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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease and cognitive impairment. The anatomical basis for this is uncertain. METHODS: The Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds (CAHHM) collected brain and carotid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and two cognitive tests (DSST and MoCA) in a cross-sectional sample of men and women. Brain MRIs identified brain infarcts (BI), lacunar BI, high white matter hyperintensity (WMH), vascular brain injury (VBI - BI or high WMH) and small vessel VBI (lacunar BI or high WMH). Carotid MRIs estimated carotid wall volume, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. Cognitive scores were standardized to each site's mean score, and cognitive impairment was identified by one or both test scores ≤ 1 standard deviation below the site's mean score on that test. RESULTS: The 7733 participants included 495 (6.4%) with diabetes, of whom 388 were taking diabetes drugs. After age and sex adjustment, diabetes was independently associated with BI (OR 1.53, 95%CI 1.05, 2.24), VBI (OR 1.64, 95%CI 1.26, 2.13), small vessel VBI (OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.28, 2.19) and cognitive impairment (OR 1.47, 95%CI 1.20, 1.80). The association between diabetes and small vessel VBI persisted after adjustment for cerebrovascular disease risk factors and non-lacunar infarcts (OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.15, 2.01), and the association with cognitive impairment persisted after adjustment for small vessel VBI (OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.03, 1.56). CONCLUSION: Small vessel disease characterizes much of the relationship between diabetes and VBI. However, additional factors are required to disentangle the relationship between diabetes and cognitive impairment.

3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(11)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the relationship between access to medicine for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) among people at high risk of CVD in high-income countries (HICs), upper and lower middle-income countries (UMICs, LMICs) and low-income countries (LICs) participating in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. METHODS: We defined high CVD risk as the presence of any of the following: hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke, smoker, diabetes or age >55 years. Availability and affordability of blood pressure lowering drugs, antiplatelets and statins were obtained from pharmacies. Participants were categorised: group 1-all three drug types were available and affordable, group 2-all three drugs were available but not affordable and group 3-all three drugs were not available. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard models with nested clustering at country and community levels, adjusting for comorbidities, sociodemographic and economic factors. RESULTS: Of 163 466 participants, there were 93 200 with high CVD risk from 21 countries (mean age 54.7, 49% female). Of these, 44.9% were from group 1, 29.4% from group 2 and 25.7% from group 3. Compared with participants from group 1, the risk of MACEs was higher among participants in group 2 (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.31), and among participants from group 3 (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.50). CONCLUSION: Lower availability and affordability of essential CVD medicines were associated with higher risk of MACEs and mortality. Improving access to CVD medicines should be a key part of the strategy to lower CVD globally.

4.
Am J Hypertens ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although low sodium intake (<2g/day) and high potassium intake (>3·5g/day) are proposed as public health interventions to reduce stroke risk, there is uncertainty about the benefit and feasibility of this combined recommendation on prevention of stroke and its subtypes. METHODS: We obtained random urine samples from 9,275 cases of acute first stroke and 9,726 matched controls (8,761 matched pairs for conditional analysis) from 27 countries and estimated the 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion, a surrogate for intake, using the Tanaka formula. Using multivariable conditional logistic regression, we determined the associations of estimated 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion with stroke and its subtypes. RESULTS: The mean estimated 24-hour sodium and potassium urinary excretion was 3·29g/day and 1·57g/day, with 0·01% of participants having both low sodium (<2·0g/day) and high potassium excretion (>3·5g/day). There was a moderate positive correlation between sodium and potassium excretion (r=0·4435, P<0.001) and between sodium excretion and blood pressure (P<0.001). Compared with an estimated urinary sodium excretion of 2·8-3·5g/day (second quartile, reference), higher (>4·26g/day) (OR 1.81;95%CI,1.65-2.00) and lower (<2·8g/day) sodium excretion (OR 1.39;95%CI,1.26-1.53) were significantly associated with increased risk of stroke. The stroke risk associated with the highest quartile of sodium intake (sodium excretion >4·26g/day) was significantly greater (P<0.001) for intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) (OR 2.38;95%CI,1.93-2.92) than for ischemic stroke (OR 1.67;95%CI,1.50-1.87), and greater for large vessel and small vessel ischemic stroke than for cardioembolic ischemic stroke. Urinary potassium was inversely and linearly associated with risk of stroke, and stronger for ischemic stroke than ICH (P=0.026). In an analysis of combined sodium and potassium excretion, the combination of high potassium intake (>1·58g/day) and moderate sodium intake (2.8-3.5 g/day) was associated with the lowest risk of stroke. CONCLUSION: The association of sodium intake and stroke is J-shaped, with high sodium intake a stronger risk factor for intracerebral haemorrhage than ischemic stroke. Our data suggest that moderate sodium intake - rather than low sodium intake - combined with high potassium intake may be associated with the lowest risk of stroke and expected to be a more feasible combined dietary target.

