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1.
Food Chem ; 337: 127762, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777563

RESUMO

Gelatin and collagen are considered halal-critical ingredients as they are typically derived from either bovine or porcine animals. Current analytical methods for determining the sources of gelatin and collagen suffer from limitations in terms of robustness and false positives in peptide matching. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the utility of monitoring hydroxyproline, a signature amino acid for gelatin and collagen, for identifying potentially haram foodstuffs. To determine the hydroxyproline profiles among animal- and plant-based samples, one-way univariate analysis of variance followed by pair-wise comparison was used to establish statistical significance. Multivariate chemometric analysis through principal component analysis revealed a discrete distribution pattern among 59 samples due to hydroxyproline variability. Finally, inter- and intra-laboratory comparisons demonstrated the validity and robustness of hydroxyproline determination according to ISO 17025. Thus, this preliminary identification technique will aid the identification of potentially haram foodstuffs.

2.
Pol J Microbiol ; 69: 1-6, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162852

RESUMO

Natural products such as essential oils (EOs) are secondary metabolites that can be obtained from either plant or animal sources or produced by microorganisms. Much attention has been given to exploring the use of secondary metabolites as natural antibacterial agents. This study investigates the antibacterial activity and mechanism of ß-caryophyllene, a compound that can be found in various EOs, against Bacillus cereus. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ß-caryophyllene against B. cereus was 2.5% (v/v), whereas killing kinetics of ß-caryophyllene at minimum inhibitory concentration recorded complete bactericidal activity within 2 hours. Zeta-potential measurement in the cells treated with half the minimum inhibitory concentration of ß-caryophyllene at 1.25% (v/v) showed an increase in the membrane permeability surface charge to -3.98 mV, compared to untreated cells (-5.46 mV). Intracellular contents leakage of UV-absorbing materials was detected in the cells treated with ß-caryophyllene. Additionally, ß-caryophyllene does not interfere with the efflux activity of B. cereus via the ethidium bromide influx/efflux activity. The results revealed that ß-caryophyllene was able to alter membrane permeability and integrity of B. cereus, leading to membrane damage and intracellular content leakage, which eventually caused cell death.Natural products such as essential oils (EOs) are secondary metabolites that can be obtained from either plant or animal sources or produced by microorganisms. Much attention has been given to exploring the use of secondary metabolites as natural antibacterial agents. This study investigates the antibacterial activity and mechanism of ß-caryophyllene, a compound that can be found in various EOs, against Bacillus cereus. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ß-caryophyllene against B. cereus was 2.5% (v/v), whereas killing kinetics of ß-caryophyllene at minimum inhibitory concentration recorded complete bactericidal activity within 2 hours. Zeta-potential measurement in the cells treated with half the minimum inhibitory concentration of ß-caryophyllene at 1.25% (v/v) showed an increase in the membrane permeability surface charge to ­3.98 mV, compared to untreated cells (­5.46 mV). Intracellular contents leakage of UV-absorbing materials was detected in the cells treated with ß-caryophyllene. Additionally, ß-caryophyllene does not interfere with the efflux activity of B. cereus via the ethidium bromide influx/efflux activity. The results revealed that ß-caryophyllene was able to alter membrane permeability and integrity of B. cereus, leading to membrane damage and intracellular content leakage, which eventually caused cell death.

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