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1.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(23)2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883717

RESUMO

In the effort to produce renewable and biodegradable polymers, more studies are being undertaken to explore environmentally friendly sources to replace petroleum-based sources. The oil palm industry is not only the biggest vegetable-oil producer from crops but also one the biggest producers of residual oil that cannot be used for edible purposes due to its low quality. In this paper the development of biopolymers from residual palm oil, residual palm oil with 10% jatropha oil, and residual palm oil with 10% algae oil as additives were explored. Polyols from the different oils were prepared by epoxydation with peroxyacetic acid and alcoholysis under the same conditions and further reacted with poly isocyanate to form polyurethanes. Epoxidized oils, polyols and polyurethanes were analyzed by different techniques such as TGA, DSC, DMA, FTIR and H-NMR. Overall, although the IV of algae oil is slightly higher than that of jatropha oil, the usage of algae oil as additive into the residual palm oil was shown to significantly increase the hard segments and thermal stability of the bio polyurethane compared to the polymer with jatropha oil. Furthermore, when algae oil was mixed with the residual palm oil, it was possible to identify phosphate groups in the polyol which might enhance the fire-retardant properties of the final biopolymer.

2.
Acta Trop ; 224: 106107, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450061

RESUMO

This study evaluates the efficacy of palm oil-based nanoemulsion insecticides in thermal fogging applications against adult Ae. aegypti. The nanoemulsion formulations contained a palm oil methyl ester solvent, water, a non-ionic surfactant, and active ingredient deltamethrin, with nanoemulsion droplet diameters ranging from 362 to 382 nm. Knockdown and mortality rates of caged mosquitoes were measured at various distances up to 18 m from the spray nozzle. After 15 min of insecticide exposure, nanoemulsion insecticides achieved a knockdown rate of >97% at a spraying distance of 4 m, and the knockdown effect increased substantially with exposure time. At an 18 m spraying distance, the best nanoemulsion formulation, NanoEW8, achieved a high mosquito mortality rate of more than 80%, whereas the non-nanoemulsion and the commercial product reached only 14 and 8 m distances, respectively, for comparable mortality. The artificial neural network (ANN) was used to predict the mosquito knockdown distribution over the spraying distances and time intervals. The models predicted that NanoEW8 can still cause knockdown at a maximum distance of 61.5 m from the discharge point 60 min after spraying. The results established that Ae. aegypti was susceptible to the newly developed palm oil-based nanoemulsion insecticide, indicating a high potential for mosquito control.


Assuntos
Aedes , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Animais , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malásia , Controle de Mosquitos , Óleo de Palmeira
3.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 44(11): 2429-2444, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269888

RESUMO

The present study reports the effects of three commercial immobilized lipases namely Novozyme 435 from Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB), Lipozyme TL IM from Thermomyces lanuginosus and Lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei on the production of trimethylolpropane (TMP) ester from high oleic palm methyl ester (HO-PME) and TMP. The TMP ester is a promising base oil for biolubricants that are easily biodegradable and non-toxic to humans and the environment. Enzymatic catalysts are insensitive to free fatty acid (FFA) content, hence able to mitigate the side reactions and consequently reduce product separation cost. The potential of these enzymes to produce TMP ester in a solvent-free medium was screened at various reaction time (8, 23, 30 and 48 h), operating pressure (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 mbar) and enzyme dosage (1, 3, 5 and 10% w/w). The reaction was conducted at a constant temperature of 70 °C and a molar ratio of 3.9:1 (HO-PME: TMP). Novozyme 435 produced the highest yield of TMP ester of 95.68 ± 3.60% under the following conditions: 23 h reaction time, 0.1 mbar operating pressure and 5% w/w of enzyme dosage. The key lubrication properties of the produced TMP ester are viscosity index (208 ± 2), pour point (- 30 ± - 2 °C), cloud point (- 15 ± - 2 °C), onset thermal degradation temperature (427.8 °C), and oxidation stability, RPVOT (42 ± 4 min). The properties of the TMP ester produced from the enzymatic transesterification are comparable to other vegetable oil-based biolubricants produced by chemical transesterification.