5.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The association between indoor air pollution resulting from household solid fuel use for heating and cooking with hypertension or blood pressure (BP) remains less clear. This study aims to rectify these knowledge gaps in a large Chinese population. METHODS: During 2005-2009, 44 007 individuals aged 35-70 years with complete information on household solid fuel use for cooking and heating were recruited from 279 urban and rural communities of 12 centers. Solid fuel referred to charcoal, coal, wood, agriculture crop, animal dung or shrub. Annual concentration of ambient atmospheric particulate matter that have a diameter of less than 2.5 µm for all communities was collected. Generalized linear mixed models using community as the random effect were performed to estimate the association with hypertension prevalence or BP after considering ambient atmospheric particulate matter that have a diameter of less than 2.5 µm and a comprehensive set of potential confounding factors at the individual and household level. RESULTS: A total of 47.6 and 61.2% of participants used household solid fuel for heating and cooking, respectively. Solid fuel use for heating was not associated with an increase in hypertension prevalence (adjusted odds ratio = 1.08, 95% confident interval: 0.98, 1.20) or elevated SBP (0.62 mmHg, 95% confident interval: -0.24, 1.48). No association was found between solid fuel for cooking and hypertension or BP, and no additional risk was observed among participants who had both exposures to solid fuel for heating and cooking compared with those used for heating only. CONCLUSION: The current large Chinese study revealed a statistically insignificant increase in the association between solid fuel use for heating and hypertension prevalence or BP. As this cross-sectional study has its inherent limitation on causality, findings from this study would have to be confirmed by prospective cohort studies.

6.
N Engl J Med ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A polypill comprising statins, multiple blood-pressure-lowering drugs, and aspirin has been proposed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Using a 2-by-2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned participants without cardiovascular disease who had an elevated INTERHEART Risk Score to receive a polypill (containing 40 mg of simvastatin, 100 mg of atenolol, 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide, and 10 mg of ramipril) or placebo daily, aspirin (75 mg) or placebo daily, and vitamin D or placebo monthly. We report here the outcomes for the polypill alone as compared with matching placebo, for aspirin alone as compared with matching placebo, and for the polypill plus aspirin as compared with double placebo. For the polypill-alone and polypill-plus-aspirin comparisons, the primary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest, heart failure, or revascularization. For the aspirin comparison, the primary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Safety was also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 5713 participants underwent randomization, and the mean follow-up was 4.6 years. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was lower by approximately 19 mg per deciliter and systolic blood pressure was lower by approximately 5.8 mm Hg with the polypill and with combination therapy than with placebo. The primary outcome for the polypill comparison occurred in 126 participants (4.4%) in the polypill group and in 157 (5.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 1.00). The primary outcome for the aspirin comparison occurred in 116 participants (4.1%) in the aspirin group and in 134 (4.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.10). The primary outcome for the polypill-plus-aspirin comparison occurred in 59 participants (4.1%) in the combined-treatment group and in 83 (5.8%) in the double-placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.69; CI, 0.50 to 0.97). The incidence of hypotension or dizziness was higher in groups that received the polypill than in their respective placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS: Combined treatment with a polypill plus aspirin led to a lower incidence of cardiovascular events than did placebo among participants without cardiovascular disease who were at intermediate cardiovascular risk. (Funded by the Wellcome Trust and others; TIPS-3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01646437.).

