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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(3)2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804709

RESUMO

While numerous genomes of Leishmania spp. have been sequenced and analyzed, an understanding of the evolutionary history of these organisms remains limited due to the unavailability of the sequence data for their closest known relatives, Endotrypanum and Porcisia spp., infecting sloths and porcupines. We have sequenced and analyzed genomes of three members of this clade in order to fill this gap. Their comparative analyses revealed only minute differences from Leishmaniamajor genome in terms of metabolic capacities. We also documented that the number of genes under positive selection on the Endotrypanum/Porcisia branch is rather small, with the flagellum-related group of genes being over-represented. Most significantly, the analysis of gene family evolution revealed a substantially reduced repertoire of surface proteins, such as amastins and biopterin transporters BT1 in the Endotrypanum/Porcisia species when compared to amastigote-dwelling Leishmania. This reduction was especially pronounced for δ-amastins, a subfamily of cell surface proteins crucial in the propagation of Leishmania amastigotes inside vertebrate macrophages and, apparently, dispensable for Endotrypanum/Porcisia, which do not infect such cells.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672790

RESUMO

Nonsense mutations turn a coding (sense) codon into an in-frame stop codon that is assumed to result in a truncated protein product. Thus, nonsense substitutions are the hallmark of pseudogenes and are used to identify them. Here we show that in-frame stop codons within bacterial protein-coding genes are widespread. Their evolutionary conservation suggests that many of them are not pseudogenes, since they maintain dN/dS values (ratios of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites) significantly lower than 1 (this is a signature of purifying selection in protein-coding regions). We also found that double substitutions in codons-where an intermediate step is a nonsense substitution-show a higher rate of evolution compared to null models, indicating that a stop codon was introduced and then changed back to sense via positive selection. This further supports the notion that nonsense substitutions in bacteria are relatively common and do not necessarily cause pseudogenization. In-frame stop codons may be an important mechanism of regulation: Such codons are likely to cause a substantial decrease of protein expression levels.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido , Códon de Terminação/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Células Procarióticas/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/classificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Sequência de Bases , Evolução Molecular , Modelos Genéticos , Filogenia , Mutação Puntual , Pseudogenes/genética , Seleção Genética , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
3.
Trends Parasitol ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714646

RESUMO

In this review, we summarize the current data on development of monoxenous trypanosomatids and phytomonads in various insects. Of these, Diptera and Hemiptera are the main host groups, and, consequently, most available information concerns their parasites. Within the insect body, the midgut and hindgut are the predominant colonization sites; in addition, some trypanosomatids can invade the foregut, Malpighian tubules, hemolymph, and/or salivary glands. Differences in the intestinal structure and biology of the host determine the variety of parasites' developmental and transmission strategies. Meanwhile, similar mechanisms are used by unrelated trypanosomatids, reflecting the limited range of options to achieve the same goal.

4.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(6): 3354-3370, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660779

RESUMO

Uridine insertion/deletion (U-indel) editing of mitochondrial mRNA, unique to the protistan class Kinetoplastea, generates canonical as well as potentially non-productive editing events. While the molecular machinery and the role of the guide (g) RNAs that provide required information for U-indel editing are well understood, little is known about the forces underlying its apparently error-prone nature. Analysis of a gRNA:mRNA pair allows the dissection of editing events in a given position of a given mitochondrial transcript. A complete gRNA dataset, paired with a fully characterized mRNA population that includes non-canonically edited transcripts, would allow such an analysis to be performed globally across the mitochondrial transcriptome. To achieve this, we have assembled 67 minicircles of the insect parasite Leptomonas pyrrhocoris, with each minicircle typically encoding one gRNA located in one of two similar-sized units of different origin. From this relatively narrow set of annotated gRNAs, we have dissected all identified mitochondrial editing events in L. pyrrhocoris, the strains of which dramatically differ in the abundance of individual minicircle classes. Our results support a model in which a multitude of editing events are driven by a limited set of gRNAs, with individual gRNAs possessing an inherent ability to guide canonical and non-canonical editing.

