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1.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850877

RESUMO

AIMS : In INTERSTROKE, we explored the association of anger or emotional upset and heavy physical exertion with acute stroke, to determine the importance of triggers in a large, international population. METHODS AND RESULTS : INTERSTROKE was a case-control study of first stroke in 32 countries. Using 13 462 cases of acute stroke we adopted a case-crossover approach to determine whether a trigger within 1 hour of symptom onset (case period), vs. the same time on the previous day (control period), was associated with acute stroke. A total of 9.2% (n = 1233) were angry or emotional upset and 5.3% (n = 708) engaged in heavy physical exertion during the case period. Anger or emotional upset in the case period was associated with increased odds of all stroke [odds ratio (OR) 1.37, 99% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-1.64], ischaemic stroke (OR 1.22, 99% CI, 1.00-1.49), and intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) (OR 2.05, 99% CI 1.40-2.99). Heavy physical exertion in the case period was associated with increased odds of ICH (OR 1.62, 99% CI 1.03-2.55) but not with all stroke or ischaemic stroke. There was no modifying effect by region, prior cardiovascular disease, risk factors, cardiovascular medications, time, or day of symptom onset. Compared with exposure to neither trigger during the control period, the odds of stroke associated with exposure to both triggers were not additive. CONCLUSION : Acute anger or emotional upset was associated with the onset of all stroke, ischaemic stroke, and ICH, while acute heavy physical exertion was associated with ICH only.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151849, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822894

RESUMO

Black Carbon (BC) is an important component of household air pollution (HAP) in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs), but levels and drivers of exposure are poorly understood. As part of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study, we analyzed 48-hour BC measurements for 1187 individual and 2242 household samples from 88 communities in 8 LMICs (Bangladesh, Chile, China, Colombia, India, Pakistan, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe). Light absorbance (10-5 m-1) of collected PM2.5 filters, a proxy for BC concentrations, was calculated via an image-based reflectance method. Surveys of household/personal characteristics and behaviors were collected after monitoring. The geometric mean (GM) of personal and household BC measures was 2.4 (3.3) and 3.5 (3.9)·10-5 m-1, respectively. The correlation between BC and PM2.5 was r = 0.76 for personal and r = 0.82 for household measures. A gradient of increasing BC concentrations was observed for cooking fuels: BC increased 53% (95%CI: 30, 79) for coal, 142% (95%CI: 117, 169) for wood, and 190% (95%CI: 149, 238) for other biomass, compared to gas. Each hour of cooking was associated with an increase in household (5%, 95%CI: 3, 7) and personal (5%, 95%CI: 2, 8) BC; having a window in the kitchen was associated with a decrease in household (-38%, 95%CI: -45, -30) and personal (-31%, 95%CI: -44, -15) BC; and cooking on a mud stove, compared to a clean stove, was associated with an increase in household (125%, 95%CI: 96, 160) and personal (117%, 95%CI: 71, 117) BC. Male participants only had slightly lower personal BC (-0.6%, 95%CI: -1, 0.0) compared to females. In multivariate models, we were able to explain 46-60% of household BC variation and 33-54% of personal BC variation. These data and models provide new information on exposure to BC in LMICs, which can be incorporated into future exposure assessments, health research, and policy surrounding HAP and BC.

3.
Heart Surg Forum ; 24(5): E842-E848, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of the microplegia solution and Del Nido cardioplegia solution in coronary artery bypass surgery with clinical, biochemical, and echocardiographic data. METHODS: Three hundred patients, who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery between January 2017 and January 2020, by the same surgical team were included in the study. Preoperative, operative and postoperative data (cardiac biomarker levels, cross-clamp and CPB times, echocardiographic measurements, etc.) of the patients were compared. RESULTS: In the study, cross-clamp time was significantly shorter in the DN cardioplegia group (55.60 ± 13.49 min/75.58 ± 12.43 min, P = 0.024). No significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of intensive care stay, extubation time, hospital stay, and cardiopulmonary bypass time. In our study, it was shown that both the left and right ventricular ejection fraction was better protected in the Del Nido cardioplegia group (5.34±3.03 vs. 3.40±2.84, P = 0.017 and 3.82±1.19 vs. 2.28±1.87, P = 0.047, respectively), and the need for inotrope support was lower in this group (28% vs. 44%, P < 0.021). There was no significant difference between the groups, in terms of blood transfusion rates, IABP requirement. CONCLUSION: In light of short-term results, we can say that Del Nido cardioplegia provides better myocardial protection than microplegia. In addition, Del Nido cardioplegia can be given as a single dose for 90 minutes of cross-clamp time and therefore can be preferred to increase surgical comfort and reduce cross-clamp times.