7.
Heart Surg Forum ; 23(6): E809-E814, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (PoAF) is the most common arrhythmic complication detected after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). It is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly patients. Mean platelet volume (MPV) shows the activation of platelets effective in the inflammatory and thrombotic process. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relations between the preoperative MPV levels and development of PoAF in isolated CABG in elderly patients. METHODS: A total of 103 elderly patients (aged ≥ 65 years), who underwent isolated CABG and were at preoperative sinus rhythm, were included in the study. Patients who did not have PoAF were identified as Group 1 (N = 74), and those with PoAF were identified as Group 2 (N = 29). RESULTS: PoAF incidence was 28.2%. Preoperative MPV level was 8.41 ± 1.13 fL in Group 1, and 9.28 ± 1.00 fL in Group 2. The difference was statistically significant (P < .001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age, preoperative hemoglobin, and preoperative MPV were independent predictive factors for PoAF development (OR [odds ratio]: 1.149, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.043-1.265, P = .005; OR: 1.334, 95% CI: 1.013-1.758, P = .040; OR: 2.103, 95% CI: 1.324-3.339, P = .002, respectively). The cut-off value for MPV as the predictor of PoAF development was found to be 8.43 (sensitivity: 82.8% and specificity: 55.4%). CONCLUSION: This study showed that MPV levels are associated with PoAF development in elderly patients, and other independent predictive factors include age and preoperative hemoglobin levels for POAF development.

8.
Vascular ; : 1708538120963922, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245024

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The increase in carotid artery blood flow velocity is a measure of the severity of the carotid artery stenosis caused by atherosclerosis. Carotid artery stenosis is progressive and is of great importance due to the risk of stroke it creates. As an alternative to radiological examinations in these patients, patient follow-up can be facilitated by associating novel laboratory parameters with the severity of stenosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of the calculated plasma osmolality and atherogenic index of plasma on carotid artery blood flow velocities in patients with carotid artery stenosis. METHODS: A total of 161 patients diagnosed with carotid artery stenosis who admitted to our clinic between May 2018 and May 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the carotid artery blood flow velocities measured with the Doppler ultrasonography, the patients were divided into two groups as "Normal flow velocity group" (n = 62) and "Increased flow velocity group" (n = 99). RESULTS: The calculated plasma osmolality, atherogenic index of plasma, and mean platelet volume were significantly associated with increased carotid artery blood flow velocity (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.006; respectively). Calculated plasma osmolality and atherogenic index of plasma were identified as independent predictors of increase in carotid artery blood flow velocity (p < 0.001, p < 0.001; respectively). In the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis, the plasma osmolality cut-off value, which predicts the increase in carotid artery blood flow velocity was found to be 291.45 mOsm/kg (Area Under the Curve: 0.746, p < 0.001, 65.7% sensitivity, and 67.7% specificity), and atherogenic index of plasma cut-off value was 0.20 (Area Under the Curve: 0.735, p < 0.001, 65.7% sensitivity, and 66.1% specificity). CONCLUSION: There was a significant relationship between the increase in carotid artery blood flow velocity and the increase in plasma osmolality and atherogenic index of plasma values. As a result, we can predict the increase in carotid artery blood flow velocity, that is, the increase in the severity of the carotid artery stenosis, with plasma osmolality and atherogenic index of plasma values that can be calculated simply from routine biochemical tests.

