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1.
Food Chem ; 337: 127762, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777563

RESUMO

Gelatin and collagen are considered halal-critical ingredients as they are typically derived from either bovine or porcine animals. Current analytical methods for determining the sources of gelatin and collagen suffer from limitations in terms of robustness and false positives in peptide matching. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the utility of monitoring hydroxyproline, a signature amino acid for gelatin and collagen, for identifying potentially haram foodstuffs. To determine the hydroxyproline profiles among animal- and plant-based samples, one-way univariate analysis of variance followed by pair-wise comparison was used to establish statistical significance. Multivariate chemometric analysis through principal component analysis revealed a discrete distribution pattern among 59 samples due to hydroxyproline variability. Finally, inter- and intra-laboratory comparisons demonstrated the validity and robustness of hydroxyproline determination according to ISO 17025. Thus, this preliminary identification technique will aid the identification of potentially haram foodstuffs.

2.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(7)2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323854

RESUMO

Full-fat roasted date seeds are considered an excellent source of antioxidants which can treat many diseases. The specific objectives were to investigate the effect of roasting temperature and time on the hardness of whole seeds, moisture content of the roasted date seeds powder, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic contents, extraction yield, pH, browning index and sensory properties of the brew prepared from the full-fat roasted date seeds and to construct descriptive models that could describe this effect. Date seeds were roasted at three temperatures (160, 180 and 200 °C) for different period of times (10, 20 and 30 min) using a natural conventional oven; then grinded and next brewed. Hardness of whole seeds, moisture content of the seeds powder, DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic contents, extraction yield, pH and browning index and sensory properties of the brew were significantly affected by the roasting conditions. The statistical results indicated that the proposed model could adequately describe the measured properties. Strong correlations have been found among the properties of the brew as well. The producers of the date seeds brew can utilize these results for controlling the roasting process.

3.
Foods ; 8(2)2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30736332

RESUMO

Developing a bioactive brew is a novel track for revalorization of palm date byproducts. The effect of roasting temperature (160, 180 and 200 °C ) and roasting time (10, 20 and 30 min) on the hardness of the roasted date seeds, moisture content of the defatted roasted date seed powder (DRDSP), bulk density of the DRDSP, color parameters of DRDSP, quality attributes (extraction yield, pH and browning index), the chemical properties (antioxidants and total phenolic content) and the sensory attributes (color, aroma, taste and overall preference) of the brew prepared from DRDSP was studied. The physicochemical, quality, and sensory attributes were found to be significantly influenced by the roasting temperature and time. Additionally, the models proposed could satisfactorily describe the changes in the different properties during the roasting process. The optimum conditions of the roasting process obtained using the superimposed contour plot were 199.9 °C and 21.5 min. In the longer term, the results of this study would be beneficial for the manufacturers of the date seeds powder and brew.

4.
Food Chem ; 270: 113-122, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174024

RESUMO

The effects of a novel technology utilizing a simultaneous combination of Ultraviolet-C radiation and ultrasound energy postharvest treatment on tomato bioactive compounds during 28 days' storage period was investigated by varying Ultraviolet-C radiation intensities of 639.37 or 897.16 µW/cm2 at a constant ultrasound intensity of 13.87 W/L from a 40 kHz-1 kW transducer. A minimal treatment time of 240 s at Ultraviolet-C dosage of 2.15 kJ/m2 was observed to provoke a considerable increase in bioactive compounds content, proportionated to treatment time. Although treatment led to temperature increase in the system reaching 39.33 °C due to heat generation by ultrasonic cavitation, the extractability and biosynthesis of phytochemicals were enhanced resulting in 90%, 30%, 60%, 20%, and 36% increases in lycopene, total phenols, vitamin C, hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities respectively. Results present the potential use of the combined non-thermal technologies as post-harvest treatment to improve bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity during storage.


