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1.
Lancet ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, no previous study has prospectively documented the incidence of common diseases and related mortality in high-income countries (HICs), middle-income countries (MICs), and low-income countries (LICs) with standardised approaches. Such information is key to developing global and context-specific health strategies. In our analysis of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, we aimed to evaluate differences in the incidence of common diseases, related hospital admissions, and related mortality in a large contemporary cohort of adults from 21 HICs, MICs, and LICs across five continents by use of standardised approaches. METHODS: The PURE study is a prospective, population-based cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years who have been enrolled from 21 countries across five continents. The key outcomes were the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases, cancers, injuries, respiratory diseases, and hospital admissions, and we calculated the age-standardised and sex-standardised incidence of these events per 1000 person-years. FINDINGS: This analysis assesses the incidence of events in 162 534 participants who were enrolled in the first two phases of the PURE core study, between Jan 6, 2005, and Dec 4, 2016, and who were assessed for a median of 9·5 years (IQR 8·5-10·9). During follow-up, 11 307 (7·0%) participants died, 9329 (5·7%) participants had cardiovascular disease, 5151 (3·2%) participants had a cancer, 4386 (2·7%) participants had injuries requiring hospital admission, 2911 (1·8%) participants had pneumonia, and 1830 (1·1%) participants had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cardiovascular disease occurred more often in LICs (7·1 cases per 1000 person-years) and in MICs (6·8 cases per 1000 person-years) than in HICs (4·3 cases per 1000 person-years). However, incident cancers, injuries, COPD, and pneumonia were most common in HICs and least common in LICs. Overall mortality rates in LICs (13·3 deaths per 1000 person-years) were double those in MICs (6·9 deaths per 1000 person-years) and four times higher than in HICs (3·4 deaths per 1000 person-years). This pattern of the highest mortality in LICs and the lowest in HICs was observed for all causes of death except cancer, where mortality was similar across country income levels. Cardiovascular disease was the most common cause of deaths overall (40%) but accounted for only 23% of deaths in HICs (vs 41% in MICs and 43% in LICs), despite more cardiovascular disease risk factors (as judged by INTERHEART risk scores) in HICs and the fewest such risk factors in LICs. The ratio of deaths from cardiovascular disease to those from cancer was 0·4 in HICs, 1·3 in MICs, and 3·0 in LICs, and four upper-MICs (Argentina, Chile, Turkey, and Poland) showed ratios similar to the HICs. Rates of first hospital admission and cardiovascular disease medication use were lowest in LICs and highest in HICs. INTERPRETATION: Among adults aged 35-70 years, cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality globally. However, in HICs and some upper-MICs, deaths from cancer are now more common than those from cardiovascular disease, indicating a transition in the predominant causes of deaths in middle-age. As cardiovascular disease decreases in many countries, mortality from cancer will probably become the leading cause of death. The high mortality in poorer countries is not related to risk factors, but it might be related to poorer access to health care. FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