9.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(9): 1530-1537, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245617

RESUMO

The major burden of hypertension (HTN) occurs in low-middle-income countries (LMIC) and it is the main modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Few population studies on HTN prevalence have been carried out in Ecuador where there is limited information regarding its prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of HTN and its association with socio-economic, nutritional, and lifestyle habits in urban and rural Andean communities of Pichincha province in Ecuador. The authors studied 2020 individuals aged 35-70 years (mean age 50.8 years, 72% women), included in the Ecuadorian cohort of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, from February to December 2018. The hypertension prevalence (>140/90 mmHg) was 27% and was greater in urban than in rural communities, more common in men, in individuals older than 50 years of age, in people with low monthly income and low level of education. Higher prevalence was also observed in subjects with obesity, and among former smokers and those who consumed alcohol. Only 49% of those with HTN were aware of their condition, 40% were using antihypertensive medications, and 19% had their blood pressure under control (<140/90 mmHg). These results showed low levels of awareness, treatment, and control of HTN in the Andean region of Ecuador, suggesting the urgent necessity of implementing programs to improve the diagnosis and management of HTN.

11.
J Sport Health Sci ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both hypertension and grip strength (GS) are predictors of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but whether these risk factors interact to affect CVD and all-cause mortality is unknown. This study sought to investigate the associations of GS with the risk of major CVD incidence, CVD mortality, and all-cause mortality in patients with hypertension. METHODS: GS was measured using a Jamar dynamometer in participants aged 35-70 years from 12 provinces included in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology China study. Cox frailty proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations of GS and hypertension and the outcomes of all-cause mortality and CVD incidence/mortality. RESULTS: Among 39,862 participants included in this study, 15,964 reported having hypertension, and 9095 had high GS at baseline. After a median follow-up of 8.9 years (interquartile range, 6.7-9.9 years), 1822 participants developed major CVD, and 1250 deaths occurred (388 as a result of CVD). Compared with normotensive participants with high GS, hypertensive patients with high GS had a higher risk of major CVD incidence (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.86-3.06; p < 0.001) or CVD mortality (HR = 3.11; 95%CI: 1.59-6.06; p < 0.001) but did not have a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.24; 95%CI: 0.92-1.68; p = 0.159). These risks were further increased if hypertensive participants whose GS level was low (major CVD incidence, HR = 3.31, 95%CI: 2.60-4.22, p < 0.001; CVD mortality, HR = 4.99, 95%CI: 2.64-9.43, p < 0.001; and all-cause mortality, HR = 1.93, 95%CI: 1.47-2.53, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that low GS is associated with the highest risk of major CVD incidence, CVD mortality, and all-cause mortality among hypertensive patients. High levels of GS appear to mitigate long-term mortality risk among hypertensive patients.

12.
Lancet Planet Health ; 4(10): e451-e462, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 2·8 billion people are exposed to household air pollution from cooking with polluting fuels. Few monitoring studies have systematically measured health-damaging air pollutant (ie, fine particulate matter [PM2·5] and black carbon) concentrations from a wide range of cooking fuels across diverse populations. This multinational study aimed to assess the magnitude of kitchen concentrations and personal exposures to PM2·5 and black carbon in rural communities with a wide range of cooking environments. METHODS: As part of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) cohort, the PURE-AIR study was done in 120 rural communities in eight countries (Bangladesh, Chile, China, Colombia, India, Pakistan, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe). Data were collected from 2541 households and from 998 individuals (442 men and 556 women). Gravimetric (or filter-based) 48 h kitchen and personal PM2·5 measurements were collected. Light absorbance (10-5m-1) of the PM2·5 filters, a proxy for black carbon concentrations, was calculated via an image-based reflectance method. Surveys of household characteristics and cooking patterns were collected before and after the 48 h monitoring period. FINDINGS: Monitoring of household air pollution for the PURE-AIR study was done from June, 2017, to September, 2019. A mean PM2·5 kitchen concentration gradient emerged across primary cooking fuels: gas (45 µg/m3 [95% CI 43-48]), electricity (53 µg/m3 [47-60]), coal (68 µg/m3 [61-77]), charcoal (92 µg/m3 [58-146]), agricultural or crop waste (106 µg/m3 [91-125]), wood (109 µg/m3 [102-118]), animal dung (224 µg/m3 [197-254]), and shrubs or grass (276 µg/m3 [223-342]). Among households cooking primarily with wood, average PM2·5 concentrations varied ten-fold (range: 40-380 µg/m3). Fuel stacking was prevalent (981 [39%] of 2541 households); using wood as a primary cooking fuel with clean secondary cooking fuels (eg, gas) was associated with 50% lower PM2·5 and black carbon concentrations than using only wood as a primary cooking fuel. Similar average PM2·5 personal exposures between women (67 µg/m3 [95% CI 62-72]) and men (62 [58-67]) were observed. Nearly equivalent average personal exposure to kitchen exposure ratios were observed for PM2·5 (0·79 [95% 0·71-0·88] for men and 0·82 [0·74-0·91] for women) and black carbon (0·64 [0·45-0·92] for men and 0·68 [0·46-1·02] for women). INTERPRETATION: Using clean primary fuels substantially lowers kitchen PM2·5 concentrations. Importantly, average kitchen and personal PM2·5 measurements for all primary fuel types exceeded WHO's Interim Target-1 (35 µg/m3 annual average), highlighting the need for comprehensive pollution mitigation strategies. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes for Health Research, National Institutes of Health.