Assuntos
Irradiação de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos da radiação , Fenóis , Ultrassom
5.
J Diet Suppl ; 16(1): 66-85, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29469600

RESUMO

Moringa oleifera leaves were selected as a model due to their hundreds of health benefits. On the other hand, the powder of these leaves has exhibited poor flowability, low tensile strength, bitter taste, poor dissolution rate, and lack of information regarding dosage. These are the common hurdles and limitations in the adaptation of herbal-based medications. Therefore, a comprehensive study was planned to introduce herbal-based medicines into mainstream medicines by standardization according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and international pharmaceutical standards. A Simplex Lattice Design (SLD) of Design Expert 8.0 software was used to formulate different concentrations of superdisintegrant, binder/diluent, and sweeteners. An Instron Universal Testing machine coupled with a 13 mm stainless cylindrical die was used to manufacture tablets by means of direct compression method at 20 kN applied force. Therefore, selection of excipients was made on the basis of their tensile strength, flowability, and taste-masking properties. Optimum formulation was tested on rabbits for toxicity and growth rate. All formulated tablets were evaluated on standard parameters for orally disintegrating tablets described by the Food and Drug Authority (U.S.). The optimum formulation fulfills all standard parameters such as hardness, disintegration time, friability, and dissolution rate. The present formulation showed no toxicity when tested on rabbits. The present study provides a fundamental understanding of the tableting characteristics of natural medicines. The present study provides information that will help to overcome the challenges.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Moringa oleifera , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Química Farmacêutica , Excipientes , Feminino , Dureza , Folhas de Planta , Pós , Coelhos , Padrões de Referência , Software , Comprimidos , Paladar
6.
Food Res Int ; 109: 35-43, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803459

RESUMO

Edible bird's nest (EBN) is a precious food made from the solidified saliva of swiftlets. EBN from three types of origin, namely production, swiftlet species and geographical were characterised based on its nutritional composition, physicochemical properties and antioxidant properties. Proximate composition, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities were determined following official methods, while mineral and heavy metal contents were obtained by respective atomic adsorption spectrometry (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Amino acids profile and sialic acid were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Calcium and sodium were the major elements in EBN samples at averages of 17,267 mg/kg and 13,681 mg/kg, respectively. Despite protein contents were not significantly different; interestingly the total amino acids in A. fuciphagus EBN, 64.57 g/100 g was found to be 23% higher than in A. maximus EBN. EBN from house, A. fuciphagus and Peninsular Malaysia had greater antioxidant activities, 2.33-3.49 mg AAE/g and higher sialic acid, 13.57 g/100 g while those from cave, A. maximus and East Malaysia contained more minerals like calcium and magnesium. The 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of house, A. fuciphagus and Peninsular Malaysia EBNs were approximately 2 times greater than the others. All samples were complied with the Malaysian Standard MS 2334:2011, except for mercury and nitrite. The overall findings suggest that the quality of EBN was varied following the production, species and geographical origins.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Produtos Biológicos , Aves/classificação , Valor Nutritivo/fisiologia , Saliva/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/análise , Produtos Biológicos/química , Aves/metabolismo , Aves/fisiologia , Análise de Alimentos , Malásia , Micronutrientes/análise , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/análise , Nitratos/análise , Nitritos/análise , Fenóis/análise
7.
J Food Sci Technol ; 55(3): 1207-1213, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487464

RESUMO

The steady-state flow test was conducted on pink-fleshed guava, pink-fleshed pomelo and soursop juice concentrates using a rheometer to understand its rheological behaviour. The power law model was used and a master-curve was created using the shear rate-temperature-concentration superposition technique to predict rheological properties from a wide range of temperatures and concentrations. All three juice concentrates undergo a double horizontal shift whilst the pink-fleshed guava required an additional vertical shift. The final equations show shear-thinning behaviour of pink-fleshed guava, pink-fleshed pomelo and soursop with flow behaviour index of 0.2217, 0.7507 and 0.6347, respectively. The final master-curve predicts shear stress at wide range of shear rates, i.e. between 10-2 and 106 s-1 for the pink-fleshed guava, 100 and 106 s-1 for the pink-fleshed pomelo and 100 and 107 s-1 for the soursop. The results provide useful information and effective technique to predict fruit juice concentrates behaviour affected by heat changes during processing.