Assuntos
Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Lubrificantes/metabolismo , Óleo de Palmeira/metabolismo , Propilenoglicóis/metabolismo , Catálise , Esterificação , Ésteres/metabolismo , Óleo de Palmeira/química
4.
ACS Omega ; 6(17): 11144-11154, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34056270

RESUMO

In this study, a mineral-based coated urea was fabricated in a rotary pan coater using a mixture of gypsum/sulfur/zeolite (G25S25Z50) as an effective and low-cost coating material. The effects of different coating compositions on the dissolution rate of urea and the crushing strength and morphology of the coated urea were investigated. A 25:25:50 (wt %) mixture of gypsum/sulfur/zeolite (G25S25Z50) increased the coating effectiveness to 34.1% with the highest crushing strength (31.06 N). The effectiveness of coated urea was further improved to 46.6% with the addition of a microcrystalline wax (3%) as a sealant. Furthermore, the release mechanisms of various urea fertilizers were determined by fitting the release profiles with six mathematical models, namely, the zeroth-order, first-order, second-order, Higuchi, Ritger & Peppas, and Kopcha models. The results showed that the release mechanism of the uncoated urea and all other coated urea followed the Ritger & Peppas model, suggesting the diffusional release from nonswellable delivery systems. In addition, due to the increased mass-transfer resistance, the kinetic constant was decreased from 0.2233 for uncoated urea to 0.1338 for G25S25Z50-coated urea and was further decreased to 0.0985 when 3% Witcovar 146 sealant was applied.

5.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808641

RESUMO

This experimental study aims to examine the partial discharge (PD) properties of palm oil and coconut oil (CO) based aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanofluids with and without surfactants. The type of surfactant used in this study was sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The volume concentrations range of Al2O3 dispersed in oil samples was varied from 0.001% to 0.05%. The ratio of surfactants to nanoparticles was set to 1:2. In total, two different types of refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO) and one type of CO were measured for PD. Mineral oil (MO) was also examined for comparison purpose. PDIV measurements for all samples were carried out based on rising voltage method whereby a needle-sphere electrode configuration with a gap distance of 50 mm was chosen in this study. Al2O3 improves the PDIVs of RBDPO, CO and MO whereby the highest improvements of PDIVs are 34%, 39.3% and 27%. The PD amplitude and repetition rate of RBDPO improve by 38% and 81% while for CO, it can increase up to 65% and 80% respectively. The improvement of PD amplitude and repetition rate for MO are 18% and 95%, regardless with and without SDS. Without SDS, the presence of Al2O3 could cause 26%, 75% and 65% reductions of the average emission of light signals for RBDPOA, RBDPOB and CO with the improvement of PD characteristics but both events do not correlate at the same volume concentration of Al2O3. On the other hand, the average emission of light signal levels of the oils increases with the introduction of SDS. The emission of light signal in MO does not correlate with the PD characteristics improvement either with or without SDS.

6.
ACS Omega ; 6(6): 4137-4146, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644536

RESUMO

Despite the advantages of continuous fermentation whereby ethanol is selectively removed from the fermenting broth to reduce the end-product inhibition, this process can concentrate minor secondary products to the point where they become toxic to the yeast. This study aims to develop a new mathematical model do describe the inhibitory effect of byproducts on alcoholic fermentation including glycerol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and succinic acid, which were reported as major byproducts during batch alcoholic fermentation. The accumulation of these byproducts during the different stages of batch fermentation has been quantified. The yields of total byproducts, glycerol, acetic acid, and succinic acid per gram of glucose were 0.0442, 0.023, 0.0155, and 0.0054, respectively. It was found that the concentration of these byproducts linearly increases with the increase in glucose concentration in the range of 25-250 g/L. The results have also showed that byproduct concentration has a significant inhibitory effect on specific growth coefficient (µ) whereas no effect was observed on the half-velocity constant (K s). A new mathematical model of alcoholic fermentation was developed considering the byproduct inhibitory effect, which showed a good performance and more accuracy compared to the classical Monod model.