2.
BMJ ; 364: l772, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the joint association of sodium and potassium urinary excretion (as surrogate measures of intake) with cardiovascular events and mortality, in the context of current World Health Organization recommendations for daily intake (<2.0 g sodium, >3.5 g potassium) in adults. DESIGN: International prospective cohort study. SETTING: 18 high, middle, and low income countries, sampled from urban and rural communities. PARTICIPANTS: 103 570 people who provided morning fasting urine samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Association of estimated 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion (surrogates for intake) with all cause mortality and major cardiovascular events, using multivariable Cox regression. A six category variable for joint sodium and potassium was generated: sodium excretion (low (<3 g/day), moderate (3-5 g/day), and high (>5 g/day) sodium intakes) by potassium excretion (greater/equal or less than median 2.1 g/day). RESULTS: Mean estimated sodium and potassium urinary excretion were 4.93 g/day and 2.12 g/day, respectively. After a median follow-up of 8.2 years, 7884 (6.1%) participants had died or experienced a major cardiovascular event. Increasing urinary sodium excretion was positively associated with increasing potassium excretion (unadjusted r=0.34), and only 0.002% had a concomitant urinary excretion of <2.0 g/day of sodium and >3.5 g/day of potassium. A J-shaped association was observed of sodium excretion and inverse association of potassium excretion with death and cardiovascular events. For joint sodium and potassium excretion categories, the lowest risk of death and cardiovascular events occurred in the group with moderate sodium excretion (3-5 g/day) and higher potassium excretion (21.9% of cohort). Compared with this reference group, the combinations of low potassium with low sodium excretion (hazard ratio 1.23, 1.11 to 1.37; 7.4% of cohort) and low potassium with high sodium excretion (1.21, 1.11 to 1.32; 13.8% of cohort) were associated with the highest risk, followed by low sodium excretion (1.19, 1.02 to 1.38; 3.3% of cohort) and high sodium excretion (1.10, 1.02 to 1.18; 29.6% of cohort) among those with potassium excretion greater than the median. Higher potassium excretion attenuated the increased cardiovascular risk associated with high sodium excretion (P for interaction=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the simultaneous target of low sodium intake (<2 g/day) with high potassium intake (>3.5 g/day) is extremely uncommon. Combined moderate sodium intake (3-5 g/day) with high potassium intake is associated with the lowest risk of mortality and cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/urina , Potássio/urina , Sódio/urina , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Potássio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Potássio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos
3.
Lancet ; 392(10161): 2288-2297, 2018 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary guidelines recommend minimising consumption of whole-fat dairy products, as they are a source of saturated fats and presumed to adversely affect blood lipids and increase cardiovascular disease and mortality. Evidence for this contention is sparse and few data for the effects of dairy consumption on health are available from low-income and middle-income countries. Therefore, we aimed to assess the associations between total dairy and specific types of dairy products with mortality and major cardiovascular disease. METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a large multinational cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years enrolled from 21 countries in five continents. Dietary intakes of dairy products for 136 384 individuals were recorded using country-specific validated food frequency questionnaires. Dairy products comprised milk, yoghurt, and cheese. We further grouped these foods into whole-fat and low-fat dairy. The primary outcome was the composite of mortality or major cardiovascular events (defined as death from cardiovascular causes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure). Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using multivariable Cox frailty models with random intercepts to account for clustering of participants by centre. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2003, and July 14, 2018, we recorded 10 567 composite events (deaths [n=6796] or major cardiovascular events [n=5855]) during the 9·1 years of follow-up. Higher intake of total dairy (>2 servings per day compared with no intake) was associated with a lower risk of the composite outcome (HR 0·84, 95% CI 0·75-0·94; ptrend=0·0004), total mortality (0·83, 0·72-0·96; ptrend=0·0052), non-cardiovascular mortality (0·86, 0·72-1·02; ptrend=0·046), cardiovascular mortality (0·77, 0·58-1·01; ptrend=0·029), major cardiovascular disease (0·78, 0·67-0·90; ptrend=0·0001), and stroke (0·66, 0·53-0·82; ptrend=0·0003). No significant association with myocardial infarction was observed (HR 0·89, 95% CI 0·71-1·11; ptrend=0·163). Higher intake (>1 serving vs no intake) of milk (HR 0·90, 95% CI 0·82-0·99; ptrend=0·0529) and yogurt (0·86, 0·75-0·99; ptrend=0·0051) was associated with lower risk of the composite outcome, whereas cheese intake was not significantly associated with the composite outcome (0·88, 0·76-1·02; ptrend=0·1399). Butter intake was low and was not significantly associated with clinical outcomes (HR 1·09, 95% CI 0·90-1·33; ptrend=0·4113). INTERPRETATION: Dairy consumption was associated with lower risk of mortality and major cardiovascular disease events in a diverse multinational cohort. FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

4.
Lancet ; 391(10134): 2019-2027, 2018 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke disproportionately affects people in low-income and middle-income countries. Although improvements in stroke care and outcomes have been reported in high-income countries, little is known about practice and outcomes in low and middle-income countries. We aimed to compare patterns of care available and their association with patient outcomes across countries at different economic levels. METHODS: We studied the patterns and effect of practice variations (ie, treatments used and access to services) among participants in the INTERSTROKE study, an international observational study that enrolled 13 447 stroke patients from 142 clinical sites in 32 countries between Jan 11, 2007, and Aug 8, 2015. We supplemented patient data with a questionnaire about health-care and stroke service facilities at all participating hospitals. Using univariate and multivariate regression analyses to account for patient casemix and service clustering, we estimated the association between services available, treatments given, and patient outcomes (death or dependency) at 1 month. FINDINGS: We obtained full information for 12 342 (92%) of 13 447 INTERSTROKE patients, from 108 hospitals in 28 countries; 2576 from 38 hospitals in ten high-income countries and 9766 from 70 hospitals in 18 low and middle-income countries. Patients in low-income and middle-income countries more often had severe strokes, intracerebral haemorrhage, poorer access to services, and used fewer investigations and treatments (p<0·0001) than those in high-income countries, although only differences in patient characteristics explained the poorer clinical outcomes in low and middle-income countries. However across all countries, irrespective of economic level, access to a stroke unit was associated with improved use of investigations and treatments, access to other rehabilitation services, and improved survival without severe dependency (odds ratio [OR] 1·29; 95% CI 1·14-1·44; all p<0·0001), which was independent of patient casemix characteristics and other measures of care. Use of acute antiplatelet treatment was associated with improved survival (1·39; 1·12-1·72) irrespective of other patient and service characteristics. INTERPRETATION: Evidence-based treatments, diagnostics, and stroke units were less commonly available or used in low and middle-income countries. Access to stroke units and appropriate use of antiplatelet treatment were associated with improved recovery. Improved care and facilities in low-income and middle-income countries are essential to improve outcomes. FUNDING: Chest, Heart and Stroke Scotland.