8.
J Environ Biol ; 37(4 Spec No): 755-64, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28779735

RESUMO

We investigated the effects of four iso-nitrogenous (40% crude protein) and iso-caloric (17.6 kJ g(-1)) diets with different dietary carbohydrate levels (15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) on the growth performance, feed utilization efficiency, body composition and liver histology of Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) fingerlings in a 10-week feeding trial. Fish (initial weight of 0.8?0.1 g; initial total length 4.2?0.1 cm) were fed twice daily at 4% body mass. Dietary carbohydrate level had significant effects (P<0.05) on weight gain, SGR (specific growth rate), FCR (feed conversion rate), PER (protein efficiency rate), survival percentage and all nutrient retention values (PRV, LRV, CRV, ERV). Protein, carbohydrate and gross energy composition of the fish body were also significantly differed (P<0.05) among treatments. Liver histology showed mild hepatic steatosis and hypertrophy for fishes receiving a higher dietary carbohydrate inclusion. In general, treatments with 20% and 25% dietary carbohydrate levels produced better growth results compared to the rest of the treatments. Using a second-order polynomial regression analysis model, the optimal dietary carbohydrate level of 23.4% was estimated for mahseer fingerlings. ?


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Aquicultura , Dieta/veterinária , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Malásia
9.
J Food Sci Technol ; 51(12): 3609-22, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25477628

RESUMO

Modelling studies of guava drying and quality are presented using theoretical and statistical models by varying temperature from 55 to 75 °C and slice thickness from 3 to 9 mm. The quality of dried fruit was measured for its water activity, colour, vitamin C, and texture. The superposition technique with Midilli-Kucuk model showed efficiency in modelling the drying process with R (2) = 0.9991. The second-order polynomial equations adequately described the quality of dried guava with regression coefficient, R (2) > 0.7. Drying time was a good function of temperature and thickness (P < 0.001); water activity, colour and vitamin C showed strong dependence on temperature (P < 0.1); while texture was mainly influenced by its thickness (P < 0.005). The optimum drying temperature of 70 °C at slice thickness of 6 mm was determined using the desirability function method. Simultaneous modelling using the theoretical and statistical drying models provides information on water diffusion and evaporation with the drying responses and factors.

10.
Bioresour Technol ; 116: 226-33, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22061444

RESUMO

An extractive fermentation technique was developed using a thermoseparating reagent to form a two-phase system for simultaneous cell cultivation and downstream processing of extracellular Burkholderia cepacia lipase. A 10% (w/w) solution of ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO) with a molecular mass of 3900 g/mol and pH 8.5, a 200 rpm speed, and 30 °C were selected as the optimal conditions for lipase production (55 U/ml). Repetitive batch fermentation was performed by continuous replacement of the top phase every 24h, which resulted in an average cell growth mass of 4.7 g/L for 10 extractive batches over 240 h. In scaling-up the process, a bench-scale bioreactor was tested under the conditions that had been optimized in flasks. The production rate and recovery yield were higher in the bioreactor compared to fermentation performed in flasks.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Burkholderia cepacia/enzimologia , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipase/biossíntese , Transição de Fase/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietilenos/farmacologia , Polipropilenos/farmacologia , Temperatura , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Burkholderia cepacia/citologia , Burkholderia cepacia/efeitos dos fármacos , Burkholderia cepacia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipase/isolamento & purificação , Reciclagem , Água/química
11.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 5: 465-9, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22162640

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of feed preparation characteristics and operational parameters on mixing homogeneity in a convective batch ribbon mixer. METHODS: Lactose 100M, lactose 200M, ascorbic acid, and zinc oxide powders were used for the mixing study. Operational parameters studied were rotational speed and mixing time. The feed preparations studied were the use of preblending and the particle size of the feed materials. The blends of ascorbic acid, zinc oxide, and lactose were prepared with preblending and without preblending, prior to mixing at different blender rotation speeds and mixing times. Chemical tests were performed to measure the homogeneity of the ascorbic acid in the model mixture. RESULTS: With preblending, a mixture with lactose 200M achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that the homogeneity of the mixtures was influenced by the blender rotation speed and mixing time. Better mixing can be obtained with higher rotation speeds and longer mixing time. It was also observed that preblending and smaller feed particle size achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed. These results illustrate that using binders with a smaller particle size and a preblending technique improves the mixing process in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer. However, prolonged periods of high-speed mixing will lead to mixture segregation.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Pós , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Química Farmacêutica , Convecção , Composição de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Indústria Farmacêutica/instrumentação , Lactose/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Tecnologia Farmacêutica , Óxido de Zinco/química
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