4.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656640

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVES: Hypervolemia and vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency occur frequently in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis and may contribute to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The effect of bioimpedance analysis-guided volume management or Vit D supplementation on LV mass among those receiving peritoneal dialysis is uncertain. STUDY DESIGN: Two-by-two factorial randomized controlled trial. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-five patients receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis. INTERVENTION: BIA-guided volume management versus usual care and oral cholecalciferol 50,000u weekly for 8 weeks followed by 10,000u weekly for 44 weeks or matching placebo. OUTCOMES: Change in left ventricular mass at one-year measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Total body water decreased by 0.9L (standard deviation: 2.4) in the BIA group compared to a 1.5L (± 3.4) increase in the usual care group (adjusted between group difference: -2.4L [95% confidence interval: -4.1, -0.68], p=0.01). Left ventricular mass increased by 1.3g (± 14.3) in the BIA group and decreased by 2.4g (±37.7) in the usual care group (between group difference; +2.2g [-13.9, 18.3], p=0.78). Serum 25-OH Vit D concentration increased by a mean of 17.2 nmol/L (standard deviation: 30.8 nmol/L) in the cholecalciferol group and declined by 8.2 nmol/L (±24.3 nmol/L) in the placebo group (between group difference: 28.3 nmol/L [95% confidence interval 17.2, 39.4]; p<0.001). Left ventricular mass decreased by 3.0g (± 28.1g) in the cholecalciferol group and increased by 2.0g (±31.2g) in the placebo group (between group difference; -4.5g [-20.4, 11.5], p=0.58). LIMITATIONS: Relatively small sample size with larger than expected variation in change in left ventricular mass. CONCLUSIONS: BIA-guided volume management had a modest impact on volume status with no effect on the change in LV mass. Vitamin D supplementation increased serum Vit D concentration but had no effect on left ventricular mass.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684304

RESUMO

The last decade has seen nearly 20 papers reviewing the totality of the data on saturated fats and cardiovascular outcomes, which, altogether, have demonstrated a lack of rigorous evidence to support continued recommendations either to limit the consumption of saturated fatty acids or to replace them with polyunsaturated fatty acids. These papers were unfortunately not considered by the process leading to the most recent U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the country's national nutrition policy, which recently reconfirmed its recommendation to limit saturated fats to 10% or less of total energy intake, based on insufficient and inconsistent evidence. Continuation of a cap on saturated fat intake also fails to consider the important effects of the food matrix and the overall dietary pattern in which saturated fatty acids are consumed.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Saúde , Política Nutricional , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Dieta , Humanos , Estados Unidos
6.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579105