7.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546303

RESUMO

Biodiesels and biolubricants are synthetic esters produced mainly via a transesterification of other esters from bio-based resources, such as plant-based oils or animal fats. Microwave heating has been used to enhance transesterification reaction by converting an electrical energy into a radiation, becoming part of the internal energy acquired by reactant molecules. This method leads to major energy savings and reduces the reaction time by at least 60% compared to a conventional heating via conduction and convection. However, the application of microwave heating technology alone still suffers from non-homogeneous electromagnetic field distribution, thermally unstable rising temperatures, and insufficient depth of microwave penetration, which reduces the mass transfer efficiency. The strategy of integrating multiple technologies for biodiesel and biolubricant production has gained a great deal of interest in applied chemistry. This review presents an advanced transesterification process that combines microwave heating with other technologies, namely an acoustic cavitation, a vacuum, ionic solvent, and a supercritical/subcritical approach to solve the limitations of the stand-alone microwave-assisted transesterification. The combined technologies allow for the improvement in the overall product yield and energy efficiency. This review provides insights into the broader prospects of microwave heating in the production of bio-based products.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Lubrificantes , Micro-Ondas , Óleos Vegetais/química , Esterificação , Lubrificantes/síntese química , Lubrificantes/química
8.
ACS Omega ; 6(1): 408-415, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458492

RESUMO

Green diesel is one of the alternative energy sources, which is found to be a second-generation biofuel. Green diesel has a similar molecular structure to petroleum diesel but has better diesel properties, sustainability, and environmental benignity. In this study, green diesel was synthesized from waste cooking oil via a deoxygenation reaction process and blended with petroleum diesel to assess the rate of greenhouse gas emissions. The fuel properties of the formed G100 (pure green diesel) were investigated, and the performance of G5 and G20 (a mixture of 5 and 20% green diesel in petroleum diesel) was tested for combustion in an oil burner. The overall test showed that the combustion of the blends of green diesel produced lower CO2 and SO2 emissions than that of petroleum diesel as a result of the rich oxygen-free fuel content. The obtained fuel properties of pure green diesel and blended green diesel are in compliance with ASTM D6751, ASTM D240-17, and EN 14214 standards. Based on these findings, it is shown that blended green diesel is a clean fuel for the environment and a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19652, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184363

RESUMO

Microwave-assisted synthesis is known to accelerate the transesterification process and address the issues associated with the conventional thermal process, such as the processing time and the energy input requirement. Herein, the effect of microwave irradiation on the transesterification of palm oil methyl ester (PME) with trimethylolpropane (TMP) was evaluated. The reaction system was investigated through five process parameters, which were reaction temperature, catalyst, time, molar ratio of TMP to PME and vacuum pressure. The yield of TMP triester at 66.9 wt.% and undesirable fatty soap at 17.4% were obtained at 130 °C, 10 mbar, sodium methoxide solution at 0.6 wt.%, 10 min reaction time and molar ratio of TMP to PME at 1:4. The transesterification of palm oil-based methyl ester to trimethylolpropane ester was 3.1 folds faster in the presence of microwave irradiation. The total energy requirement was markedly reduced as compared to the conventional heating method. The findings indicate that microwave-assisted transesterification could probably be an answer to the quest for a cheaper biodegradable biolubricant.

10.
Nanotechnology ; 31(42): 425708, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748802

RESUMO

In this paper, the effect of different types of surfactants on the lightning breakdown voltages of palm oil (PO) and coconut oil (CO) based aluminium oxide (Al2O3) nanofluids is investigated. Three different types of surfactants were used in this study known as cationic (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) and non-ionic (oleic acid (OA)). The volume percentage concentrations of Al2O3 dispersed into PO and CO were varied from 0.001% to 0.05%. The ratio of surfactant to the nanoparticles was set to 50% from the volume concentration of nanoparticles which equivalent to 1:2. In total, two types of refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO) and one type of CO were examined for lightning breakdown voltage. The test was carried out based on needle-sphere electrodes configuration with 25 mm gap distance. The presence of Al2O3 improves both positive and negative lightning breakdown voltages of RBDPO and CO. Under the positive and negative polarities, the CTAB does provide further improvements on the lightning breakdown voltages of RBDPOA (1st type of samples) and CO at most of the volume of concentration of Al2O3. SDS and OA could also further improve the lightning breakdown voltage of CO at certain volume concentration of Al2O3. On the other hand, the lightning breakdown voltage of RBDPOB based Al2O3 nanofluid (2nd type of samples) does not further improve with the introduction of surfactants. At most of the volume concentration of Al2O3, the introduction of CTAB further increases the times to breakdown and decrease the average streamer velocities of RBDPOA under both polarities. The same finding is observed for CO under positive polarity with CTAB and SDS as well as under negative polarity in the presence of all surfactants. The streamer velocities and times to breakdown patterns of RBDPOB based Al2O3 nanofluid are inconsistent in the presence of all surfactants. It is found that RBDPO and CO based Al2O3 nanofluids have second mode of streamer whereby the streamer velocities are from 1 km s-1 to 1.63 km s-1 regardless with or without surfactants.