Assuntos
Padrões de Prática Médica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Pobreza , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 16(4): 368-375, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28677510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dyslipidaemia is a risk factor for macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Our aim was to assess the use of lipid lowering drugs (LLDs) in patients with T2DM and co-existing dyslipidaemia. METHOD: A multicentre, non-interventional survey conducted in 6 Middle Eastern countries (Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait). Patients with T2DM (n = 3338) taking LLD treatment for ≥3 months with no dose change for ≥6 weeks were enrolled. RESULTS: The mean age (SD) of T2DM patients was 56.6 ±10.6 years; the majority (99%) were on statin monotherapy. Only 48% of these patients achieved their low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal and 67.7% of the patients had a high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk according to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III guidelines. Of those who achieved LDL-C goals (n=1589), approximately one-third were at very high CVD risk and the patients who had received statin monotherapy showed the highest proportion in LDL-C goal attainment, followed by those treated with fibrate monotherapy. In a multivariate logistic regression model, taking drugs daily (odds ratio, OR: 1.64, 95% CI 1.25, 2.15) and older age (OR: 1.09, 95% CI 1.01, 1.18) were significantly associated with better odds of attaining LDL-C target. In contrast, patients with higher levels of ApoA1 (OR: 0.73, 95% CI [0.67,0.79]), Metabolic Syndrome (OR: 0.64, 95% CI [0.53, 0.76]), higher CV risk (OR: 0.33, 95% CI 0.27, 0.41), those who forgot to take their medication (OR: 0.74, 95% CI 0.62,0.88) and those who stopped taking medication when cholesterol became normal (OR: 0.67, 95% CI 0.55,0.82) were significantly associated with lower odds of attaining LDL-C target. CONCLUSION: The results of this study highlight the suboptimal management of dyslipidaemia in T2DM patients at high and very high risk of CVD.

6.
BMJ Open ; 7(3): e013817, 2017 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28363924

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examines in a cross-sectional study 'the tobacco control environment' including tobacco policy implementation and its association with quit ratio. SETTING: 545 communities from 17 high-income, upper-middle, low-middle and low-income countries (HIC, UMIC, LMIC, LIC) involved in the Environmental Profile of a Community's Health (EPOCH) study from 2009 to 2014. PARTICIPANTS: Community audits and surveys of adults (35-70 years, n=12 953). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Summary scores of tobacco policy implementation (cost and availability of cigarettes, tobacco advertising, antismoking signage), social unacceptability and knowledge were associated with quit ratios (former vs ever smokers) using multilevel logistic regression models. RESULTS: Average tobacco control policy score was greater in communities from HIC. Overall 56.1% (306/545) of communities had >2 outlets selling cigarettes and in 28.6% (154/539) there was access to cheap cigarettes (<5cents/cigarette) (3.2% (3/93) in HIC, 0% UMIC, 52.6% (90/171) LMIC and 40.4% (61/151) in LIC). Effective bans (no tobacco advertisements) were in 63.0% (341/541) of communities (81.7% HIC, 52.8% UMIC, 65.1% LMIC and 57.6% LIC). In 70.4% (379/538) of communities, >80% of participants disapproved youth smoking (95.7% HIC, 57.6% UMIC, 76.3% LMIC and 58.9% LIC). The average knowledge score was >80% in 48.4% of communities (94.6% HIC, 53.6% UMIC, 31.8% LMIC and 35.1% LIC). Summary scores of policy implementation, social unacceptability and knowledge were positively and significantly associated with quit ratio and the associations varied by gender, for example, communities in the highest quintile of the combined scores had 5.0 times the quit ratio in men (Odds ratio (OR) 5·0, 95% CI 3.4 to 7.4) and 4.1 times the quit ratio in women (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.4 to 7.1). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that more focus is needed on ensuring the tobacco control policy is actually implemented, particularly in LMICs. The gender-related differences in associations of policy, social unacceptability and knowledge suggest that different strategies to promoting quitting may need to be implemented in men compared to women.