RESUMO

Several health organizations recommend low sodium intake (below 2.3 g/day, 5.8 g/day of salt) for entire populations, on the premise that lowering of sodium intake, irrespective of its level of intake, will lower blood pressure and, in turn, will result in a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease. These guidelines were developed without effective interventions to achieve long term sodium intakes at low levels in free-living individuals and without high-quality evidence that low sodium intake reduces cardiovascular events (compared with average levels of intake). In this review, we examine whether advice to consume low amounts of sodium is supported by robust evidence. We contend that current evidence indicates that most people around the world consume a moderate range of dietary sodium (3 to 5 g/day), that this level of intake is associated with the lowest risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality, and that the risk of adverse health outcomes increases when sodium intakes exceeds 5 g/day or is below 3 g/day. While the current evidence has limitations, it is reasonable, based upon prospective cohort studies, to suggest a mean target of below 5 g/day in populations, while awaiting the results of large randomized controlled trials of sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease and death.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hipossódica , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
7.
Neurology ; 97(17): e1707-e1716, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine whether cognitive reserve attenuates the association of vascular brain injury with cognition. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 2 harmonized studies: the Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Healthy Minds (CAHHM) and the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Markers of cognitive reserve were education, involvement in social activities, marital status, height, and leisure physical activity, which were combined into a composite score. Vascular brain injury was defined as nonlacunar brain infarcts or high white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden on MRI. Cognition was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Tool (MoCA) and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). RESULTS: There were 10,916 participants age 35-81. Mean age was 58.8 years (range 35-81) and 55.8% were female. Education, moderate leisure physical activity, being in a marital partnership, being taller, and participating in social groups were each independently associated with higher cognition, as was the composite cognitive reserve score. Vascular brain injury was associated with lower cognition (ß -0.35 [95% confidence interval [CI] -0.53 to -0.17] for MoCA and ß -2.19 [95% CI -3.22 to -1.15] for DSST) but the association was not modified by the composite cognitive reserve variable (interaction p = 0.59 for MoCA and p = 0.72 for DSST). CONCLUSIONS: Both vascular brain injury and markers of cognitive reserve are associated with cognition. However, the effects were independent such that the adverse effects of covert vascular brain injury were not attenuated by higher cognitive reserve. To improve cognitive brain health, interventions to both prevent cerebrovascular disease and promote positive lifestyles are needed.


Assuntos
Infarto Encefálico/complicações , Cognição/fisiologia , Reserva Cognitiva/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(18): e017735, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514842

RESUMO

Background Heart failure (HF) is a common complication to atrial fibrillation (AF), leading to rehospitalization and death. Early identification of patients with AF at risk for HF might improve outcomes. We aimed to derive a score to predict 1-year risk of new-onset HF after an emergency department (ED) visit with AF. Methods and Results The RE-LY AF (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulant Therapy) registry enrolled patients with AF presenting to an ED in 47 countries, and followed them for a year. The end point was HF hospitalization and/or HF death. Among 15 400 ED patients, 9765 had no prior HF (mean age, 64.9±14.9 years). Within 1 year, new-onset HF developed in 6.8% of patients, of whom 21% died of HF. Independent predictors of HF included left ventricular hypertrophy (odds ratio [OR], 1.47; 95% CI, 1.19-1.82), valvular heart disease (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.18-2.04), smoking (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.12-1.78), height (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95 per 3 cm), age (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.07-1.15 per 5 years), rheumatic heart disease (OR, 1.77, 95% CI, 1.24-2.51), prior myocardial infarction (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.45-2.36), remaining in AF at ED discharge (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.46-2.36), and diabetes (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.09-1.64). A continuous risk prediction score (LVS-HARMED [left ventricular, valvular heart disease, smoking or other tobacco use, height, age, rheumatic heart disease, myocardial infarction, emergency department discharge rhythm, and diabetes]) had good discrimination (C statistic, 0.735; 95% CI, 0.716-0.755). Validation was conducted internally using bootstrapping (optimism-corrected C statistic, 0.705) and externally (C statistic, 0.699). The 1-year incidence of HF hospitalization and/or HF death across quartile groups of the score was 1.1%, 4.5%, 6.9%, and 14.4%, respectively. LVS-HARMED also predicted incident stroke (C statistic, 0.753; 95% CI, 0.728-0.778). Conclusions The LVS-HARMED score predicts new-onset HF after an ED visit for AF. Preventative strategies should be considered in patients with high LVS-HARMED HF risk.