11.
Biomolecules ; 9(8)2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357463

RESUMO

Modelling has recently become a key tool to promote the bioethanol industry and to optimise the fermentation process to be easily integrated into the industrial sector. In this context, this study aims at investigating the applicability of two mathematical models (Andrews and Monod) for molasses fermentation. The kinetics parameters for Monod and Andrews were estimated from experimental data using Matlab and OriginLab software. The models were simulated and compared with another set of experimental data that was not used for parameters' estimation. The results of modelling showed that µmax = 0.179 1/h and Ks = 11.37 g.L-1 for the Monod model, whereas µmax = 0.508 1/h, Ks = 47.53 g.L-1 and Ki = 181.01 g.L-1 for the Andrews model, which are too close to the values reported in previous studies. The validation of both models showed that the Monod model is more suitable for batch fermentation modelling at a low concentration, where the highest R squared was observed at S0 = 75 g.L-1 with an R squared equal to 0.99956, 0.99954, and 0.99859 for the biomass, substrate, and product concentrations, respectively. In contrast, the Andrews model was more accurate at a high initial substrate concentration and the model data showed a good agreement compared to the experimental data of batch fermentation at S0 = 225 g.L-1, which was reflected in a high R squared with values 0.99795, 0.99903, and 0.99962 for the biomass, substrate, and product concentrations respectively.


Assuntos
Etanol/metabolismo , Melaço/microbiologia , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Fermentação , Modelos Biológicos
12.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(4)2018 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29601520

RESUMO

This paper presents a sealed ageing study of palm oil (PO) and coconut oil (CO) in the presence of insulation paper. The type of PO under study is refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO) olein. Three different variations of RBDPO and one sample of CO are aged at temperatures of 90 °C, 110 °C, and 130 °C. The properties of RBDPO and CO as well as paper under ageing are then analysed through dielectric and physicochemical measurements. It is found that the effect of ageing is not significant on the alternating current (AC) breakdown voltages and relative permittivities of RBDPO and CO. There is a slight increment trend of the resistivity for CO, while for all of the RBDPO, the resistivity slightly decreases as the ageing progresses. Only CO shows an apparent reduction of the dielectric dissipation factor. Throughout the ageing time, the acidities of all of the RBDPO and CO remain at low level, while the moisture in oils decreases. The tensile index (TI) of the papers for all of the RBDPO and CO retain more than 50% of the TI. A significant increment of the paper ageing rates of all of the RBDPO and CO is observed at an ageing temperature of 130 °C.

13.
Protein Pept Lett ; 25(2): 171-179, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29359647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transesterification of high oleic palm oil methyl ester (HOPME) with neopentyl glycol (NPG) has been investigated. The present study revealed the application of low-pressure technology as a new synthesis method to produce NPG diesters. Single variable optimization and response surface methodology (RSM) were implemented to optimize the experimental conditions to achieve the maximum composition (wt%) of NPG diesters. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to optimize the production of NPG diesters and to characterize the optimized esters with typical chemical, physical and electrical properties to study its potential as insulating oil. METHODS: The transesterification reaction between HOPME and NPG was conducted in a 1L three-neck flask reactor at specified temperature, pressure, molar ratio and catalyst concentration. For the optimization, four factors have been studied and the diester product was characterized by using gas chromatography (GC) analysis. The synthesized esters were then characterized with typical properties of transformer oil such as flash point, pour point, viscosity and breakdown voltage and were compared with mineral insulating oil and commercial NPG dioleate. For formulation, different samples of NPG diesters with different concentration of pour point depressant were prepared and each sample was tested for its pour point measurement. RESULTS: The optimum conditions inferred from the analyses were: molar ratio of HOPME to NPG of 2:1.3, temperature = 182°C, pressure = 0.6 mbar and catalyst concentration of 1.2%. The synthesized NPG diesters showed very important improvement in fire safety compared to mineral oil with flash point of 300°C and 155°C, respectively. NPG diesters also exhibit a relatively good viscosity of 21 cSt. The most striking observation to emerge from the data comparison with NPG diester was the breakdown voltage, which was higher than mineral oil and definitely in conformance to the IEC 61099 limit at 67.5 kV. The formulation of synthesized NPD diesters with VISCOPLEX® pour point depressant has successfully increased the pour point of NPG diester from -14°C to -48°C. CONCLUSION: The reaction time for the transesterification of HOPME with NPG to produce NPG diester was successfully reduced to 1 hour from the 14 hours required in the earlier synthesis method. The main highlight of this study was the excess reactant which is no longer methyl ester but the alcohol (NPG). The optimum reaction conditions for the synthesis were molar ratio of 2:1.13 for NPG:HOPME, 182°C, 0.6 mbar and catalyst concentration of 1.2 wt%. The maximum NPG diester yield of 87 wt% was consistent with the predicted yield of 87.7 wt% obtained from RSM. The synthesized diester exhibited better insulating properties than the commercial products especially with regards to the breakdown voltage, flash point and moisture content.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Ésteres/química , Glicóis/química , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Catálise , Esterificação , Química Verde , Temperatura , Viscosidade
14.
Bioinorg Chem Appl ; 2017: 7914714, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28420949

