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1.
Sports (Basel) ; 9(4)2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918193

RESUMO

Energy needs of female team-sport athletes are poorly understood with no evidence highlighting differences present between scheduled activities. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in energy expenditure between NCAA Division II female basketball (BBALL) and lacrosse (LAX) athletes during different scheduled team activities. Female BBALL (n = 13; 19.8 ± 1.3 yrs; 173.9 ± 13.6 cm; 74.6 ± 9.1kg; 27.1 ± 3.2%fat) and LAX (n = 20; 20.4 ± 1.8yrs; 168.4 ± 6.6cm; 68.8 ± 8.9kg; 27.9 ± 3.1%fat) athletes were outfitted with heart rate and activity monitors during four consecutive days on five different occasions (20 days total) across an entire academic year to assess differences in total daily activity energy expenditure (TDEE), activity energy expenditure (AEE), and physical activity level (PAL). Data were categorized by type of scheduled daily activities: Practice, Game, Conditioning, or Off. Independent of day type, TDEE, AEE, and PAL levels were greater (p < 0.05) in BBALL athletes. For each sport, TDEE, AEE, and PAL were significantly different (p < 0.05) between classified activity days. BBALL and LAX athletes experienced higher values on game days for TDEE, AEE, and PAL, with the lowest values experienced on off days. In conclusion, calculated levels of TDEE, AEE, and PAL in female collegiate BBALL and LAX athletes were determined to be different, irrespective of the scheduled activity.

2.
Temperature (Austin) ; 8(1): 64-79, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33553506

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to assess autonomic and hemodynamic recovery in women who performed moderate-intensity exercise in heat. Seven women (31.7 ± 7.6 years, 67.5 ± 4.4 kg, 25.7 ± 5.6% Fat, 43.9 ± 5.1 mL/kg/min) completed two identical bouts of graded treadmill walking (~60% VO2peak). One bout was hot (37.5 ± 1.4°C, 46.5 ± 4.6% relative humidity (RH)), and the other was moderate (20.7 ± 1.1°C, 29.9 ± 4.1% RH). For 24 h before and one h after each bout, participants had heart rate variability monitored. After each exercise bout HR and BP were measured during 30 min of supine recovery and 10 min of orthostatic challenge. HF power and RMSSD were lower and LF power and LF:HF ratio greater following exercise in the heat and remained different from the moderate condition for 30 min (p < 0.05). During supine recovery, heat exposure led to higher HR (p = 0.002) and lower DBP (p = 0.016). SBP (p = 0.037) and DBP (p = 0.008) were both lower after 10 min of supine recovery following hot exercise than after moderate temperature. Average response did not reveal orthostatic hypotension despite heat causing a higher HR (p = 0.011) and lower SBP (p = 0.026) after 10 min of orthostatic exposure. Trained women exhibit an autonomic shift toward sympathetic dominance for at least 30 min after exercise in heat. Women who exercise in heat should be wary of an exacerbated HR response after exercise and low recovery blood pressures.

3.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(3): 804-810, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234694

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Zanders, BR, Currier, BS, Harty, PS, Zabriskie, HA, Smith, CR, Stecker, RA, Richmond, SR, Jagim, AR, and Kerksick, CM. Changes in energy expenditure, dietary intake, and energy availability across an entire collegiate women's basketball season. J Strength Cond Res 35(3): 804-810, 2021-The purpose of this study was to identify changes in energy expenditure and dietary intake across an entire women's basketball season. On 5 different occasions across the competitive season, female collegiate basketball players (19.8 ± 1.3 years, 173.9 ± 13.6 cm, 74.6 ± 9.1 kg, 27.1 ± 3.2% fat, 53.9 ± 6.4 ml·kg-1·min-1, n = 13) were outfitted with heart rate and activity monitors over 4 consecutive days and completed 4-day food and fluid records to assess changes in energy expenditure and dietary status. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to assess baseline body composition and resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured before and after the season. Data were analyzed using 1-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE, p = 0.059) and physical activity levels (TDEE/REE, p = 0.060) both tended to decrease throughout the season. Energy balance was negative at all time points throughout the season. Absolute and normalized daily protein intake at the end of the season was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than at the beginning of the season. Carbohydrate (3.7 ± 0.4 g·kg-1·d-1) and protein (1.17 ± 0.16 g·kg-1·d-1) intakes were lower than commonly recommended values based on previously published guidelines. These findings suggest that greater education and interventions for collegiate athletes and coaches regarding dietary intake and energy expenditure are warranted.