9.
Lancet ; 398(10306): 1133-1146, 2021 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In randomised controlled trials, fixed-dose combination treatments (or polypills) have been shown to reduce a composite of cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary prevention. However, whether or not aspirin should be included, effects on specific outcomes, and effects in key subgroups are unknown. METHODS: We did an individual participant data meta-analysis of large randomised controlled trials (each with ≥1000 participants and ≥2 years of follow-up) of a fixed-dose combination treatment strategy versus control in a primary cardiovascular disease prevention population. We included trials that evaluated a fixed-dose combination strategy of at least two blood pressure lowering agents plus a statin (with or without aspirin), compared with a control strategy (either placebo or usual care). The primary outcome was time to first occurrence of a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or arterial revascularisation. Additional outcomes included individual cardiovascular outcomes and death from any cause. Outcomes were also evaluated in groups stratified by the inclusion of aspirin in the fixed-dose treatment strategy, and effect sizes were estimated in prespecified subgroups based on risk factors. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to compare strategies. FINDINGS: Three large randomised trials were included in the analysis (TIPS-3, HOPE-3, and PolyIran), with a total of 18 162 participants. Mean age was 63·0 years (SD 7·1), and 9038 (49·8%) participants were female. Estimated 10-year cardiovascular disease risk for the population was 17·7% (8·7). During a median follow-up of 5 years, the primary outcome occurred in 276 (3·0%) participants in the fixed-dose combination strategy group compared with 445 (4·9%) in the control group (hazard ratio 0·62, 95% CI 0·53-0·73, p<0·0001). Reductions were also observed for the separate components of the primary outcome: myocardial infarction (0·52, 0·38-0·70), revascularisation (0·54, 0·36-0·80), stroke (0·59, 0·45-0·78), and cardiovascular death (0·65, 0·52-0·81). Significant reductions in the primary outcome and its components were observed in the analyses of fixed-dose combination strategies with and without aspirin, with greater reductions for strategies including aspirin. Treatment effects were similar at different lipid and blood pressure levels, and in the presence or absence of diabetes, smoking, or obesity. Gastrointestinal bleeding was uncommon but slightly more frequent in the fixed-dose combination strategy with aspirin group versus control (19 [0·4%] vs 11 [0·2%], p=0·15). The frequencies of haemorrhagic stroke (10 [0·2%] vs 15 [0·3%]), fatal bleeding (two [<0·1%] vs four [0·1%]), and peptic ulcer disease (32 [0·7%] vs 34 [0·8%]) were low and did not differ significantly between groups. Dizziness was more common with fixed-dose combination treatment (1060 [11·7%] vs 834 [9·2%], p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Fixed-dose combination treatment strategies substantially reduce cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularisation, and cardiovascular death in primary cardiovascular disease prevention. These benefits are consistent irrespective of cardiometabolic risk factors. FUNDING: Population Health Research Institute.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Quimioterapia Combinada , Metanálise como Assunto , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Primária , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
10.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358298

RESUMO

AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with higher mortality. Biomarkers may improve the understanding of key pathophysiologic processes in AF that lead to death. Using a new multiplex analytic technique, we explored the association between 268 biomarkers and cardiovascular (CV) death in anticoagulated patients with AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: A case-cohort design with 1.8 -1.9 years follow-up. The identification cohort included 517 cases and 4057 randomly selected patients from ARISTOTLE. The validation cohort included 277 cases and 1042 randomly selected controls from RE-LY. Plasma collected at randomization was analyzed with conventional immunoassays and the OLINK proximity extension assay-panels; CVDII, CVDIII, and Inflammation. Association between biomarkers and CV-death was evaluated using Random Survival Forest, Boruta and adjusted Cox-regression analyses.The biomarkers most strongly and consistently associated with CV-death were (hazard ratio for inter-quartile comparison [95% CI]): N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP; 1.63 [1.37-1.93]), cardiac troponin T (cTnT-hs; 1.60[1.35-1.88]), interleukin-6 (IL-6; 1.29[1.13-1.47]), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15; 1.30[1.10-1.53]) fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23; 1.21[1.10-1.33]), urokinase receptor (uPAR; 1.38[1.16-1.64]), trefoil factor 3 (TFF3; 1.27[1.10-1.46]), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1; 1.21[1.01-1.45]), TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2 (TRAILR2; 1.18[1.04-1.34]) and cathepsin L1 (CTSL1; 1.22[1.07-1.39]). CONCLUSION: In this comprehensive screening of 268 biomarkers in anticoagulated patients with AF the underlying mechanisms most strongly associated with CV-death were cardiorenal dysfunction (NT-proBNP, cTnT-hs, CTSL1, TFF3), oxidative stress (GDF-15), inflammation (IL-6, GDF-15), calcium balance, vascular and renal dysfunction (FGF-23), fibrinolysis (suPAR) and apoptosis (TNFR1, TRAILR2). These findings provide novel insights into pathophysiologic aspects associated with CV-death in AF. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: In patients with AF there is an unmet need for better understanding of the pathophysiological processes involved with CV-death. Using a targeted proteomic approach, 10 biomarkers were identified as having a strong association with CV-death. The identified biomarkers reflect several biological pathways involved with CV-death in AF. The present study provides valuable insights into important processes involved with CV-death in patients with AF and may facilitate the identification of important risk factors for death, thus allowing for earlier intervention and possibly even for targeted therapy to reduce AF-related mortality. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00412984 and NCT00262600.