5.
Eur J Protistol ; 79: 125778, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706204

RESUMO

The expanding phylogenetic tree of trypanosomatid flagellates (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatidae) contains a long-known and phylogenetically well-supported species-rich lineage that was provisionally named as the 'jaculum' clade. Its members were found in representatives of several unrelated families of heteropteran bugs captured in South and Central America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. However, this group resisted introduction into the culture, a needed prerequisite for its proper characterization. Here we describe four new cultivable species, which parasitize various parts of their hosts' intestine, including the thoracic and abdominal part of the midgut, hindgut, and Malpighian tubules. Morphologically, the cultured flagellates vary from relatively short stumpy promastigotes to long slender leptomonad cells. Some species form straphangers (cyst-like amastigotes) both in vivo and in vitro, initially attached to the basal part of the flagellum of the mother cell, from which they subsequently detach. To formally classify this enigmatic monophyletic cosmopolitan clade, we erected Obscuromonas gen. nov., including five species: O. modryi sp. nov. (isolated from the true bug host species Riptortus linearis captured in the Philippines), O. volfi sp. nov. (from Catorhintha selector, Curaçao), O. eliasi sp. nov. (from Graptostethus servus, Papua New Guinea), O. oborniki sp. nov. (from Aspilocoryphus unimaculatus, Madagascar), and O. jaculum comb. nov. (from Nepa cinerea, France). Obscuromonas along with the genus Blastocrithidia belongs to the newly established Blastocrithidiinae subfam. nov.

6.
Acta Trop ; 218: 105888, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713626

RESUMO

In this study, we characterized a collection of clinical samples obtained from Syrian and Turkish patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis using internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences. All obtained sequences belonged to Leishmania tropica. Combining them with those available from GenBank allowed us performing a broad-scale analysis of genetic diversity for this species. We demonstrated that L. tropica has a complex phylogeographic pattern with some haplotypes being widespread across endemic countries and others restricted to particular regions. We hypothesize that at least some of them may be associated with alternative vectors or animal reservoirs.

7.
Virulence ; 12(1): 852-867, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724149

RESUMO

Catalase is one of the most abundant enzymes on Earth. It decomposes hydrogen peroxide, thus protecting cells from dangerous reactive oxygen species. The catalase-encoding gene is conspicuously absent from the genome of most representatives of the family Trypanosomatidae. Here, we expressed this protein from the Leishmania mexicana Β-TUBULIN locus using a novel bicistronic expression system, which relies on the 2A peptide of Teschovirus A. We demonstrated that catalase-expressing parasites are severely compromised in their ability to develop in insects, to be transmitted and to infect mice, and to cause clinical manifestation in their mammalian host. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that the presence of catalase is not compatible with the dixenous life cycle of Leishmania, resulting in loss of this gene from the genome during the evolution of these parasites.

8.
Open Biol ; 11(3): 200407, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715388

RESUMO

Euglenozoa is a species-rich group of protists, which have extremely diverse lifestyles and a range of features that distinguish them from other eukaryotes. They are composed of free-living and parasitic kinetoplastids, mostly free-living diplonemids, heterotrophic and photosynthetic euglenids, as well as deep-sea symbiontids. Although they form a well-supported monophyletic group, these morphologically rather distinct groups are almost never treated together in a comparative manner, as attempted here. We present an updated taxonomy, complemented by photos of representative species, with notes on diversity, distribution and biology of euglenozoans. For kinetoplastids, we propose a significantly modified taxonomy that reflects the latest findings. Finally, we summarize what is known about viruses infecting euglenozoans, as well as their relationships with ecto- and endosymbiotic bacteria.

9.
Parasitology ; : 1-17, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612129

RESUMO

Telomeres are the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes facilitating the resolution of the 'end replication and protection' problems, associated with linearity. At the nucleotide level, telomeres typically represent stretches of tandemly arranged telomeric repeats, which vary in length and sequence among different groups of organisms. Recently, a composition of the telomere-associated protein complex has been scrutinized in Trypanosoma brucei. In this work, we subjected proteins from that list to a more detailed bioinformatic analysis and delineated a core set of 20 conserved proteins putatively associated with telomeres in trypanosomatids. Out of these, two proteins (Ku70 and Ku80) are conspicuously missing in representatives of the genus Blastocrithidia, yet telomeres in these species do not appear to be affected. In this work, based on the analysis of a large set of trypanosomatids widely different in their phylogenetic position and life strategies, we demonstrated that telomeres of trypanosomatids are diverse in length, even within groups of closely related species. Our analysis showed that the expression of two proteins predicted to be associated with telomeres (those encoding telomerase and telomere-associated hypothetical protein orthologous to Tb927.6.4330) may directly affect and account for the differences in telomere length within the species of the Leishmania mexicana complex.