Assuntos
Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar Tabaco/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Produtos do Tabaco , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos
7.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 15(1): 51-58, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27697065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies assessed gender disparity in lipid goal attainment in the Arabian Gulf. Hence, we estimated gender gaps in lipid target achievements among patients at high and very high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolemia (CEPHEUS). METHODS: The study (conducted between November 22, 2009 and July 7, 2010) included 4,384 patients (≥18 years) on lipid lowering drugs at high and very ASCVD risk status from outpatient clinics of 177 specialists and primary care physicians in 6 Arabian Gulf countries. RESULTS: The overall mean age was 57±11 years and 40% (n=1763) were women. Women were more likely to have diabetes mellitus (84 vs 71%; p <0.001) and metabolic syndrome (49 vs 35%; p <0.001) compared with males. Women were less likely to achieve their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) (28 vs 32%; p = 0.002), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (42 vs 50%; p <0.001), and apolipoprotein B (Apo B) (38 vs 42%; p = 0.015) targets compared with men. In the very high ASCVD risk cohort, women were significantly less likely to achieve their LDL-C (20 vs 30%; p <0.001), non- HDL-C (34 vs 39%; p = 0.001) and Apo B (34 vs 41%; p <0.001) therapeutic targets compared with men. CONCLUSION: Women in the Arabian Gulf were less likely to achieve their lipid targets than men. The difference was more significant in the very high ASCVD risk group.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Lipídeos/sangue , Idoso , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/diagnóstico , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
BMJ Open ; 31(7): e01381-e01381, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-36685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examines in a cross-sectional study 'the tobacco control environment' including tobacco policy implementation and its association with quit ratio.SETTING:545 communities from 17 high-income, upper-middle, low-middle and low-income countries (HIC, UMIC, LMIC, LIC) involved in the Environmental Profile of a Community's Health (EPOCH) study from 2009 to 2014. PARTICIPANTS: Community audits and surveys of adults (35-70 years, n=12 953).PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Summary scores of tobacco policy implementation (cost and availability of cigarettes, tobacco advertising, antismoking signage), social unacceptability and knowledge were associated with quit ratios (former vs ever smokers) using multilevel logistic regression models. RESULTS: Average tobacco control policy score was greater in communities from HIC. Overall 56.1% (306/545) of communities had >2 outlets selling cigarettes and in 28.6% (154/539) there was access to cheap cigarettes (<5cents/cigarette) (3.2% (3/93) in HIC, 0% UMIC, 52.6% (90/171) LMIC and 40.4% (61/151) in LIC). Effective bans (no tobacco advertisements) were in 63.0% (341/541) of communities (81.7% HIC, 52.8% UMIC, 65.1% LMIC and 57.6% LIC). In 70.4% (379/538) of communities, >80% of participants disapproved youth smoking (95.7% HIC, 57.6% UMIC, 76.3% LMIC and 58.9% LIC). The average knowledge score was >80% in 48.4% of communities (94.6% HIC, 53.6% UMIC, 31.8% LMIC and 35.1% LIC). Summary scores of policy implementation, social unacceptability and knowledge were positively and significantly associated with quit ratio and the associations varied by gender, for example, communities in the highest quintile of the combined scores had 5.0 times the quit ratio in men (Odds ratio (OR) 5·0, 95% CI 3.4 to 7.4) and 4.1 times the quit ratio in women (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.4 to 7.1)...(AU)