11.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(11): 2726-2737, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral anticoagulants (OAC) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) prevent thromboembolic events, but are associated with significant risk of bleeding. OBJECTIVES: To explore associations between a wide range of biomarkers and bleeding risk in patients with AF on OAC. METHOD: Biomarkers were analyzed in a random sample of 4200 patients, 204 cases with major bleedings, from ARISTOTLE. The replication cohort included 344 cases with major bleeding and 1024 random controls from RE-LY. Plasma samples obtained at randomization were analyzed by the Olink Proximity Extension Assay cardiovascular and inflammation panels and conventional immunoassays. The associations between biomarker levels and major bleeding over 1 to 3 years of follow-up were evaluated by random survival forest/Boruta analyses and Cox regression analyses to assess linear associations and hazard ratios for identified biomarkers. RESULTS: Out of 268 proteins, nine biomarkers were independently associated with bleeding in both cohorts. In the replication cohort the linear hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) per interquartile range were for these biomarkers: TNF-R1 1.748 (1.456, 2.098), GDF-15 1.653 (1.377, 1.985), EphB4 1.575 (1.320, 1.880), suPAR 1.548 (1.294, 1.851), OPN 1.476 (1.240, 1.757), OPG 1.397 (1.156, 1.688), TNF-R2 1.360 (1.144,1.616), cTnT-hs 1.232 (1.067, 1.423), and TRAIL-R2 1.202 (1.069, 1.351). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AF on OAC, GDF-15, cTnT-hs, and seven novel biomarkers were independently associated with major bleedings and reflect pathophysiologic processes of inflammation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, vascular calcification, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. Investigations of the utility of these markers to refine risk stratification and guide the management of patients at high risk of bleeding are warranted.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Tromboembolia , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 50, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381672

RESUMO

Background: A wide knowledge gap exists on the clinical profiles and outcomes of heart failure (HF) in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: To determine the clinical profiles and outcomes of HF patients from five African countries. Methods: The INTERnational Congestive Heart Failure Study (INTER-CHF) is a prospective, multicenter cohort study. A total of 1,294 HF patients were consecutively recruited from Nigeria (383 patients), South Africa (169 patients), Sudan (501 patients), Uganda (151patients), and Mozambique (90 patients). HF was defined according to the Boston criteria for diagnosis. Cognitive function was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score. Results: Of the 1294 patients, 51.4% were recruited as out-patients, 53.7% had HF with reduced ejection fraction (EF), 30.1% had HF with mid-range EF and 16.2% had HF with preserved EF (16.2%). The commonest etiologies of HF were hypertensive heart disease (35%) and ischemic heart disease (20%). The mean MoCA score was highest in Uganda (24.3 ± 1.1) and lowest in Sudan (13.6 ± 0.3). Prescriptions for guideline-recommended HF therapies were poor; only 1.2% of South African patients received an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator, and none of the patients received Cardiac Resynchronised Therapy. The composite outcome of death or HF hospitalization at one year among the patients was highest in Sudan (59.7%) and lowest in Mozambique (21.1%). Six variables were associated with higher mortality risk, while digoxin use (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49-0.97; p = 0.034) and 10mmHg unit increase in systolic blood pressure (aHR 0.86; 95%CI 0.81-0.93; p < 0.001) were associated with lower risk for mortality. Conclusions: This is the largest HF study in Africa that included in- and out-patients from the West, East, North, Central and South African sub-regions. Clinically relevant differences, including cognitive functional impairment, were found between the involved countries.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hospitalização , Estudos de Coortes , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , África do Sul , Volume Sistólico
13.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463737