RESUMO

This study aims to produce optimized biochar from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB), as a green, low cost adsorbent for uptake of zinc from aqueous solution. The impact of pyrolysis conditions, namely, highest treatment temperature (HTT), heating rate (HR), and residence time (RT) on biochar yield and adsorption capacity towards zinc, was investigated. Mathematical modeling and optimization of independent variables were performed employing response surface methodology (RSM). HTT was found to be the most influential variable, followed by residence time and heating rate. Based on the central composite design (CCD), two quadratic models were developed to correlate three independent variables to responses. The optimum production condition for OPEFB biochar was found as follows: HTT of 615°C, HR of 8°C/min, and RT of 128 minutes. The optimum biochar showed 15.18 mg/g adsorption capacity for zinc and 25.49% of yield which was in agreement with the predicted values, satisfactory. Results of the characterization of optimum product illustrated well-developed BET surface area and porous structure in optimum product which favored its sorptive ability.

15.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 12(1): 246, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28381070

RESUMO

A nanocomposite comprising of polypyrrole and reduced graphene oxide was electrodeposited onto a carbon bundle fibre (CBF) through a two-step approach (CBF/PPy-rGO-2). The CBF/PPy-rGO-2 had a highly porous structure compared to a nanocomposite of polypyrrole and reduced graphene oxide that was electrodeposited onto a CBF in a one-step approach (CBF/PPy-rGO), as observed through a field emission scanning electron microscope. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of hydrogen bond between the oxide functional groups of rGO and the amine groups of PPy in PPy-rGO-2 nanocomposite. The fabricated CBF/PPy-rGO-2 nanocomposite material was used as an electrode material in a symmetrical solid-state supercapacitor, and the device yielded a specific capacitance, energy density and power density of 96.16 F g- 1, 13.35 Wh kg- 1 and of 322.85 W kg- 1, respectively. Moreover, the CBF/PPy-rGO-2 showed the capacitance retention of 71% after 500 consecutive charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 1 A g- 1. The existence of a high degree of porosity in CBF/PPy-rGO-2 significantly improved the conductivity and facilitated the ionic penetration. The CBF/PPy-rGO-2-based symmetrical solid-state supercapacitor device demonstrated outstanding pliability because the cyclic voltammetric curves remained the same upon bending at various angles. Carbon bundle fibre modified with porous polypyrrole/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for flexible miniature solid-state supercapacitor.

16.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 11(1): 506, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27854079

RESUMO

In this study, different types of graphene, including single-, few-, and multi-layer graphene, were grown on a stainless steel (SS) mesh coated with Cu catalyst by using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Even though the SS mesh consisted of different types of metals, such as Fe, Ni, and Cr, which can also be used as catalysts, the reason for coating Cu catalyst on the SS surface had been related to the nature of the Cu, which promotes the growth of graphene with high quality and quantity at low temperature and time. The reaction temperature and run time, as the most important parameters of the CVD method, were varied, and thus led to the synthesis of different layers of graphene. Moreover, the presence of single-, few-, and multi-layer graphene was confirmed by employing two techniques, namely transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. On top of that, electron dispersive X-ray (EDX) was further applied to establish the influence of the CVD parameters on the growth of graphene.