Assuntos
Basquetebol , Composição Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Estações do Ano
4.
Front Nutr ; 7: 585900, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33330586

RESUMO

Little is known about the optimal time to consume caffeine prior to exercise to maximize the ergogenic benefits of the substance. Purpose: To determine the optimal pre-exercise time interval to consume caffeine to improve lower-body muscular performance. A secondary aim was to identify the presence of any sex differences in responses to timed caffeine administration. Methods: Healthy, resistance-trained males (n = 18; Mean±SD; Age: 25.1 ± 5.7 years; Height: 178.4 ± 7.1 cm; Body mass: 91.3 ± 13.5 kg; Percent body fat: 20.7 ± 5.2; Average caffeine consumption: 146.6 ± 100.3 mg/day) and females (n = 11; Mean ± SD; Age: 20.1 ± 1.6 years; Height: 165.0 ± 8.8 cm; Body mass: 65.8 ± 10.0 kg; Percent bodyfat: 25.8 ± 4.2; Average caffeine consumption: 111.8 ± 91.7 mg/day) participated in this investigation. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover fashion, participants consumed 6 mg·kg-1 caffeine or placebo solution at three time points: 2 h prior (2H), 1 h prior (1H), or 30 min prior (30M) to exercise testing. During three visits, caffeine was randomly administered at one time point, and placebo was administered at the other two time points. During one visit, placebo was administered at all three time points. Next, participants performed isometric mid-thigh pulls (IMTP), countermovement vertical jumps (CMVJ), and isometric/isokinetic knee extensor testing (ISO/ISOK). Results: Caffeine administered at 1H significantly improved absolute CMVJ and ISO performance relative to placebo. Mean CMVJ jump height was significantly higher during 1H compared to 30M. However, only caffeine administered at 30M significantly improved absolute measures of isokinetic performance. Analysis of the pooled caffeine conditions revealed that muscular performance was more consistently augmented by caffeine in males compared to females. Conclusions: Pre-exercise caffeine timing significantly modulated participant responses to the substance, with 1H exerting the most consistent ergogenic benefits relative to other time points, particularly compared to 2H. Male participants were found to respond more consistently to caffeine compared to female participants. These results suggest that active individuals can maximize the ergogenic effects of caffeine by consuming the substance ~1 h prior to the point when peak muscular performance is desired.

5.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 17(1): 60, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large (48-g), isonitrogenous doses of rice and whey protein have previously been shown to stimulate similar adaptations to resistance training, but the impact of consuming smaller doses has yet to be compared. We evaluated the ability of 24-g doses of rice or whey protein concentrate to augment adaptations following 8 weeks of resistance training. METHODS: Healthy resistance-trained males (n = 24, 32.8 ± 6.7 years, 179.3 ± 8.5 cm, 87.4 ± 8.5 kg, 27.2 ± 1.9 kg/m2, 27.8 ± 6.0% fat) were randomly assigned and matched according to fat-free mass to consume 24-g doses of rice (n = 12, Growing Naturals, LLC) or whey (n = 12, NutraBio Labs, Inc.) protein concentrate for 8 weeks while completing a standardized resistance training program. Body composition (DXA), muscular strength (one-repetition maximum [1RM]) and endurance (repetitions to fatigue [RTF] at 80% 1RM) using bench press (BP) and leg press (LP) exercises along with anaerobic capacity (Wingate) were assessed before and after the intervention. Subjects were asked to maintain regular dietary habits and record dietary intake every 2 weeks. Outcomes were assessed using 2 × 2 mixed (group x time) factorial ANOVA with repeated measures on time and independent samples t-tests using the change scores from baseline. A p-value of 0.05 and 95% confidence intervals on the changes between groups were used to determine outcomes. RESULTS: No baseline differences (p > 0.05) were found for key body composition and performance outcomes. No changes (p > 0.05) in dietary status occurred within or between groups (34 ± 4 kcal/kg/day, 3.7 ± 0.77 g/kg/day, 1.31 ± 0.28 g/kg/day, 1.87 ± 0.23 g/kg/day) throughout the study for daily relative energy (34 ± 4 kcals/kg/day), carbohydrate (3.7 ± 0.77 g/kg/day), fat (1.31 ± 0.28 g/kg/day), and protein (1.87 ± 0.23 g/kg/day) intake. Significant main effects for time were revealed for body mass (p = 0.02), total body water (p = 0.01), lean mass (p = 0.008), fat-free mass (p = 0.007), BP 1RM (p = 0.02), BP volume (p = 0.04), and LP 1RM (p = 0.01). Changes between groups were similar for body mass (- 0.88, 2.03 kg, p = 0.42), fat-free mass (- 0.68, 1.99 kg, p = 0.32), lean mass (- 0.73, 1.91 kg, p = 0.37), fat mass (- 0.48, 1.02 kg, p = 0.46), and % fat (- 0.63, 0.71%, p = 0.90). No significant between group differences were seen for BP 1RM (- 13.8, 7.1 kg, p = 0.51), LP 1RM (- 38.8, 49.6 kg, p = 0.80), BP RTF (- 2.02, 0.35 reps, p = 0.16), LP RTF (- 1.7, 3.3 reps, p = 0.50), and Wingate peak power (- 72.5, 53.4 watts, p = 0.76) following the eight-week supplementation period. CONCLUSIONS: Eight weeks of daily isonitrogenous 24-g doses of rice or whey protein in combination with an eight-week resistance training program led to similar changes in body composition and performance outcomes. Retroactively registered on as NCT04411173 .