10.
Parasitology ; : 1-10, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407966

RESUMO

Complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) is the first enzyme in the respiratory chain. It catalyses the electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone that is associated with proton pumping out of the matrix. In this study, we characterized NADH dehydrogenase activity in seven monoxenous trypanosomatid species: Blechomonas ayalai, Herpetomonas tarakana, Kentomonas sorsogonicus, Leptomonas seymouri, Novymonas esmeraldas, Sergeia podlipaevi and Wallacemonas raviniae. We also investigated the subunit composition of the complex I in dixenous Phytomonas serpens, in which its presence and activity have been previously documented. In addition to P. serpens, the complex I is functionally active in N. esmeraldas and S. podlipaevi. We also identified 24-32 subunits of the complex I in individual species by using mass spectrometry. Among them, for the first time, we recognized several proteins of the mitochondrial DNA origin.

11.
Microorganisms ; 8(12)2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266158

RESUMO

Killer yeasts are attractive antifungal agents with great potential applications in the food industry. Natural Saccharomyces paradoxus isolates provide new dsRNA-based killer systems available for investigation. The presence of viral dsRNA may alter transcriptional profile of S. paradoxus. To test this possibility, a high-throughput RNA sequencing was employed to compare the transcriptomes of S. paradoxus AML 15-66 K66 killer strains after curing them of either M-66 alone or both M-66 and L-A-66 dsRNA viruses. The S. paradoxus cells cured of viral dsRNA(s) showed respiration deficient or altered sporulation patterns. We have identified numerous changes in the transcription profile of genes including those linked to ribosomes and amino acid biosynthesis, as well as mitochondrial function. Our work advance studies of transcriptional adaptations of Saccharomyces spp. induced by changes in phenotype and set of dsRNA viruses, reported for the first time.

12.
BMC Biol ; 18(1): 187, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The family Trypanosomatidae encompasses parasitic flagellates, some of which cause serious vector-transmitted diseases of humans and domestic animals. However, insect-restricted parasites represent the ancestral and most diverse group within the family. They display a range of unusual features and their study can provide insights into the biology of human pathogens. Here we describe Vickermania, a new genus of fly midgut-dwelling parasites that bear two flagella in contrast to other trypanosomatids, which are unambiguously uniflagellate. RESULTS: Vickermania has an odd cell cycle, in which shortly after the division the uniflagellate cell starts growing a new flagellum attached to the old one and preserves their contact until the late cytokinesis. The flagella connect to each other throughout their whole length and carry a peculiar seizing structure with a paddle-like apex and two lateral extensions at their tip. In contrast to typical trypanosomatids, which attach to the insect host's intestinal wall, Vickermania is separated from it by a continuous peritrophic membrane and resides freely in the fly midgut lumen. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that Vickermania developed a survival strategy that relies on constant movement preventing discharge from the host gut due to intestinal peristalsis. Since these parasites cannot attach to the midgut wall, they were forced to shorten the period of impaired motility when two separate flagella in dividing cells interfere with each other. The connection between the flagella ensures their coordinate movement until the separation of the daughter cells. We propose that Trypanosoma brucei, a severe human pathogen, during its development in the tsetse fly midgut faces the same conditions and follows the same strategy as Vickermania by employing an analogous adaptation, the flagellar connector.

13.
J Virol ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208443

RESUMO

Leishmania parasites cause a variety of symptoms, including mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which results in the destruction of the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, and throat. The species of Leishmania carrying Leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV1), from the family Totiviridae, are more likely to cause severe disease and are less sensitive to treatment than those that do not contain the virus. Although the importance of LRV1 for the severity of leishmaniasis was discovered a long time ago, the structure of the virus remained unknown. Here, we present a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the virus-like particle of LRV1 determined to a resolution of 3.65 Å. The capsid has icosahedral symmetry and is formed by 120 copies of a capsid protein assembled in asymmetric dimers. RNA genomes of viruses from the family Totiviridae are synthetized, but not capped at the 5' end, by virus RNA-polymerases. To protect viral RNAs from degradation, capsid proteins of totivirus L-A cleave the 5' caps of host mRNAs, creating decoys to overload the cellular RNA quality control system. Capsid proteins of LRV1 form positively charged clefts, which may be the cleavage sites for the 5' cap of Leishmania mRNAs. Capsid proteins of LRV1 contain a putative RNA binding site distinct from that of the related L-A virus. The structure of the LRV1 capsid enables the rational design of compounds targeting the putative de-capping site. Such inhibitors may be developed into a treatment for mucocutaneous leishmaniasis caused by LRV1-positive species of Leishmania IMPORTANCE Twelve million people worldwide suffer from leishmaniasis, resulting in more than thirty thousand deaths annually. The disease has several variants that differ in their symptoms. The mucocutaneous form, which leads to disintegration of the nasal septum, lips, and palate, is predominantly caused by Leishmania parasites carrying Leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV1). Here, we present the structure of the LRV1 capsid determined using cryo-electron microscopy. Capsid proteins of a related totivirus L-A protect viral RNAs from degradation by cleaving the 5' caps of host mRNAs. Capsid proteins of LRV1 may have the same function. We show that the LRV1 capsid contains positively charged clefts that may be sites for the cleavage of mRNAs of Leishmania cells. The structure of the LRV1 capsid enables the rational design of compounds targeting the putative mRNA cleavage site. Such inhibitors may be used as treatments for muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis.