14.
Diabetes Care ; 43(12): 3094-3101, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare cardiovascular (CV) events, all-cause mortality, and CV mortality rates among adults with and without diabetes in countries with differing levels of income. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study enrolled 143,567 adults aged 35-70 years from 4 high-income countries (HIC), 12 middle-income countries (MIC), and 5 low-income countries (LIC). The mean follow-up was 9.0 ± 3.0 years. RESULTS: Among those with diabetes, CVD rates (LIC 10.3, MIC 9.2, HIC 8.3 per 1,000 person-years, P < 0.001), all-cause mortality (LIC 13.8, MIC 7.2, HIC 4.2 per 1,000 person-years, P < 0.001), and CV mortality (LIC 5.7, MIC 2.2, HIC 1.0 per 1,000 person-years, P < 0.001) were considerably higher in LIC compared with MIC and HIC. Within LIC, mortality was higher in those in the lowest tertile of wealth index (low 14.7%, middle 10.8%, and high 6.5%). In contrast to HIC and MIC, the increased CV mortality in those with diabetes in LIC remained unchanged even after adjustment for behavioral risk factors and treatments (hazard ratio [95% CI] 1.89 [1.58-2.27] to 1.78 [1.36-2.34]). CONCLUSIONS: CVD rates, all-cause mortality, and CV mortality were markedly higher among those with diabetes in LIC compared with MIC and HIC with mortality risk remaining unchanged even after adjustment for risk factors and treatments. There is an urgent need to improve access to care to those with diabetes in LIC to reduce the excess mortality rates, particularly among those in the poorer strata of society.

15.
Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: AVERROES, a randomized controlled trial in high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation, unsuitable for vitamin K antagonist therapy, demonstrated efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with aspirin. At the conclusion of the double-blind phase, an open-label extension was initiated to allow study participants to receive apixaban until it became locally available. This study reports outcomes of patients on apixaban during the open-label extension. METHODS: Rates of stroke or systemic embolism, hemorrhagic stroke, major bleeding, and other outcomes during the open-label extension are reported. RESULTS: Of the 5,599 participants enrolled in AVERROES, 3,275 (58.5%) received apixaban during the open-label extension. Median (interquartile range) follow-up in the open-label extension was 3.0 (2.5-3.5) years. The rate of stroke or systemic embolism during the open-label extension was 1.0% per year, and the annual rates of hemorrhagic stroke and major bleeding were 0.3 and 1.2%, respectively. After adjustment for imbalances in patient variables, event rates in patients on apixaban during the open-label extension were similar to those of patients receiving apixaban during AVERROES. Additional analyses in all patients who received apixaban, at any time from the start of AVERROES to the end of the open-label extension, were performed. This cohort (n = 4,414) showed annual event rates of 1.1% for stroke or systemic embolism, 0.3% for hemorrhagic stroke, and 1.2% for major bleeding. CONCLUSION: During the open-label extension, annual rates of stroke or systemic embolism, hemorrhagic stroke, and major bleeding remained as low as those observed during apixaban treatment in AVERROES. These data support the long-term efficacy and safety of apixaban in patients with atrial fibrillation.

