMPK signaling and PGC-1α pathway, suggesting P2Y2R as a promising therapeutic target for NAFLD.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Lipogênese/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y2/metabolismo , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Antígenos CD36/metabolismo , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Lipase/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Obesos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/enzimologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y2/deficiência , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y2/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8814, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893358

RESUMO

Aim of the study is to report the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors in hypertensive anterior uveitis (AU) diagnosed with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eighty-eight eyes of 88 patients with hypertensive AU were enrolled from 2015 to 2019 in a tertiary center in South Korea. All patients underwent multiplex PCR that was performed using aqueous humor samples collected at first visit to detect the DNA of six herpesviruses. Twenty-eight (31.8%) eyes were PCR positive. Herpes simplex virus was found in 6 (6.8%) eyes, varicella-zoster virus in 7 (8.0%) eyes, cytomegalovirus in 14 (15.9%) eyes, and Epstein-Barr virus in 1 (1.1%) eye. On multivariate regression analysis, PCR positivity was significantly associated with coin-shaped keratic precipitates (odds ratio (OR) = 6.01, P = 0.044). Recurrence and final visual acuity were significantly associated with a presumed diagnosis of viral endotheliitis (OR = 21.69, P = 0.04 and OR = 6.3, P = 0.004, respectively). This study showed the importance of PCR positivity, suggesting that identification of the virus through active PCR testing could affect the course, treatment, and prognosis of hypertensive AU.

7.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(5)2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity due to an excessive intake of nutrient disturbs the hypothalamus-mediated energy metabolism subsequently develops metabolic disorders. In this study, we investigated the effect of pine needle extract (PNE) on the hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons involved in the regulation of energy balance via melanocortin system and fat tissue metabolism. METHODS: We performed electrophysiological and immunohistochemical analyses to determine the effect of PNE on POMC neurons. Mice were fed a normal or high-fat diet for 12 weeks, then received PNE for the last 2 weeks to measure the following physiological indices: Body weight, food intake, fat/lean mass, glucose metabolism, and plasma leptin levels. In addition, changes of thermogenic, lipolytic, and lipogenetic markers were evaluated in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) by western blotting, respectively. RESULTS: PNE increased hypothalamic POMC neuronal activity, and the effect was abolished by blockade of melanocortin 3/4 receptors (MC3/4Rs). PNE decreased body weight, fat mass, plasma leptin levels, and improved glucose metabolism after high-fat-induced obesity. However, PNE did not change the expression of thermogenic markers of the BAT in HFD fed groups, but decreased only the lipogenetic markers of WAT. This study suggests that PNE has a potent anti-obesity effect, inhibiting lipogenesis in WAT, even though HFD-induced leptin resistance-mediated disruption of POMC neuronal activity.

8.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(3)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809253

RESUMO

Although safflower seed extract exhibits pharmacological activity against various diseases, the effects of its individual compounds on osteoarthritis (OA) have not been elucidated. Here, we evaluated the effects of these extracts and their single compounds on OA. N-(p-Coumaroyl) serotonin and N-feruloyl serotonin, main components of safflower seed extract, were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under in vitro OA mimic conditions, the expression of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP3/13 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) ADAMTS5 were reduced in mouse chondrocytes treated with safflower seed extract. Furthermore, the oral administration of safflower seed extract attenuated cartilage destruction in a mouse OA model induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus. N-(p-Coumaroyl) serotonin and N-feruloyl serotonin, but not serotonin, reduced MMP3, MMP13, and ADAMTS5 expression in IL-1ß-treated chondrocytes. Additionally, they significantly blocked the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway by inhibiting IκB degradation and p65 phosphorylation. Our results suggest that safflower seed extract and its single compounds can attenuate cartilage destruction by suppressing MMP and ADMATS5 expression. The anti-arthritic effects are mediated by NF-κB signaling and involve the inhibition of IκB degradation and p65 phosphorylation. These results indicate that safflower seed extract may serve as a novel therapeutic agent against OA.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562139