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Oryza/química , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/farmacologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacologia , Adulto , Anaerobiose , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Água Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química
6.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501891

RESUMO

Zabriskie, HA, Dobrosielski, DA, Leppert, KM, Droege, AJ, Knuth, ND, and Lisman, PJ. Positional analysis of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football and men's lacrosse. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Despite the widespread use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), few studies have examined differences in body composition between positions within sports and none have reported DXA-derived body composition reference values for men's lacrosse. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in measures of total and regional body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) using DXA across sport positions in a large cohort of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I male lacrosse and football players. A total of 294 male athletes (football, n = 196; lacrosse, n = 98) underwent DXA. One-way analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to examine whether body composition variables differed by sports position. In football, position was a significant determinant for every compositional variable in football athletes (all, p < 0.05; effect size range = 0.24-0.79). Offensive linemen had the highest total body fat percentage (30.1 ± 2.9%), followed by fullbacks (26.7 ± 3.3%) and defensive linemen (24.6 ± 5.7%); wide receivers had the lowest (14.5 ± 2.1%). For total body BMD, defensive linemen had the highest (1.70 ± 0.09 g·cm), followed by linebackers (1.67 ± 0.09 g·cm) and offensive linemen (1.65 ± 0.09 g·cm); kickers had the lowest (1.45 ± 0.11 g·cm) BMD. In lacrosse, no differences were found between positions for any total or regional body composition and BMD measure (all, p > 0.05). Our data confirm that total and regional measures of body composition and BMD vary across positions in football but not in men's lacrosse. Unlike football, similarities in body composition among lacrosse players may indicate that the uniformity of training demands or preferred player attributes in team selection outweigh the unique positional demands in gameplay.