Assuntos
Tabagismo , Ambientes Livres de Fumo , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco
9.
Lancet ; 390(10107): 2050-2062, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-36704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between macronutrients and cardiovascular disease and mortality is controversial. Most available data are from European and North American populations where nutrition excess is more likely, so their applicability to other populations is unclear. METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a large, epidemiological cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years (enrolled between Jan 1, 2003, and March 31, 2013) in 18 countries with a median follow-up of 7·4 years (IQR 5·3-9·3). Dietary intake of 135 335 individuals was recorded using validated food frequency questionnaires. The primary outcomes were total mortality and major cardiovascular events (fatal cardiovascular disease, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure). Secondary outcomes were all myocardial infarctions, stroke, cardiovascular disease mortality, and non-cardiovascular disease mortality. Participants were categorised into quintiles of nutrient intake (carbohydrate, fats, and protein) based on percentage of energy provided by nutrients. We assessed the associations between consumption of carbohydrate, total fat, and each type of fat with cardiovascular disease and total mortality. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) using a multivariable Cox frailty model with random intercepts to account for centre clustering...(AU)


Assuntos
Gorduras , Ingestão de Alimentos , Carboidratos , Cardiopatias , Mortalidade
10.
Tob Control ; 26(5): 586-591, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27798320

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hookahs (water pipes) are rapidly increasing in popularity worldwide. Evidence suggests that although perceived as safer than cigarette smoke, hookah smoke may be as, or even more, dangerous as cigarette smoke. METHODS: Air samples from 33 homes-11 where only hookah-smoking occurred, 12 with only cigarettes and 10 with no smoking-were collected to analyse concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, elemental and organic carbon and carbon monoxide (CO). Air quality was assessed in rooms where smoking occurred and in an adjacent room. RESULTS: Hookah and cigarette smoking impaired home air quality. The rooms in which hookahs were smoked showed the highest concentrations for all pollutants. CO was significantly greater in the rooms where hookahs were smoked than in the cigarette-smoking rooms and the non-smoking households (p<0.05). In addition, CO levels in the rooms adjacent to where hookah was smoked were 2.5-fold to 4-fold greater than those in the smoking and non-smoking rooms of the cigarette homes (p<0.05). PM2.5 levels were also elevated in hookah homes compared to cigarette and non-smoking homes, although not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: This study, the first of its kind, demonstrates potentially hazardous levels of home air pollution in rooms where hookahs are being smoked as well as in adjacent rooms. These levels were greater than those in cigarette smoking homes, raising concerns about potential negative health effects on all individuals living in homes where hookahs are smoked.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Cachimbos de Água , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Habitação , Humanos , Material Particulado , Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco
11.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 8: 49, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27468314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on lipid target achievements in the Arabian Gulf. METHODS: The centralized pan-middle east survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolemia (CEPHEUS) included 4171 high and very high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk patients from six Arabian Gulf countries. Analyses were performed using univariate statistics. RESULTS: The overall mean age was 57 ± 11 years, 41 % were females and 71 % had MetS. MetS patients were less likely to attain their HDL-C (34 vs. 79 %; P < 0.001), LDL-C (27 vs. 37 %; P < 0.001), non HDL-C (35 vs. 55 %; P < 0.001) and Apo B (35 vs. 54 %; P < 0.001) compared to those without MetS. Within the MetS cohort, those with very high ASCVD risk were less likely to attain their lipid targets compared to those with high ASCVD risk [HDL-C (32 vs. 41 %; P < 0.001), LDL-C (24 vs. 43 %; P < 0.001), non HDL-C (32 vs. 51 %; P < 0.001) and Apo B (33 vs. 40 %; P = 0.001)]. In those with MetS and very high ASCVD risk status, females were less likely to attain their HDL-C (27 vs. 36 %; P < 0.001), LDL-C (19 vs. 27 %; P < 0.001) and Apo B (30 vs. 35 %; P = 0.009) compared to males. CONCLUSIONS: MetS was associated with low lipid therapeutic targets. Women and those with very high ASCVD risk were also less likely to attain their lipid targets in the Arabian Gulf.

