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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 93-129, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646508

RESUMO

Plasma membrane Ca2+ transport ATPases (PMCA1-4, ATP2B1-4) are responsible for removing excess Ca2+ from the cell in order to keep the cytosolic Ca2+ ion concentration at the low level essential for normal cell function. While these pumps take care of cellular Ca2+ homeostasis they also change the duration and amplitude of the Ca2+ signal and can create Ca2+ gradients across the cell. This is accomplished by generating more than twenty PMCA variants each having the character - fast or slow response, long or short memory, distinct interaction partners and localization signals - that meets the specific needs of the particular cell-type in which they are expressed. It has become apparent that these pumps are essential to normal tissue development and their malfunctioning can be linked to different pathological conditions such as certain types of neurodegenerative and heart diseases, hearing loss and cancer. In this chapter we summarize the complexity of PMCA regulation and function under normal and pathological conditions with particular attention to recent developments of the field.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio da Membrana Plasmática , Animais , Membrana Celular/enzimologia , Membrana Celular/patologia , Citosol/metabolismo , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio da Membrana Plasmática/genética , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio da Membrana Plasmática/metabolismo
2.
Cells ; 8(10)2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597297

RESUMO

The human ABCG2 is an important plasma membrane multidrug transporter, involved in uric acid secretion, modulation of absorption of drugs, and in drug resistance of cancer cells. Variants of the ABCG2 transporter, affecting cellular processing and trafficking, have been shown to cause gout and increased drug toxicity. In this paper, we overview the key cellular pathways involved in the processing and trafficking of large membrane proteins, focusing on ABC transporters. We discuss the information available for disease-causing polymorphic variants and selected mutations of ABCG2, causing increased degradation and impaired travelling of the transporter to the plasma membrane. In addition, we provide a detailed in silico analysis of an as yet unrecognized loop region of the ABCG2 protein, in which a recently discovered mutation may actually promote ABCG2 membrane expression. We suggest that post-translational modifications in this unstructured loop at the cytoplasmic surface of the protein may have special influence on ABCG2 processing and trafficking.

3.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254042

RESUMO

The human ABCG2 multidrug transporter plays a crucial role in the absorption and excretion of xeno- and endobiotics; thus the relatively frequent polymorphic and mutant ABCG2 variants in the population may significantly alter disease conditions and pharmacological effects. Low-level or non-functional ABCG2 expression may increase individual drug toxicity, reduce cancer drug resistance, and result in hyperuricemia and gout. In the present work we have studied the cellular expression, trafficking, and function of nine naturally occurring polymorphic and mutant variants of ABCG2. A comprehensive analysis of the membrane localization, transport, and ATPase activity, as well as retention and degradation in intracellular compartments was performed. Among the examined variants, R147W and R383C showed expression and/or protein folding defects, indicating that they could indeed contribute to ABCG2 functional deficiency. These studies and the applied methods should significantly promote the exploration of the medical effects of these personal variants, promote potential therapies, and help to elucidate the specific role of the affected regions in the folding and function of the ABCG2 protein.

4.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7487, 2018 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29749379

RESUMO

The ABCG2 membrane protein is a key xeno- and endobiotic transporter, modulating the absorption and metabolism of pharmacological agents and causing multidrug resistance in cancer. ABCG2 is also involved in uric acid elimination and its impaired function is causative in gout. Analysis of ABCG2 expression in the erythrocyte membranes of healthy volunteers and gout patients showed an enrichment of lower expression levels in the patients. By genetic screening based on protein expression, we found a relatively frequent, novel ABCG2 mutation (ABCG2-M71V), which, according to cellular expression studies, causes reduced protein expression, although with preserved transporter capability. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated a stumbled dynamics of the mutant protein, while ABCG2-M71V expression in vitro could be corrected by therapeutically relevant small molecules. These results suggest that personalized medicine should consider this newly discovered ABCG2 mutation, and genetic analysis linked to protein expression provides a new tool to uncover clinically important mutations in membrane proteins.

5.
Cell Calcium ; 65: 73-79, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28216081

RESUMO

Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPases are key calcium exporter proteins in most tissues, and PMCA4b is the main calcium transporter in the human red blood cells (RBCs). In order to assess the expression level of PMCA4b, we have developed a flow cytometry and specific antibody binding method to quantitatively detect this protein in the erythrocyte membrane. Interestingly, we found several healthy volunteers showing significantly reduced expression of RBC-PMCA4b. Western blot analysis of isolated RBC membranes confirmed this observation, and indicated that there are no compensatory alterations in other PMCA isoforms. In addition, reduced PMCA4b levels correlated with a lower calcium extrusion capacity in these erythrocytes. When exploring the potential genetic background of the reduced PMCA4b levels, we found no missense mutations in the ATP2B4 coding regions, while a formerly unrecognized minor haplotype in the predicted second promoter region closely correlated with lower erythrocyte PMCA4b protein levels. In recent GWA studies, SNPs in this ATP2B4 haplotype have been linked to reduced mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations (MCHC), and to protection against malaria infection. Our data suggest that an altered regulation of gene expression is responsible for the reduced RBC-PMCA4b levels that is probably linked to the development of human disease-related phenotypes.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Haplótipos , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio da Membrana Plasmática , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/genética , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio da Membrana Plasmática/biossíntese , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio da Membrana Plasmática/genética
6.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 1(3): 334-8, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27239515

RESUMO

Preventive measures, prognosis, or selected therapy in multifactorial maladies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), require the application of a wide range of diagnostic assays. There is a large unmet need for relatively simple, blood-based biomarkers in this regard. We have recently developed a rapid and reliable flow cytometry and antibody-based method for the quantitative measurement of various red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteins from a drop of blood. Here, we document that the RBC expression of certain membrane proteins, especially that of the GLUT1 transporter and the insulin receptor (INSR), is significantly higher in AD patients than in age-matched healthy subjects. The observed differences may reflect long-term metabolic alterations relevant in the development of AD. These findings may pave the way for a diagnostic application of RBC membrane proteins as relatively stable and easily accessible personalized biomarkers in AD.

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