16.
Geroscience ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074422

RESUMO

A complex picture of factors influencing cognition is necessary to be drawn for a better understanding of the role of potentially modifiable factors in dementia. The aim was to assess the prevalence and determinants of cognitive impairment, including the role of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) in Polish middle-aged cohort. A comprehensive set of clinical (hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake) and socio-demographic data was collected in the PURE study in years 2007-2016, which was the basis for detailed analysis of risk factors of cognitive impairments in years 2016-2018 in the PURE-MIND sub-study. Five hundred forty-seven subjects (age range 39-65, mean 56.2 ± 6.5) underwent neuropsychological assessment with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Trail Making Test (TMT) and Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) followed by brain MRI. Mean MoCA score was 26.29 and 33% participants met criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (MoCA< 26). Seventy-three percent showed findings related to CSVD. Higher WMH burden and lacunar infarcts were associated with lower MoCA and DSST scores. Severe CSVD was associated with twofold incidence of MCI, and obesity increased its probability by 53% and hypertension by 37%. The likelihood of MCI was reduced in nonsmokers. One factor analysis showed the important role of lower level of education, older age, rural area of residence and hypertension. MCI and CSVD are highly prevalent in the middle-aged population in Poland. A greater importance should be given to potentially modifiable risk factors of dementia which are already present in mid-life.

17.
Lancet ; 396(10256): 968-976, 2020 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an endogenous counter-regulator of the renin-angiotensin hormonal cascade. We assessed whether plasma ACE2 concentrations were associated with greater risk of death or cardiovascular disease events. METHODS: We used data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) prospective study to conduct a case-cohort analysis within a subset of PURE participants (from 14 countries across five continents: Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and South America). We measured plasma concentrations of ACE2 and assessed potential determinants of plasma ACE2 levels as well as the association of ACE2 with cardiovascular events. FINDINGS: We included 10 753 PURE participants in our study. Increased concentration of plasma ACE2 was associated with increased risk of total deaths (hazard ratio [HR] 1·35 per 1 SD increase [95% CI 1·29-1·43]) with similar increases in cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular deaths. Plasma ACE2 concentration was also associated with higher risk of incident heart failure (HR 1·27 per 1 SD increase [1·10-1·46]), myocardial infarction (HR 1·23 per 1 SD increase [1·13-1·33]), stroke (HR 1·21 per 1 SD increase [1·10-1·32]) and diabetes (HR 1·44 per 1 SD increase [1·36-1·52]). These findings were independent of age, sex, ancestry, and traditional cardiac risk factors. With the exception of incident heart failure events, the independent relationship of ACE2 with the clinical endpoints, including death, remained robust after adjustment for BNP. The highest-ranked determinants of ACE2 concentrations were sex, geographic ancestry, and body-mass index (BMI). When compared with clinical risk factors (smoking, diabetes, blood pressure, lipids, and BMI), ACE2 was the highest ranked predictor of death, and superseded several risk factors as a predictor of heart failure, stroke, and myocardial infarction. INTERPRETATION: Increased plasma ACE2 concentration was associated with increased risk of major cardiovascular events in a global study. FUNDING: Canadian Institute of Health Research, Heart & Stroke Foundation of Canada, and Bayer.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
Eur Heart J ; 41(35): 3363-3373, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011774