12.
J Clin Lipidol ; 10(2): 368-77, 2016 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27055968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atherogenic dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in the Arabian Gulf. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) reduction has been proposed as an additional goal to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Data on non-HDL-C goal attainment in patients with high triglycerides (TGs) on lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs) in the region is scarce. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate non-HDL-C target attainment according to the National Lipid Association in patients on LLDs stratified by TG (<150 [1.69], 150-200 [1.69-2.26], >200 [2.26] mg/dL [mmol/L]) levels in the Arabian Gulf. METHODS: Overall, 4383 patients on LLD treatment from 6 Middle Eastern countries participating in the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the Undertreatment of Hypercholesterolemia study were evaluated. Patients were classified according to TG levels and ASCVD risk. RESULTS: The overall non-HDL-C goal attainment was 41% of the subjects. Non-HDL-C goal was less likely attained in patients with high TGs (12% vs 27% vs 55%; P < .001). Very high ASCVD risk patients with high TGs attained less their non-HDL-C targets compared with those with lower TG levels (8% vs 23% vs 51%; P < .001). Similarly, high ASCVD risk patients with high TGs also failed more in attaining non-HDL-C targets compared with those with lower TGs (26% vs 42% vs 69%; P < .001). In addition, those with high TG also succeeded less in attaining LDL-C and apolipoprotein B goals (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of very high and high ASCVD patients on LLDs in the Arabian Gulf are not at recommended non-HDL-C targets and hence remain at a substantial residual risk.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Metas , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Oceano Índico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
N Engl J Med ; 371(7): 601-11, 2014 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25119606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher levels of sodium intake are reported to be associated with higher blood pressure. Whether this relationship varies according to levels of sodium or potassium intake and in different populations is unknown. METHODS: We studied 102,216 adults from 18 countries. Estimates of 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion were made from a single fasting morning urine specimen and were used as surrogates for intake. We assessed the relationship between electrolyte excretion and blood pressure, as measured with an automated device. RESULTS: Regression analyses showed increments of 2.11 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 0.78 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure for each 1-g increment in estimated sodium excretion. The slope of this association was steeper with higher sodium intake (an increment of 2.58 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure per gram for sodium excretion >5 g per day, 1.74 mm Hg per gram for 3 to 5 g per day, and 0.74 mm Hg per gram for <3 g per day; P<0.001 for interaction). The slope of association was steeper for persons with hypertension (2.49 mm Hg per gram) than for those without hypertension (1.30 mm Hg per gram, P<0.001 for interaction) and was steeper with increased age (2.97 mm Hg per gram at >55 years of age, 2.43 mm Hg per gram at 45 to 55 years of age, and 1.96 mm Hg per gram at <45 years of age; P<0.001 for interaction). Potassium excretion was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure, with a steeper slope of association for persons with hypertension than for those without it (P<0.001) and a steeper slope with increased age (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the association of estimated intake of sodium and potassium, as determined from measurements of excretion of these cations, with blood pressure was nonlinear and was most pronounced in persons consuming high-sodium diets, persons with hypertension, and older persons. (Funded by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario and others.).


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Dieta , Potássio/urina , Sódio/urina , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/urina , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio/administração & dosagem , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem
14.
N Engl J Med ; 371(7): 612-23, 2014 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25119607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal range of sodium intake for cardiovascular health is controversial. METHODS: We obtained morning fasting urine samples from 101,945 persons in 17 countries and estimated 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion (used as a surrogate for intake). We examined the association between estimated urinary sodium and potassium excretion and the composite outcome of death and major cardiovascular events. RESULTS: The mean estimated sodium and potassium excretion was 4.93 g per day and 2.12 g per day, respectively. With a mean follow-up of 3.7 years, the composite outcome occurred in 3317 participants (3.3%). As compared with an estimated sodium excretion of 4.00 to 5.99 g per day (reference range), a higher estimated sodium excretion (≥ 7.00 g per day) was associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.30), as well as increased risks of death and major cardiovascular events considered separately. The association between a high estimated sodium excretion and the composite outcome was strongest among participants with hypertension (P=0.02 for interaction), with an increased risk at an estimated sodium excretion of 6.00 g or more per day. As compared with the reference range, an estimated sodium excretion that was below 3.00 g per day was also associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.44). As compared with an estimated potassium excretion that was less than 1.50 g per day, higher potassium excretion was associated with a reduced risk of the composite outcome. CONCLUSIONS: In this study in which sodium intake was estimated on the basis of measured urinary excretion, an estimated sodium intake between 3 g per day and 6 g per day was associated with a lower risk of death and cardiovascular events than was either a higher or lower estimated level of intake. As compared with an estimated potassium excretion that was less than 1.50 g per day, higher potassium excretion was associated with a lower risk of death and cardiovascular events. (Funded by the Population Health Research Institute and others.).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta , Mortalidade , Potássio/urina , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sódio/urina , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio/administração & dosagem , Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos
15.
Circulation ; 129(15): 1568-76, 2014 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24463370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia; however, little is known about patients in a primary care setting from high-, middle-, and low-income countries. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective registry enrolled patients presenting to an emergency department with AF at 164 sites in 46 countries representing all inhabited continents. Patient characteristics were compared among 9 major geographic regions. Between September 2008 and April 2011, 15,400 patients were enrolled. The average age was 65.9, standard deviation 14.8 years, ranging from 57.2, standard deviation 18.8 years in Africa, to 70.1, standard deviation 13.4 years in North America, P<0.001. Hypertension was globally the most common risk factor for AF, ranging in prevalence from 41.6% in India to 80.7% in Eastern Europe, P<0.001. Rheumatic heart disease was present in only 2.2% of North American patients, in comparison with 21.5% in Africa and 31.5% in India, P<0.001. The use of oral anticoagulation among patients with a CHADS2 score of ≥2 was greatest in North America (65.7%) but was only 11.2% in China, P<0.001. The mean time in the therapeutic range was 62.4% in Western Europe, 50.9% in North America, but only between 32% and 40% in India, China, Southeast Asia, and Africa, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: There is a large global variation in age, risk factors, concomitant diseases, and treatment of AF among regions. Improving outcomes globally requires an understanding of this variation and the conduct of research focused on AF associated with different underlying conditions and treatment of AF and predisposing conditions in different socioeconomic settings.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Cardiopatia Reumática/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Ásia/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Angiology ; 65(10): 919-26, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24301426