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common pathological feature in patients with diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Although several pharmacological agents have been developed, the management of DN remains challenging. Geniposide, a natural compound has been reported for anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects; however, its role in DN remains poorly understood. This study investigated the protective effects of geniposide on DN and its underlying mechanisms. We used a C57BL/6 mouse model of DN in combination with a high-fat diet and streptozotocin after unilateral nephrectomy and treated with geniposide by oral gavage for 5 weeks. Geniposide effectively improves DN-induced renal structural and functional abnormalities by reducing albuminuria, podocyte loss, glomerular and tubular injury, renal inflammation and interstitial fibrosis. These changes induced by geniposide were associated with an increase of AMPK activity to enhance ULK1-mediated autophagy response and a decrease of AKT activity to block oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis in diabetic kidney. In addition, geniposide increased the activities of PKA and GSK3ß, possibly modulating AMPK and AKT pathways, efficiently improving renal dysfunction and ameliorating the progression of DN. Conclusively, geniposide enhances ULK1-mediated autophagy and reduces oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis, suggesting geniposide as a promising treatment for DN.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Proteína Homóloga à Proteína-1 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Iridoides/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Complicações do Diabetes/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose/prevenção & controle , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(569)2020 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177178

RESUMO

Lewy bodies are pathological protein inclusions present in the brain of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). These inclusions consist mainly of α-synuclein with associated proteins, such as parkin and its substrate aminoacyl transfer RNA synthetase complex-interacting multifunctional protein-2 (AIMP2). Although AIMP2 has been suggested to be toxic to dopamine neurons, its roles in α-synuclein aggregation and PD pathogenesis are largely unknown. Here, we found that AIMP2 exhibits a self-aggregating property. The AIMP2 aggregate serves as a seed to increase α-synuclein aggregation via specific and direct binding to the α-synuclein monomer. The coexpression of AIMP2 and α-synuclein in cell cultures and in vivo resulted in the rapid formation of α-synuclein aggregates with a corresponding increase in toxicity. Moreover, accumulated AIMP2 in mouse brain was largely redistributed to insoluble fractions, correlating with the α-synuclein pathology. Last, we found that α-synuclein preformed fibril (PFF) seeding, adult Parkin deletion, or oxidative stress triggered a redistribution of both AIMP2 and α-synuclein into insoluble fraction in cells and in vivo. Supporting the pathogenic role of AIMP2, AIMP2 knockdown ameliorated the α-synuclein aggregation and dopaminergic cell death in response to PFF or 6-hydroxydopamine treatment. Together, our results suggest that AIMP2 plays a pathological role in the aggregation of α-synuclein in mice. Because AIMP2 insolubility and coaggregation with α-synuclein have been seen in the PD Lewy body, targeting pathologic AIMP2 aggregation might be useful as a therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative α-synucleinopathies.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , alfa-Sinucleína , Amiloide/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Corpos de Lewy/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Nucleares , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198348

RESUMO

The progressive neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) is accompanied by neuroinflammation and endothelial vascular impairment. Although the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in both dopamine neurons and brain endothelial cells, its role in the regulation of endothelial biology has not been explored in the context of PD. In a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PD mouse model, we observed reduced transcription of the VDR and its downstream target genes, CYP24 and MDR1a. The 6-OHDA-induced transcriptional repression of these genes were recovered after the VDR ligand-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) treatment. Similarly, reduced vascular protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by MDR1a, after 6-OHDA administration was reversed by 1,25(OH)2D3. Moreover, marked reduction of endothelial P-gp expression with concomitant α-synuclein aggregation was found in a combinatorial AAV-αSyn/αSyn preformed fibril (PFF) injection mouse model and postmortem PD brains. Supporting the direct effect of α-synuclein aggregation on endothelial biology, PFF treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was sufficient to induce α-synuclein aggregation and repress transcription of the VDR. PFF-induced P-gp downregulation and impaired functional activity in HUVECs completely recovered after 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that a dysfunctional VDR-P-gp pathway could be a potential target for the maintenance of vascular homeostasis in PD pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Calcitriol/metabolismo , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Família 24 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Ligantes , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Vitamina D3 24-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo
12.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 182: 114246, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011160