14.
Trends Parasitol ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127331

RESUMO

The unicellular trypanosomatids belong to the phylum Euglenozoa and all known species are obligate parasites. Distinct lineages infect plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates, including humans. Genome data for marine diplonemids, together with freshwater euglenids and free-living kinetoplastids, the closest known nonparasitic relatives to trypanosomatids, recently became available. Robust phylogenetic reconstructions across Euglenozoa are now possible and place the results of parasite-focused studies into an evolutionary context. Here we discuss recent advances in identifying the factors shaping the evolution of Euglenozoa, focusing on ancestral features generally considered parasite-specific. Remarkably, most of these predate the transition(s) to parasitism, suggesting that the presence of certain preconditions makes a significant lifestyle change more likely.

15.
mSphere ; 5(5)2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087518

RESUMO

Most secondary nonphotosynthetic eukaryotes have retained residual plastids whose physiological role is often still unknown. One such example is Euglena longa, a close nonphotosynthetic relative of Euglena gracilis harboring a plastid organelle of enigmatic function. By mining transcriptome data from E. longa, we finally provide an overview of metabolic processes localized to its elusive plastid. The organelle plays no role in the biosynthesis of isoprenoid precursors and fatty acids and has a very limited repertoire of pathways concerning nitrogen-containing metabolites. In contrast, the synthesis of phospholipids and glycolipids has been preserved, curiously with the last step of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol synthesis being catalyzed by the SqdX form of an enzyme so far known only from bacteria. Notably, we show that the E. longa plastid synthesizes tocopherols and a phylloquinone derivative, the first such report for nonphotosynthetic plastids studied so far. The most striking attribute of the organelle could be the presence of a linearized Calvin-Benson (CB) pathway, including RuBisCO yet lacking the gluconeogenetic part of the standard cycle, together with ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) and the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system. We hypothesize that the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system activates the linear CB pathway in response to the redox status of the E. longa cell and speculate on the role of the pathway in keeping the redox balance of the cell. Altogether, the E. longa plastid defines a new class of relic plastids that is drastically different from the best-studied organelle of this category, the apicoplast.IMPORTANCE Colorless plastids incapable of photosynthesis evolved in many plant and algal groups, but what functions they perform is still unknown in many cases. Here, we study the elusive plastid of Euglena longa, a nonphotosynthetic cousin of the familiar green flagellate Euglena gracilis We document an unprecedented combination of metabolic functions that the E. longa plastid exhibits in comparison with previously characterized nonphotosynthetic plastids. For example, and truly surprisingly, it has retained the synthesis of tocopherols (vitamin E) and a phylloquinone (vitamin K) derivative. In addition, we offer a possible solution of the long-standing conundrum of the presence of the CO2-fixing enzyme RuBisCO in E. longa Our work provides a detailed account on a unique variant of relic plastids, the first among nonphotosynthetic plastids that evolved by secondary endosymbiosis from a green algal ancestor, and suggests that it has persisted for reasons not previously considered in relation to nonphotosynthetic plastids.

16.
Genome Biol Evol ; 12(12): 2403-2416, 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104188

RESUMO

Receptor adenylate cyclases (RACs) on the surface of trypanosomatids are important players in the host-parasite interface. They detect still unidentified environmental signals that affect the parasites' responses to host immune challenge, coordination of social motility, and regulation of cell division. A lesser known class of oxygen-sensing adenylate cyclases (OACs) related to RACs has been lost in trypanosomes and expanded mostly in Leishmania species and related insect-dwelling trypanosomatids. In this work, we have undertaken a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of both classes of adenylate cyclases (ACs) in trypanosomatids and the free-living Bodo saltans. We observe that the expanded RAC repertoire in trypanosomatids with a two-host life cycle is not only associated with an extracellular lifestyle within the vertebrate host, but also with a complex path through the insect vector involving several life cycle stages. In Trypanosoma brucei, RACs are split into two major clades, which significantly differ in their expression profiles in the mammalian host and the insect vector. RACs of the closely related Trypanosoma congolense are intermingled within these two clades, supporting early RAC diversification. Subspecies of T. brucei that have lost the capacity to infect insects exhibit high numbers of pseudogenized RACs, suggesting many of these proteins have become redundant upon the acquisition of a single-host life cycle. OACs appear to be an innovation occurring after the expansion of RACs in trypanosomatids. Endosymbiont-harboring trypanosomatids exhibit a diversification of OACs, whereas these proteins are pseudogenized in Leishmania subgenus Viannia. This analysis sheds light on how ACs have evolved to allow diverse trypanosomatids to occupy multifarious niches and assume various lifestyles.