RESUMO

AIMS: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients suffer a high risk of major cardiovascular (CV) events, with athero-thrombo-embolism as the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism. Recently, two large randomized clinical trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of low-dose rivaroxaban twice daily plus aspirin in stable PAD outpatients and those immediately after peripheral revascularization. We sought to determine if the effects of low-dose rivaroxaban and aspirin compared to aspirin alone are consistent across this broad spectrum of PAD patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis of the COMPASS and VOYAGER randomized trials among 11 560 PAD patients (4996 from COMPASS and 6564 from VOYAGER) in the primary analysis and 9332 (2768 from COMPASS and 6564 from VOYAGER) with lower extremity (LE)-PAD in the secondary analysis. The hazard ratio (HR) for the composite of CV death, myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, acute limb ischaemia, or major vascular amputation was 0.79 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.65-0.95) comparing low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin to aspirin alone. While the risk of major bleeding was increased with low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin compared to aspirin alone [HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.22-1.87)], there was no significant increase in severe bleeding [HR: 1.18 (95% CI: 0.79-1.76)]. Similar effects were observed in the subset with symptomatic LE-PAD. CONCLUSIONS: Among PAD patients, low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin is superior to aspirin alone in reducing CV and limb outcomes including acute limb ischaemia and major vascular amputation. This reduction is offset by a relative increase in major bleeding, but not by an excess of fatal or critical organ bleeding. The consistency of findings of these trials supports the use of combination low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin in PAD patients across a broad spectrum of disease.

14.
Eur. heart j ; 42(31): 2995-3007, Aug. 2021. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1292869

RESUMO

AIMS Rosuvastatin (10 mg per day) compared with placebo reduced major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events by 24% in 12 705 participants at intermediate CV risk after 5.6 years. There was no benefit of blood pressure (BP) lowering treatment in the overall group, but a reduction in events in the third of participants with elevated systolic BP. After cessation of all the trial medications, we examined whether the benefits observed during the active treatment phase were sustained, enhanced, or attenuated. METHODS AND RESULTS After the randomized treatment period (5.6 years), participants were invited to participate in 3.1 further years of observation (total 8.7 years). The first co-primary outcome for the entire length of follow-up was the composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or CV death [major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE)-1], and the second was MACE-1 plus resuscitated cardiac arrest, heart failure, or coronary revascularization (MACE-2). In total, 9326 (78%) of 11 994 surviving Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE)-3 subjects consented to participate in extended follow-up. During 3.1 years of post-trial observation (total follow-up of 8.7 years), participants originally randomized to rosuvastatin compared with placebo had a 20% additional reduction in MACE-1 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64­0.99] and a 17% additional reduction in MACE-2 (95% CI 0.68­1.01). Therefore, over the 8.7 years of follow-up, there was a 21% reduction in MACE-1 (95% CI 0.69­0.90, P = 0.005) and 21% reduction in MACE-2 (95% CI 0.69­0.89, P = 0.002). There was no benefit of BP lowering in the overall study either during the active or post-trial observation period, however, a 24% reduction in MACE-1 was observed over 8.7 years. CONCLUSION The CV benefits of rosuvastatin, and BP lowering in those with elevated systolic BP, compared with placebo continue to accrue for at least 3 years after cessation of randomized treatment in individuals without cardiovascular disease indicating a legacy effect.