RESUMO

Elevated glucose levels in diabetes mellitus is associated with increased oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL). High glucose (HG) and oxLDL are key inducers of oxidative stress and inflammatory processes responsible for diabetic vascular disorders. Rosmarinic acid is a polyphenol with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects. However, whether rosmarinic acid protects against diabetic atherosclerosis remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of rosmarinic acid against diabetic atherosclerosis and the related signaling pathway. oxLDL-mediated oxidative stress upregulated thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and subsequently induced binding of TXNIP to NLRP3 to mediate NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation under HG conditions in ECs. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, p38 and FOXO1 inhibitors and TXNIP siRNA inhibited TXNIP protein upregulation and NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation. Rosmarinic acid abrogated TXNIP protein upregulation and the interaction between TXNIP and NLRP3 to attenuate NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation and eventually IL-1ß secretion in ECs through downregulating ROS production, p38 phosphorylation and FOXO1 protein induction in ECs. These findings show that rosmarinic acid inhibits endothelial dysfunction which is shown in diabetic atherosclerosis through downregulating the p38-FOXO1-TXNIP pathway and inhibiting inflammasome activation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Glucose/toxicidade , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/toxicidade , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte/antagonistas & inibidores , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/fisiologia , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Inflamassomos/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores
13.
FASEB J ; 34(12): 16464-16475, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099835

RESUMO

Every year, hundreds of thousands of people die because of metastatic brain cancer. Most metastatic cancer research uses 2D cell culture or animal models, but they have a few limitations, such as difficulty reproducing human tissue structures. This study developed a simple 3D in vitro model to better replicate brain metastasis using human cancer cells and human embryonic stem cell-derived cerebral organoids (metastatic brain cancer cerebral organoid [MBCCO]). The MBCCO model successfully reproduced metastatic cancer processes, including cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration, in addition to cell-cell interactions. Using the MBCCO model, we demonstrated that lung-specific X protein (LUNX) plays an important role in cell proliferation and migration or invasion. We also observed astrocyte accumulation around and their interaction with cancer cells through connexin 43 in the MBCCO model. We analyzed whether the MBCCO model can be used to screen drugs by measuring the effects of gefitinib, a well-known anticancer agent. We also examined the toxicity of gefitinib using normal cerebral organoids (COs). Therefore, the MBCCO model is a powerful tool for modeling human metastatic brain cancer in vitro and can also be used to screen drugs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/patologia , Organoides/patologia , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesão Celular/fisiologia , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Células HEK293 , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/patologia , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Biomedicines ; 8(9)2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942603

RESUMO

Glutathione (GSH) is an endogenous antioxidant found in plants, animals, fungi, and some microorganisms that protects cells by neutralizing hydrogen peroxide. Honokiol, an active ingredient of Magnolia officinalis, is known for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial properties. We investigated the protective mechanism of honokiol through regulating cellular GSH in renal proximal tubules against acute kidney injury (AKI). First, we measured cellular GSH levels and correlated them with the expression of GSH biosynthetic enzymes after honokiol treatment in human kidney-2 (HK-2) cells. Second, we used pharmacological inhibitors or siRNA-mediated gene silencing approach to determine the signaling pathway induced by honokiol. Third, the protective effect of honokiol via de novo GSH biosynthesis was investigated in renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) mice. Honokiol significantly increased cellular GSH levels by upregulating the subunits of glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gcl)-Gclc and Gclm. These increases were mediated by activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, via PI3K/Akt and protein kinase C signaling. Consistently, honokiol treatment reduced the plasma creatinine, tubular cell death, neutrophil infiltration and lipid peroxidation in IR mice and the effect was correlated with upregulation of Gclc and Gclm. Conclusively, honokiol may benefit to patients with AKI by increasing antioxidant GSH via transcriptional activation of the biosynthetic enzymes.

15.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933130

RESUMO

Endotoxin-induced acute liver injury is mediated by an excessive inflammatory response, hepatocellular oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Traditional medicinal plants have been used to treat various disorders. Platycodon grandifloras (PG) has been shown to be beneficial in relieving cough and asthma and to have anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic activities. The pharmacological action of PG is mainly due to saponins, flavonoids, phenolic, and other compounds. However, raw PG exhibits some side effects at high doses. Here, we extracted raw PG with varying fermentation methods and examined its anti-inflammatory effect and associated signaling kinases in Raw264.7 cells. Then, we investigated the effect of fermented black PG (FBPG) on endotoxin-induced liver injury. Mice were administered FBPG orally at 1 h before the lipopolysaccharide and D-galactosamine (LPS/GalN) injection and sacrificed after 5 h. Black PG (BPG) and FBPG showed a significant reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines and extracellular nitric oxide (NO); p-38 and ERK signaling was involved in reducing inducible NO synthase in Raw264.7 cells. Consistently, FBPG attenuates LPS/GalN-induced liver injury; plasma ALT and AST, hepatic necrosis, pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis, and lipid peroxidation were all reduced. In conclusion, PG extracts, particularly FBPG, play anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic roles, alleviating endotoxin-induced acute liver injury. Processing raw PG into FBPG extract may be clinically useful by improving the pharmacologically active ingredients and reducing the required dosage.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Platycodon , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Endotoxinas , Fermentação , Galactosamina , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Necrose , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Mol Metab ; 42: 101089, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987187