RESUMO

The Centralized pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolemia (CEPHEUS) survey evaluated the attainment of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals among patients on lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs) according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)-Adult Treatment Panel (ATP-III) guideline. The survey was conducted in 6 Arabian Gulf countries. Patients aged ≥18 years on LLDs for at least ≥3 months (stable medication for ≥6 weeks) were recruited. Fasting blood samples were collected at a single visit. In this survey, 5276 (58.2% male) patients were included in the final analysis. The LDL-C goal was attained in 91.1% of low-risk, 52.7% of high-risk, and 32.0% in very-high-risk categories. Goal attainment was directly related to female gender, age<40 years, history of diabetes, and family history of cardiovascular disease. The results of this survey highlight the suboptimal management of hypercholesterolemia across Arabian Gulf countries.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/tratamento farmacológico , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Árabes , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 21(4): 400-10, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23125402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mortality from cardiovascular disease in the Middle East (ME) is projected to increase substantially by 2020. There are no large studies on the impact of risk factors for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the region. This is a report on the association of nine risk factors with AMI in the ME. METHODS AND RESULTS: As part of the INTERHEART (IH) study, we enrolled 1364 cases of first AMI and 1525 matching controls from eight ME countries. The age at first AMI was 51.2 ± 10.3 years, which is the youngest, and with the largest proportion of patients <40 years in the entire IH population. The overall population attributable risk (PAR) of the nine risk factors to AMI was higher in the ME (97.5%) than worldwide (90.4%). Elevated apolipoprotein (Apo)B/ApoA1 had the strongest association with AMI, with odds ratio (OR) of 3.43 and PAR of 57.1%, followed by smoking (OR 3.63 and PAR 45.6%). ApoB/ApoA1 had greater association than the conventional low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio. Both diabetes (OR 3.42, PAR 16.4%) and hypertension (OR 1.89, PAR 10.7%) had greater association with AMI in women than men. Abdominal obesity (OR 2.12, PAR 26.1%) and depression (OR 1.97, PAR 45.3%), but not conventional BMI, were significantly associated with AMI (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: This is the largest prospective population study of risk factors associated with AMI in the ME. AMI occurs at younger age in the ME than all other regions. The PAR for the nine risk factors was higher in the ME (97.5%) than the rest of the world. These findings should guide serious prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
The New England Journal of Medicine ; 371(7): 601-611, 2014. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-29743