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Infarto do Miocárdio , Pressão Sanguínea , Colesterol
15.
J Hypertens ; 39(12): 2344-2352, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420012

RESUMO

Although most current guidelines recommend a daily sodium intake of less than 2.3 g/day, most people do not have a reliable estimate of their usual sodium intake. In this review, we describe the different methods used to estimate sodium intake and discuss each method in the context of specific clinical or research questions. We suggest the following classification for sodium measurement methods: preingestion measurement (controlled intake), peri-ingestion measurement (concurrent), and postingestion measurement. On the basis of the characteristics of the available tools, we suggest that: validated 24-h recall methods are a reasonable approach to estimate sodium intake in large epidemiologic studies and individual clinical counselling sessions, methods (such as single 24-h urine collection, single-time urine collection, or 24-h recall methods), are of value in population-level estimation of mean sodium intake, but are less suited for individual level estimation and a feeding-trial design using a controlled diet is the most valid and reliable method for establishing the effect of reducing sodium to a specific intake target in early phase clinical trials. By considering the various approaches to sodium measurement, investigators and public health practitioners may be better informed in assessing the health implications of sodium consumption at the individual and population level.

16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(1): 14-23, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of 2.5 mg rivaroxaban twice daily and 100 mg aspirin once daily compared with 100 mg aspirin once daily reduces major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral artery disease (PAD). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to report the effects of the combination on overall and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: The COMPASS trial enrolled 27,395 patients of whom 18,278 were randomized to the combination (n = 9,152) or aspirin alone (n = 9,126). Deaths were adjudicated by a committee blinded to treatment allocation. Previously identified high-risk baseline features were polyvascular disease, chronic kidney disease, mild or moderate heart failure, and diabetes. RESULTS: During a median of 23 months of follow-up (maximum 47 months), 313 patients (3.4%) allocated to the combination and 378 patients (4.1%) allocated to aspirin alone died (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71-0.96; P = 0.01). Compared with aspirin, the combination reduced CV death (160 [1.7%] vs 203 [2.2%]; HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64-0.96; P = 0.02) but not non-CV death. There were fewer deaths following MI, stroke, and CV procedures, as well as fewer sudden cardiac, other, and unknown causes of CV deaths and coronary heart disease deaths. Patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3 or 4 high-risk features at baseline had 4.2, 4.8, 25.0, and 53.9 fewer deaths, respectively, per 1000 patients treated for 30 months. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin reduced overall and CV mortality with consistent reductions in cause specific CV mortality in patients with chronic CAD or PAD. The absolute mortality benefits are greater with increasing baseline risk. (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulant Strategies [COMPASS]; NCT01776424).


Assuntos
Aspirina , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Doença Arterial Periférica , Rivaroxabana , Idoso , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
BMJ ; 374: n1554, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between intake of ultra-processed food and risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: 21 low, middle, and high income countries across seven geographical regions (Europe and North America, South America, Africa, Middle East, south Asia, South East Asia, and China). PARTICIPANTS: 116 087 adults aged 35-70 years with at least one cycle of follow-up and complete baseline food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data (country specific validated FFQs were used to document baseline dietary intake). Participants were followed prospectively at least every three years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was development of IBD, including Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Associations between ultra-processed food intake and risk of IBD were assessed using Cox proportional hazard multivariable models. Results are presented as hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Participants were enrolled in the study between 2003 and 2016. During the median follow-up of 9.7 years (interquartile range 8.9-11.2 years), 467 participants developed incident IBD (90 with Crohn's disease and 377 with ulcerative colitis). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, higher intake of ultra-processed food was associated with a higher risk of incident IBD (hazard ratio 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 2.72 for ≥5 servings/day and 1.67, 1.18 to 2.37 for 1-4 servings/day compared with <1 serving/day, P=0.006 for trend). Different subgroups of ultra-processed food, including soft drinks, refined sweetened foods, salty snacks, and processed meat, each were associated with higher hazard ratios for IBD. Results were consistent for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis with low heterogeneity. Intakes of white meat, red meat, dairy, starch, and fruit, vegetables, and legumes were not associated with incident IBD. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of ultra-processed food was positively associated with risk of IBD. Further studies are needed to identify the contributory factors within ultra-processed foods. STUDY REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03225586.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Causalidade , Dieta Ocidental/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): 2113775, June. 2021. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1283951