17.
FEBS Lett ; 594(20): 3324-3337, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862441

RESUMO

Humoral immunity in mammals relies on the function of two developmentally and functionally distinct B-cell subsets-B1 and B2 cells. While B2 cells are responsible for the adaptive response to environmental antigens, B1 cells regulate the production of polyreactive and low-affinity antibodies for innate humoral immunity. The molecular mechanism of B-cell specification into different subsets is understudied. In this study, we identified lysine methyltransferase NSD2 (MMSET/WHSC1) as a critical regulator of B1 cell development. In contrast to its minor impact on B2 cells, deletion of the catalytic domain of NSD2 in primary B cells impairs the generation of B1 lineage. Thus, NSD2, a histone H3 K36 dimethylase, is the first-in-class epigenetic regulator of a B-cell lineage in mice.

18.
Pathogens ; 9(7)2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679679

RESUMO

The Leishmania donovani species complex consists of all L. donovani and L. infantum strains mainly responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). It was suggested that genome rearrangements in Leishmania spp. occur very often, thus enabling parasites to adapt to the different environmental conditions. Some of these rearrangements may be directly linked to the virulence or explain the reduced efficacy of antimonial drugs in some isolates. In the current study, we focused on a large-scale analysis of putative gene conversion events using publicly available datasets. Previous population study of L. donovani suggested that population variability of L. donovani is relatively low, however the authors used masking procedures and strict read selection criteria. We decided to re-analyze DNA-seq data without masking sequences, because we were interested in the most dynamic fraction of the genome. The majority of samples have an excess of putative gene conversion/recombination events in the noncoding regions, however we found an overall excess of putative intrachromosomal gene conversion/recombination in the protein coding genes, compared to putative interchromosomal gene conversion/recombination events.

19.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 672020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350156

RESUMO

Here we describe the new trypanosomatid, Phytomonas borealis sp. n., from the midgut of the spiked shieldbugs, Picromerus bidens (Linnaeus), collected in two locations, Novgorod and Pskov Oblasts of Russia. The phylogenetic analyses, based on the 18S rRNA gene, demonstrated that this flagellate is a sister species to the secondary monoxenous Phytomonas nordicus Frolov et Malysheva, 1993, which was concurrently documented in the same host species in Pskov Oblast. Unlike P. nordicus, which can complete its development (including exit to haemolymph and penetration into salivary glands) in Picromerus bidens, the new species did not form any extraintestinal stages in the host. It also did not produce endomastigotes, indispensable for transmission in other Phytomonas spp. These observations, along with the fact that P. bidens overwinters at the egg stage, led us to the conclusion that the examined infections with P. borealis were non-specific. Strikingly, the flagellates from the Novgorod population contained prokaryotic endosymbionts, whereas the parasites from the second locality were endosymbiont-free. This is a first case documenting presence of intracellular symbiotic bacteria in Phytomonas spp. We suggest that this novel endosymbiotic association arose very recently and did not become obligate yet. Further investigation of P. borealis and its intracellular bacteria may shed light on the origin and early evolution of endosymbiosis in trypanosomatids.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Heterópteros/parasitologia , Simbiose , Trypanosomatina/classificação , Animais , Heterópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/parasitologia , Filogenia , RNA de Protozoário/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , Federação Russa , Trypanosomatina/microbiologia
20.
Pathogens ; 9(4)2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344595

RESUMO

In this work, we studied the biochemical properties and evolutionary histories of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), two central enzymes of reactive oxygen species detoxification, across the highly diverse clade Eugenozoa. This clade encompasses free-living phototrophic and heterotrophic flagellates, as well as obligate parasites of insects, vertebrates, and plants. We present evidence of several independent acquisitions of CAT by horizontal gene transfers and evolutionary novelties associated with the APX presence. We posit that Euglenozoa recruit these detoxifying enzymes for specific molecular tasks, such as photosynthesis in euglenids and membrane-bound peroxidase activity in kinetoplastids and some diplonemids.

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