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common complications of diabetes and a critical risk factor for developing end-stage renal disease. Activation of purinergic receptors, including P2Y2R has been associated with the pathogenesis of renal diseases, such as polycystic kidney and glomerulonephritis. However, the role of P2Y2R and its precise mechanisms in DN remain unknown. We hypothesised that P2Y2R deficiency may play a protective role in DN by modulating the autophagy signalling pathway. METHODS: We used a mouse model of DN by combining a treatment of high-fat diet and streptozotocin after unilateral nephrectomy in wild-type or P2Y2R knockout mice. We measured renal functional parameter in plasma, examined renal histology, and analysed expression of autophagy regulatory proteins. RESULTS: Hyperglycaemia and ATP release were induced in wild type-DN mice and positively correlated with renal dysfunction. Conversely, P2Y2R knockout markedly attenuates albuminuria, podocyte loss, development of glomerulopathy, renal tubular injury, apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis induced by DN. These protective effects were associated with inhibition of AKT-mediated FOXO3a (forkhead box O3a) phosphorylation and induction of FOXO3a-induced autophagy gene transcription. Furthermore, inhibitory phosphorylation of ULK-1 was decreased, and the downstream Beclin-1 autophagy signalling was activated in P2Y2R deficiency. Increased SIRT-1 (sirtuin-1) and FOXO3a expression in P2Y2R deficiency also enhanced autophagy response, thereby ameliorating renal dysfunction in DN. CONCLUSIONS: P2Y2R contributes to the pathogenesis of DN by impairing autophagy and serves as a therapeutic target for treating DN.

17.
J Clin Med ; 9(7)2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640699

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, characterized by olfactory dysfunction in the early stages. α-Synuclein pathologies in the olfactory organs are shown to spread to the brain through the nose-brain axis. We first developed a nasal epithelial PD cellular model by treating RPMI-2650 cells with α-synuclein preformed fibrils (PFF). Upon uptake of PFF, RPMI-2650 cells showed mitochondrial proteome alteration and downregulation of parkin, which has previously been identified as a nasal biomarker of PD. Functional cluster analysis of differentially expressed genes in RPMI-2650 cells revealed various pathways affected by α-synuclein pathology, including the detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception, olfactory receptor activity, and sensory perception of smell. Among genes that were most affected, we validated, by real-time quantitative PCR, the downregulation of MAP3K8, OR10A4, GRM2, OR51B6, and OR9A2, as well as upregulation of IFIT1B, EPN1, OR1D5, LCN, and OTOL1 in PFF-treated RPMI-2650 cells. Subsequent analyses of clinical samples showed a downregulation of OR10A4 and OR9A2 transcripts and an upregulation of IFIT1B in cells isolated from the nasal fluid of PD patients, as compared to those from the controls (cutoff value = 0.5689 for OR9A2, with 72.4% sensitivity and 75% specificity, and 1.4658 for IFIT1B, with 81.8% sensitivity and 77.8% specificity). Expression levels of these nasal PD markers were not altered in nasal fluid cells from SWEDD (scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficits) patients with PD-like motor symptoms. These nasal markers were significantly altered in patients of PD with hyposmia compared to the control hyposmic subjects. Our results validated the α-synuclein-treated nasal epithelial cell model to identify novel biomarkers for PD and suggest the utility of olfactory transcripts, along with olfactory dysfunction, in the diagnosis of PD.