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Obesity is a growing public health threat leading to serious health consequences. Late bedtime and sleep loss are common in modern society, but their associations with specific obesity types are not well characterized. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether sleep timing and napping behavior are associated with increased obesity, independent of nocturnal sleep length. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This large, multinational, population-based cross-sectional study used data of participants from 60 study centers in 26 countries with varying income levels as part of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study. Participants were aged 35 to 70 years and were mainly recruited during 2005 and 2009. Data analysis occurred from October 2020 through March 2021. EXPOSURES: Sleep timing (ie, bedtime and wake-up time), nocturnal sleep duration, daytime napping. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcomes were prevalence of obesity, specified as general obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of 30 or greater, and abdominal obesity, defined as waist circumference greater than 102 cm for men or greater than 88 cm for women. Multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for study centers were performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Overall, 136 652 participants (81 652 [59.8%] women; mean [SD] age, 51.0 [9.8] years) were included in analysis. A total of 27 195 participants (19.9%) had general obesity, and 37 024 participants (27.1%) had abdominal obesity. The mean (SD) nocturnal sleep duration was 7.8 (1.4) hours, and the median (interquartile range) midsleep time was 2:15 AM (1:30 AM-3:00 AM). A total of 19 660 participants (14.4%) had late bedtime behavior (ie, midnight or later). Compared with bedtime between 8 PM and 10 PM, late bedtime was associated with general obesity (AOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.12-1.29) and abdominal obesity (AOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.12-1.28), particularly among participants who went to bed between 2 AM and 6 AM (general obesity: AOR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.18-1.54; abdominal obesity: AOR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.21-1.58). Short nocturnal sleep of less than 6 hours was associated with general obesity (eg, <5 hours: AOR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.13-1.43), but longer napping was associated with higher abdominal obesity prevalence (eg, ≥1 hours: AOR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.31-1.47). Neither going to bed during the day (ie, before 8PM) nor wake-up time was associated with obesity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This cross-sectional study found that late nocturnal bedtime and short nocturnal sleep were associated with increased risk of obesity prevalence, while longer daytime napping did not reduce the risk but was associated with higher risk of abdominal obesity. Strategic weight control programs should also encourage earlier bedtime and avoid short nocturnal sleep to mitigate obesity epidemic.


Assuntos
Sono , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade , Polissonografia
20.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254812, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297755

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are metabolic alterations associated with high morbidity and mortality, particularly in low and middle-income countries. Diet has a significant impact on the risk to develop MetS and T2D; in this regard, consumption of fruits, vegetables, and protein rich foods (from plant and animals) are important to prevent and manage these pathologies. There are limited studies regarding the potential association between Andean foods rich in proteins and the presence of cardio-metabolic conditions in Ecuador. It is necessary to develop new low-cost, local-culturally acceptable strategies to reduce the burden of cardio-metabolic diseases. We describe the prevalence (baseline data) of MetS and T2D in the Ecuadorian cohort of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study and their potential association with the consumption of protein rich foods, including beef, white meat, dairy and legumes. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed 1,997 individuals aged 35-70 years (mean age 51 years, 72% women), included in the Ecuadorian cohort of the PURE study, from February to December 2018. The prevalence of MetS was 42% for male and 44% for female participants; the prevalence of T2D was 9% for male and 10% for female. Metabolic syndrome and T2D were more common in women older than 50 years of age with primary education or less, low economic income, and with obesity; MetS was more frequent in the rural area while T2D was more frequent in the urban area. Using logistic regression analysis, we observed a significant protective effect of higher consumption of dairy and legumes in the prevalence of MetS and T2D compared with low consumption. It will be important to develop policies for ample production and consumption of protein rich foods such as legumes and dairy, part of traditional diets, to reduce the burden of cardio-metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fibras na Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Equador , Fabaceae , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Produtos da Carne/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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