RESUMO

Several blood pressure guidelines recommend low sodium intake (<2.3 g/day, 100 mmol, 5.8 g/day of salt) for the entire population, on the premise that reductions in sodium intake, irrespective of the levels, will lower blood pressure, and, in turn, reduce cardiovascular disease occurrence. These guidelines have been developed without effective interventions to achieve sustained low sodium intake in free-living individuals, without a feasible method to estimate sodium intake reliably in individuals, and without high-quality evidence that low sodium intake reduces cardiovascular events (compared with moderate intake). In this review, we examine whether the recommendation for low sodium intake, reached by current guideline panels, is supported by robust evidence. Our review provides a counterpoint to the current recommendation for low sodium intake and suggests that a specific low sodium intake target (e.g. <2.3 g/day) for individuals may be unfeasible, of uncertain effect on other dietary factors and of unproven effectiveness in reducing cardiovascular disease. We contend that current evidence, despite methodological limitations, suggests that most of the world's population consume a moderate range of dietary sodium (2.3-4.6g/day; 1-2 teaspoons of salt) that is not associated with increased cardiovascular risk, and that the risk of cardiovascular disease increases when sodium intakes exceed 5 g/day. While current evidence has limitations, and there are differences of opinion in interpretation of existing evidence, it is reasonable, based upon observational studies, to suggest a population-level mean target of <5 g/day in populations with mean sodium intake of >5 g/day, while awaiting the results of large randomized controlled trials of sodium reduction on incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality.

19.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of sodium excretion with blood pressure, mortality and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese population. METHODS: We studied 39 366 individuals aged 35-70 years from 115 urban and rural communities in 12 centers across mainland China. Trained research staff conducted face-to-face interview to record baseline information of all participants based on questionnaires, and collected their morning fasting urine samples to estimate 24-h sodium excretion (24hUNaE). Multivariable frailty Cox regression accounting for clustering by centre was performed to examine the association between estimated 24hUNaE and the primary composite outcome of death and major cardiovascular events in a Chinese population. RESULTS: Mean 24hUNaE was 5.68 (SD 1.69) g/day. After a median follow-up of 8.8 years, the composite outcome occurred in 3080 (7.8%) participants, of which 1426 (3.5%) died and 2192 (5.4%) suffered from cardiovascular events. 24hUNaE was positively associated with increased SBP and DBP. Using the 24hUNaE level of 4-4.99 g/day as the reference group, a 24hUNaE of either lower (<3 g/day) or higher (≥7 g/day) was associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome with a hazard ratio of 1.22 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.49) and 1.15 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.30), respectively. A similar trend was observed between 24hUNaE level and risk of death or major cardiovascular events. CONCLUSION: These findings support a positive association between estimated urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure, and a possible J-shaped pattern of association between sodium excretion and clinical outcomes, with the lowest risk in participants with sodium excretion between 3 and 5 g/day.

20.
Anatol J Cardiol ; 24(3): 192-200, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) includes several cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. This study aimed to assess CV risk of MetS, contribution of its components to the risk, and whether MetS provides additional risk beyond its components. METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) Turkey cohort included 3933 individuals aged between 35 and 70 years, with a median follow-up of 8.9 years. MetS was diagnosed as the presence of any of the following criteria: high blood pressure, high fasting plasma glucose, abdominal obesity, low HDL-cholesterol, or high triglycerides. The primary outcome was the composite of fatal CV events, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke or heart failure, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, family history of CV diseases, and LDL-cholesterol. RESULTS: The primary outcome was more common in the MetS group [178 (9.2%) vs. 70 (3.5%); corresponding incidence rate of 11.3 vs. 4.2 per 1000 person-years; log-rank p<0.001]. Each component was significantly associated with the primary outcome; however, when the components were sequentially included in the model, abdominal obesity and high triglycerides did not provide additional risk on top of the other three components. The hazard ratio for MetS for the primary outcome was 2.12 (95% confidence interval 1.59-2.81, p<0.001), and the discriminative ability (c-statistics) of the models with MetS and the components was similar. CONCLUSION: MetS increases the risk of CV events more than two-fold. High blood pressure, high fasting plasma glucose, and low HDL-cholesterol are the top three components of MetS for CV risk. MetS and its components have a similar discriminative ability for CV events.

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