18.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(14): 8126-8137, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529755

RESUMO

Seomae mugwort, a Korean native variety of Artemisia argyi, exhibits physiological effects against various diseases. However, its effects on osteoarthritis (OA) are unclear. In this study, a Seomae mugwort extract prevented cartilage destruction in an OA mouse model. In vitro and ex vivo analyses revealed that the extract suppressed MMP3, MMP13, ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 expression induced by IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α and inhibited the loss of extracellular sulphated proteoglycans. In vivo analysis revealed that oral administration of the extract suppressed DMM-induced cartilage destruction. We identified jaceosidin in Seomae mugwort and showed that this compound decreased MMP3, MMP13, ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 expression levels, similar to the action of the Seomae mugwort extract in cultured chondrocytes. Interestingly, jaceosidin and eupatilin combined had similar effects to Seomae mugwort in the DMM-induced OA model. Induction of IκB degradation by IL-1ß was blocked by the extract and jaceosidin, whereas JNK phosphorylation was only suppressed by the extract. These results suggest that the Seomae mugwort extract and jaceosidin can attenuate cartilage destruction by suppressing MMPs, ADAMTS4/5 and the nuclear factor-κB signalling pathway by blocking IκB degradation. Thus, the findings support the potential application of Seomae mugwort, and particularly jaceosidin, as natural therapeutics for OA.


Assuntos
Artemisia/química , Cartilagem Articular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Proteínas I-kappa B/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Artrite Experimental , Biomarcadores , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Flavonoides/química , Expressão Gênica , Imuno-Histoquímica , Interleucina-1beta/farmacologia , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite/etiologia , Osteoartrite/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Proteólise , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(6)2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466580

RESUMO

The key barrier to the effectiveness of radiotherapy remains the radioresistance of breast cancer cells, resulting in increased tumor recurrence and metastasis. Thus, in this study, we aimed to clarify the difference between radiotherapy-resistant (RT-R) breast cancer (BC) and BC, and accordingly, analyzed gene expression levels between radiotherapy-resistant (RT-R) MDA-MB-231 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells. Gene expression array showed that ESM-1 was the most upregulated in RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells compared to MDA-MB-231 cells. Then, we aimed to investigate the role of ESM-1 in the increased tumorigenesis of RT-R-BC cells. RT-R-MDA-MB-231, which showed an increased expression level of ESM1, exhibited significantly enhanced proliferation, colony forming ability, migration, and invasion compared to MDA-MB-231 cells, and ESM-1 knockdown effectively reversed these effects. In addition, compared to MDA-MB-231 cells, RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells displayed improved adhesion to endothelial cells (ECs) due to the induction of adhesion molecules and increased MMP-9 activity and VEGF-A production, which were decreased by ESM-1 knockdown. Moreover, the expression of HIF-1α and activation of NF-κB and STAT-3 were increased in RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells compared to MDA-MB-231 cells, and these effects were abolished by the knockdown of ESM-1. Finally, we confirmed the role of ESM-1 in tumorigenesis in an in vivo mouse model. Tumor volume, lung metastasis, and tumorigenic molecules (VEGF-A, HIF-1α, MMP-9, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and phospho-NF-κB and phospho-STAT-3) were significantly induced in mice injected with ESM-1-overexpressing 4T1 cells and greatly enhanced in those injected with ESM-1-overexpressing RT-R-4T1 cells. Taken together, these results suggest for the first time that ESM-1 plays a critical role in tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells, especially RT-R-breast cancer cells, through the induction of cell proliferation and invasion.

20.
Sci Signal ; 13(663)2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443209

RESUMO

Progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons characterizes Parkinson's disease (PD). This neuronal loss occurs through diverse mechanisms, including a form of programmed cell death dependent on poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) called parthanatos. Deficient activity of the kinase Akt1 and aggregation of the protein α-synuclein are also implicated in disease pathogenesis. Here, we found that Akt1 suppressed parthanatos in dopaminergic neurons through a transcriptional mechanism. Overexpressing constitutively active Akt1 in SH-SY5Y cells or culturing cells with chlorogenic acid (a polyphenol found in coffee that activates Akt1) stimulated the CREB-dependent transcriptional activation of the gene encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146. RNF146 inhibited PARP1 not through its E3 ligase function but rather by binding to and sequestering PAR, which enhanced the survival of cultured cells exposed to the dopaminergic neuronal toxin 6-OHDA or α-synuclein aggregation. In mice, intraperitoneal administration of chlorogenic acid activated the Akt1-CREB-RNF146 pathway in the brain and provided neuroprotection against both 6-OHDA and combinatorial α-synucleinopathy in an RNF146-dependent manner. Furthermore, dysregulation of the Akt1-CREB pathway was observed in postmortem brain samples from patients with PD. The findings suggest that therapeutic restoration of RNF146 expression, such as by activating the Akt1-CREB pathway, might halt neurodegeneration in PD.

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