17.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 6(1)2016 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28344263

RESUMO

In the current study, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were grown on a carbon fiber (CF) surface by using the chemical vapor deposition method (CVD) and the influences of some parameters of the CVD method on improving the mechanical properties of a polypropylene (PP) composite were investigated. To obtain an optimum surface area, thickness, and yield of the CNFs, the parameters of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, such as catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, and hydrocarbon flow rate, were optimized. It was observed that the optimal surface area, thickness, and yield of the CNFs caused more adhesion of the fibers with the PP matrix, which enhanced the composite properties. Besides this, the effectiveness of reinforcement of fillers was fitted with a mathematical model obtaining good agreement between the experimental result and the theoretical prediction. By applying scanning electronic microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy, the surface morphology and structural information of the resultant CF-CNF were analyzed. Additionally, SEM images and a mechanical test of the composite with a proper layer of CNFs on the CF revealed not only a compactness effect but also the thickness and surface area roles of the CNF layers in improving the mechanical properties of the composites.

18.
Materials (Basel) ; 9(3)2016 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28773261

RESUMO

The nanomechanical properties of carbon nanotubes particulate-reinforced aluminum matrix nanocomposites (Al-CNTs) have been characterized using nanoindentation. Bulk nanocomposite specimens containing 2 wt % multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) were synthesized by a combination of ball milling and powder metallurgy route. It has been tried to understand the correlation between microstructural evolution particularly carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dispersion during milling and mechanical properties of Al-2 wt % nanocomposites. Maximum enhancement of +23% and +44% has been found in Young's modulus and hardness respectively, owing to well homogenous dispersion of CNTs within the aluminum matrix at longer milling time.

19.
Molecules ; 20(7): 12328-40, 2015 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26198220

RESUMO

In this paper, a comprehensive study has been made on the detection of free fatty acids (FFAs) in palm oil via an optical technique based on enzymatic aminolysis reactions. FFAs in crude palm oil (CPO) were converted into fatty hydroxamic acids (FHAs) in a biphasic lipid/aqueous medium in the presence of immobilized lipase. The colored compound formed after complexation between FHA and vanadium (V) ion solution was proportional to the FFA content in the CPO samples and was analyzed using a spectrophotometric method. In order to develop a rapid detection system, the parameters involved in the aminolysis process were studied. The utilization of immobilized lipase as catalyst during the aminolysis process offers simplicity in the product isolation and the possibility of conducting the process under extreme reaction conditions. A good agreement was found between the developed method using immobilized Thermomyces lanuginose lipase as catalyst for the aminolysis process and the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) standard titration method (R2 = 0.9453).


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Lipase/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Espectrofotometria/métodos , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/análise , Óleo de Palmeira , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Temperatura
20.
J Oleo Sci ; 64(2): 143-51, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25748374

RESUMO

Trimethylolpropane triesters are biodegradable synthetic lubricant base oil alternative to mineral oils, polyalphaolefins and diesters. These oils can be produced from trimethylolpropane (TMP) and fatty acid methyl esters via chemical or enzymatic catalyzed synthesis methods. In the present study, a commercial palm oil derived winter grade biodiesel (ME18) was evaluated as a viable and sustainable methyl ester source for the synthesis of high oleic trimethylolpropane triesters (HO-TMPTE). ME18 has fatty acid profile containing 86.8% oleic acid, 8.7% linoleic acid with the remaining minor concentration of palmitic acid, stearic acid and linolenic acid. It's high oleic property makes it superior to produce synthetic lubricant base oil that fulfills both the good low temperature property as well as good oxidative stability. The synthetic base oil produced had a viscosity of 44.3 mm(2)/s at 40°C meeting the needs for ISO 46 oils. It also exhibited an excellent viscosity index of 219 that is higher than some other commercial brands of trimethylolpropane trioleate. Properties of base oil such as cloud point, density, acid value, demulsibility and soap content were also examined. The oil was then used in the formulation of tapping oil and appraised in term of adaptability, stability and field test performance.


Assuntos
Ésteres/síntese química , Lubrificantes/síntese química , Metalurgia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Propilenoglicóis/química , Biocombustíveis , Catálise , Fenômenos Químicos , Indústrias , Ácido Linoleico/química , Ácido Oleico/química , Óleo de Palmeira
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