RESUMO

Higher levels of sodium intake are reported to be associated with higher bloodpressure. Whether this relationship varies according to levels of sodium or potassiumintake and in different populations is unknown.MethodsWe studied 102,216 adults from 18 countries. Estimates of 24-hour sodium andpotassium excretion were made from a single fasting morning urine specimen andwere used as surrogates for intake. We assessed the relationship between electrolyteexcretion and blood pressure, as measured with an automated device.ResultsRegression analyses showed increments of 2.11 mm Hg in systolic blood pressureand 0.78 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure for each 1-g increment in estimatedsodium excretion. The slope of this association was steeper with higher sodiumintake (an increment of 2.58 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure per gram for sodiumexcretion >5 g per day, 1.74 mm Hg per gram for 3 to 5 g per day, and 0.74 mm Hgper gram for <3 g per day; P<0.001 for interaction). The slope of association wassteeper for persons with hypertension (2.49 mm Hg per gram) than for those withouthypertension (1.30 mm Hg per gram, P<0.001 for interaction) and was steeperwith increased age (2.97 mm Hg per gram at >55 years of age, 2.43 mm Hg pergram at 45 to 55 years of age, and 1.96 mm Hg per gram at <45 years of age;P<0.001 for interaction). Potassium excretion was inversely associated with systolicblood pressure, with a steeper slope of association for persons with hypertensionthan for those without it (P<0.001) and a steeper slope with increased age (P<0.001).ConclusionsIn this study, the association of estimated intake of sodium and potassium, as determinedfrom measurements of excretion of these cations, with blood pressurewas nonlinear and was most pronounced in persons consuming high-sodium diets,persons with hypertension, and older persons. (Funded by the Heart and StrokeFoundation of Ontario and others). (AU)


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Sódio , Potássio
19.
Eur Heart J ; 29(7): 932-40, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18334475

RESUMO

AIMS: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of death among men and women globally. Women develop CHD about 10 years later than men, yet the reasons for this are unclear. The purpose of this report is to determine if differences in risk factor distributions exist between women and men across various age categories to help explain why women develop acute MI later than men. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used the INTERHEART global case-control study including 27 098 participants from 52 countries, 6787 of whom were women. The median age of first acute MI was higher in women than men (65 vs. 56 years; P < 0.0001). Nine modifiable risk factors were associated with MI in women and men. Hypertension [2.95(2.66 -3.28) vs. 2.32(2.16-2.48)], diabetes [4.26(3.68-4.94) vs. 2.67(2.43-2.94), physical activity [0.48(0.41-0.57) vs. 0.77(0.71-0.83)], and moderate alcohol use [0.41(0.34-0.50) vs. 0.88(0.82-0.94)] were more strongly associated with MI among women than men. The association of abnormal lipids, current smoking, abdominal obesity, high risk diet, and psychosocial stress factors with MI was similar in women and men. Risk factors associations were generally stronger among younger individuals compared to older women and men. The population attributable risk (PAR) of all nine risk factors exceeded 94%, and was similar among women and men (96 vs. 93%). Men were significantly more likely to suffer a MI prior to 60 years of age than were women, however, after adjusting for levels of risk factors, the sex difference in the probability of MI cases occurring before the age of 60 years was reduced by more than 80%. CONCLUSION: Women experience their first acute MI on average 9 years later than men. Nine modifiable risk factors are significantly associated with acute MI in both men and women and explain greater than 90% of the PAR. The difference in age of first MI is largely explained by the higher risk factor levels at younger ages in men compared to women.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
20.
Nutr J ; 4: 18, 2005 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15921524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) is one of the most commonly used tools in epidemiologic studies to assess long-term nutritional exposure. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of a culture specific FFQ for Arab populations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Kuwait. METHODS: We interviewed samples of Arab populations over 18 years old in UAE and Kuwait assessing their dietary intakes using 24-hour dietary recall. Based on the most commonly reported foods and portion sizes, we constructed a food list with the units of measurement. The food list was converted to a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (SFFQ) format following the basic pattern of SFFQ using usual reported portions. The long SFFQ was field-tested, shortened and developed into the final SFFQ. To estimate nutrients from mixed dishes we collected recipes of those mixed dishes that were commonly eaten, and estimated their nutritional content by using nutrient values of the ingredients that took into account method of preparation from the US Department of Agriculture's Food Composition Database. RESULTS: The SFFQs consist of 153 and 152 items for UAE and Kuwait, respectively. The participants reported average intakes over the past year. On average the participants reported eating 3.4 servings/d of fruits and 3.1 servings/d of vegetables in UAE versus 2.8 servings/d of fruits and 3.2 servings/d of vegetables in Kuwait. Participants reported eating cereals 4.8 times/d in UAE and 5.3 times/d in Kuwait. The mean intake of dairy products was 2.2/d in UAE and 3.4 among Kuwaiti. CONCLUSION: We have developed SFFQs to measure diet in UAE and Kuwait that will serve the needs of public health researchers and clinicians and are currently validating those instruments.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Adulto , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Grão Comestível , Escolaridade , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Renda , Entrevistas como Assunto , Kuweit , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Emirados Árabes Unidos , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Agriculture , Verduras
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