7.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325856

RESUMO

Aerobic exercise and thermal stress instigate robust challenges to the immune system. Various attempts to modify or supplement the diet have been proposed to bolster the immune system responses. The purpose of this study was to identify the impact of yeast beta-glucan (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation. Healthy, active men (29.6 ± 6.7 years, 178.1 ± 7.2 cm, 83.2 ± 11.2 kg, 49.6 ± 5.1 mL/kg/min, n = 16) and women (30.1 ± 8.9 years, 165.6 ± 4.1 cm, 66.7 ± 10.0 kg, 38.7 ± 5.8 mL/kg/min, n = 15) were randomly assigned in a double-blind and cross-over fashion to supplement for 13 days with either 250 mg/day of yeast beta-glucan (YBG) or a maltodextrin placebo (PLA). Participants arrived fasted and completed a bout of treadmill exercise at 55% peak aerobic capacity (VO2Peak) in a hot (37.2 ± 1.8 °C) and humid (45.2 ± 8.8%) environment. Prior to and 0, 2, and 72 h after completing exercise, changes in white blood cell counts, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, markers of muscle damage, markers of muscle function, soreness, and profile of mood states (POMS) were assessed. In response to exercise and heat, both groups experienced significant increases in white blood cell counts, plasma creatine kinase and myoglobin, and soreness along with reductions in peak torque and total work with no between-group differences. Concentrations of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines in YBG were lower than PLA for macrophage inflammatory protein 1ß (MIP-1ß) (p = 0.044) and tended to be lower for interleukin 8 (IL-8) (p = 0.079), monocyte chemoattractment protein 1 (MCP-1) (p = 0.095), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) (p = 0.085). Paired samples t-tests using delta values between baseline and 72 h post-exercise revealed significant differences between groups for IL-8 (p = 0.044, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): (0.013, 0.938, d = -0.34), MCP-1 (p = 0.038, 95% CI: 0.087, 2.942, d = -0.33), and MIP-1ß (p = 0.010, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.85, d = -0.33). POMS outcomes changed across time with anger scores in PLA exhibiting a sharper decline than YBG (p = 0.04). Vigor scores (p = 0.04) in YBG remained stable while scores in PLA were significantly reduced 72 h after exercise. In conclusion, a 13-day prophylactic period of supplementation with 250 mg of yeast-derived beta-glucans invoked favorable changes in cytokine markers of inflammation after completing a prolonged bout of heated treadmill exercise.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Esforço , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Adulto , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL4/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fadiga Muscular/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem , beta-Glucanas/isolamento & purificação
8.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 5(4)2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467311

RESUMO

(1) Background: Limited information exists on the prevalence of low energy availability (LEA) in collegiate team sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of LEA in collegiate women soccer players. (2) Methods: Collegiate women soccer athletes (n = 18, height: 1.67 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 65.3 ± 7.9 kg; body fat %: 24.9 ± 5.6%) had their body composition and sport nutrition knowledge assessed in the pre-season. Energy availability was assessed mid-season using a 4-day dietary log and activity energy expenditure values from a team-based monitoring system. A validated screening tool was used to screen for LEA. (3) Results: The screening tool classified 56.3% of athletes as at risk of LEA (<30 kcal/kg of FFM); however, the actual dietary intake identified 67% as LEA. Athletes identified as non-LEA consumed significantly more absolute (p = 0.040) and relative (p = 0.004) energy than LEA athletes. (4) Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of LEA among collegiate women soccer athletes. Although previously validated in women endurance athletes, the LEA screening tool was not effective in identifying those at risk of LEA in this sample of athletes.

9.
Int J Exerc Sci ; 12(5): 979-988, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523352

RESUMO

The basis of learning is knowledge of discrete information such as terms and definitions that can be developed through memorization. A strong knowledge base is something students strive to develop through self-directed study. Little research has investigated the role of simultaneous exercise and memorization on recall ability with a delay in recall of at least 24 hrs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an exercise bout on memory by requiring participants to recall words 24 hrs after exposure to three different interventions: memorization while cycling, memorization after cycling, and memorization without cycling. 21 physically active young adults completed the crossover design in randomized order. During testing sessions, participants were given a unique list of 100 words and were instructed to memorize as many words as possible. They returned 24 hrs later to recall the words. The average number of words recalled for each intervention were: memorization while cycling, 51.5 ± 19.8 words; memorization after cycling, 45.1 ± 22.4 words; memorization without cycling, 45.7 ± 23.3 words. Mixed-measures ANOVA revealed that exercise did not alter recall ability (p = 0.121). However, statistical contrasts showed that the number of words recalled following memorization during cycling was higher than number of words recalled during the other interventions (p = 0.043). The results indicate that exercise has no adverse effect on memorization ability. Simultaneous memorization and exercise produced a greater ability to recall words than memorization after or without exercise.

10.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403573

RESUMO

Harty, PS, Zabriskie, HA, Stecker, RA, Currier, BS, Moon, JM, Richmond, SR, Jagim, AR, and Kerksick, CM. Position-specific body composition values in female collegiate rugby union athletes. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Rugby union is a full-contact, intermittent team sport. Anthropometric characteristics of rugby union athletes have been shown to influence suitability for a given position and affect performance. However, little anthropometric data exist in female rugby union athletes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to report position-specific anthropometric, body composition, and bone density values in female collegiate rugby union athletes and to identify between-position differences in these variables. This investigation was a cross-sectional study involving 101 female collegiate rugby union athletes, categorized as forwards and backs as well as by position (props, hookers, locks, flankers, number 8 forwards, halfback, fly-half, centers, wings, and fullbacks). Anthropometric characteristics of all athletes were measured, and body composition was assessed via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Outcome variables included age, height, body mass, BMI, body fat percentage, fat mass (FM), FM index, fat-free mass (FFM), FFM index, lean soft tissue, bone mineral content, bone mineral area, and bone mineral density. Anthropometric and body composition differences between forwards and backs were identified via independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests, depending on normality of the variable. Between-position differences were assessed using one-way analysis of variances (ANOVAs) with Tukey post-hoc comparisons or Welch's ANOVA with Dunnett's T3 post-hoc test. Significant differences (p < 0.014) were identified between forwards and backs for every anthropometric variable, with forwards displaying greater height (167.7 ± 7.2 cm), body mass (81.5 ± 15.1 kg), and body fat percentage (28.2 ± 6.1%) relative to backs (164.5 ± 5.1 cm; 64.5 ± 7.7 kg; 21.9 ± 3.7%). Likewise, significant differences were identified for every anthropometric variable between several positions (p < 0.01). Significant (p < 0.05) interposition differences were identified within the subgroup of forwards, but not within the subgroup of backs. The present investigation is the first to report position-specific anthropometric and body composition data in female collegiate rugby union athletes. The results of this study can be used by rugby union coaches for recruiting and personnel decisions, to determine a player's suitability for a given position, and to further inform training and nutritional interventions in this population.

11.
J Sports Sci ; 37(20): 2381-2388, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238804

RESUMO

Fat-free mass index (FFMI) is a height-adjusted metric of fat-free mass which has been suggested as a useful method of body composition assessment in athletic populations. The purpose of this study was to determine sport-specific FFMI values and the natural upper threshold of FFMI in female athletes. 372 female collegiate athletes (Mean±SD; 20.03±1.55 years, 167.55±7.50 cm, 69.46±13.04 kg, 24.18±5.48% bodyfat) underwent body composition assessment via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. FFMI was adjusted to height via linear regression and sport-specific reference values were determined. Between-sport differences were identified using one-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc tests. Average FFMI was 18.82±2.08 kg/m2; height-adjusted values were not significantly different (p<0.05) than unadjusted values. FFMI in rugby athletes (20.09±2.23 kg/m2) was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) than in gymnastics (18.62±1.12 kg/m2), ice hockey (17.96±1.04 kg/m2), lacrosse (18.58±1.84 kg/m2), swim & dive (18.16±1.67 kg/m2), and volleyball (18.04±1.13 kg/m2). FFMI in cross country (16.56±1.14 kg/m2) and synchronized swimming (17.27±1.47 kg/m2) was significantly lower (p<0.05) than in Olympic weightlifting (19.69±1.98 kg/m2), wrestling (19.15±2.47 kg/m2), and rugby. The upper threshold for FFMI in female athletes (97.5th percentile) was 23.90 kg/m2. These results can be used to guide personnel decisions and assist with long-term body composition, training, and nutritional goals.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Esportes/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Densidade Óssea , Feminino , Humanos , Força Muscular , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(6): 1474-1479, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985525

RESUMO

Currier, BS, Harty, PS, Zabriskie, HA, Stecker, RA, Moon, JM, Jagim, AR, and Kerksick, CM. Fat-free mass index in a diverse sample of male collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 33(6): 1474-1479, 2019-Fat-free mass index (FFMI) is a body composition metric that has been used to assess relative muscularity in athletes. Fat-free mass index is calculated by dividing FFM by height squared, although further height corrections through linear regression may be needed in taller individuals. This study reported height-adjusted FFMI (FFMIAdj) data in 209 male collegiate athletes from 10 sports (baseball, cross country, football, golf, ice hockey, weightlifting, rugby, swimming, track and field, and water polo) and the FFMIAdj natural upper limit for sports with sufficient sample size. The body composition of all subjects (mean ± SD; age: 20.7 ± 1.9 years, height: 182.9 ± 6.7 cm, body mass: 90.8 ± 16.8 kg, and percent body fat: 15.6 ± 5.3) was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Linear regression was used to adjust for height, and the FFMIAdj natural upper limit was determined by calculating the 97.5th percentile of all values. One-way analyses of variance with Games-Howell post hoc comparisons were used to determine between-sport differences. A paired-samples t-test revealed a significant difference (p < 0.001) between unadjusted and adjusted mean FFMI values. The overall mean FFMIAdj was 22.8 ± 2.8 kg·m. Significant between-sport differences (p < 0.001) in FFMIAdj were identified. Average FFMIAdj was highest in football athletes (24.28 ± 2.39 kg·m) and lowest in water polo athletes (20.68 ± 3.56 kg·m). The FFMIAdj upper limit was calculated for all athletes (28.32 kg·m), rugby (29.1 kg·m), and baseball (25.5 kg·m). This study reported FFMIAdj values in a diverse cohort of male collegiate athletes, providing data for the first time in several sports. These values can be used to guide nutritional and exercise interventions, predict athletic performance, and provide coaches with standardized information regarding the potential for further FFM accretion in male athletes.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Músculo Esquelético , Esportes , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adiposidade , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético , Beisebol , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Futebol Americano , Golfe , Hóquei , Humanos , Masculino , Natação , Atletismo , Universidades , Levantamento de Peso , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813399

RESUMO

Little data is available regarding the energy and nutritional status of female collegiate team sport athletes. Twenty female NCAA Division II lacrosse athletes (mean ± SD: 20.4 ± 1.8 years; 68.8 ± 8.9 kg; 168.4 ± 6.6 cm; 27.9 ± 3% body fat) recorded dietary intake and wore a physical activity monitor over four consecutive days at five different time points (20 days total) during one academic year. Body composition, bone health, and resting metabolic rate were assessed in conjunction with wearing the monitor during off-season, pre-season, and season-play. Body fat percentage decreased slightly during the course of this study (p = 0.037). Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) (p < 0.001) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) (p = 0.001) energy were found to change significantly over the course of the year, with pre-season training resulting in the highest energy expenditures (TDEE: 2789 ± 391 kcal/day; AEE: 1001 ± 267 kcal/day). Caloric (2124 ± 448 kcal/day), carbohydrate (3.6 ± 1.1 g/kg), and protein (1.2 ± 0.3 g/kg) intake did not change over the course of the year (p > 0.05). Athletes self-reported a moderate negative energy balance (366⁻719 kcal/day) and low energy availability (22.9⁻30.4 kcal/kg FFM) at each measurement period throughout the study. Reported caloric and macronutrient intake was low given the recorded energy expenditure and macronutrient intake recommendations for athletes. Athletic support staff should provide athletes with appropriate fueling strategies, particularly during pre-season training, to adequately meet energy demands.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Esportes , Feminino , Humanos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(9): 2426-2432, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741864

RESUMO

Watson, AD, Zabriskie, HA, Witherbee, KE, Sulavik, A, Gieske, BT, and Kerksick, CM. Determining a resting metabolic rate prediction equation for collegiate female athletes. J Strength Cond Res 33(9): 2426-2432, 2019-A lack of evidence exists regarding the accuracy of common resting metabolic rate (RMR) prediction equations in athletic female populations. The purpose of this research was to measure RMR in a large cohort of NCAA Division II female athletes and use regression techniques to develop new prediction equations. Sixty-six female athletes from 11 different sports completed this protocol, which included skinfold measurements followed by an RMR assessment using indirect calorimetry. The average RMR was 1,466 ± 150 kcal·d. Many between-sport differences in body composition were identified, with gymnastics athletes having the lowest body fat percentage (p < 0.05) and basketball athletes having the greatest absolute fat-free mass (p < 0.05). Resting metabolic rate was moderately correlated (p < 0.05) with height (r = 0.52), total mass (r = 0.59), and fat-free mass (r = 0.54). Two equations were developed, both of which were more accurate for this population than other RMR prediction equations. One of the new equations, which used height and body mass as covariates (equation 1), was slightly more accurate than the equation using body composition parameters (equation 2). The new equations were cross-validated using a randomly selected subset (n = 22) of the original sample. The subset did not show statistically different results from the remainder of the sample (n = 44) between equation 1 (p = 0.083) and equation 2 (p = 0.22). Equation 1, which had more easily measurable parameters, exhibited heightened accuracy, which has important implications for implementation among athletes, coaches, and athletic support staff.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal , Constituição Corporal , Conceitos Matemáticos , Esportes/fisiologia , Universidades , Adiposidade , Adolescente , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Calorimetria Indireta , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pregas Cutâneas , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 15(1): 41, 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089501

RESUMO

In recent years, a new class of dietary supplements called multi-ingredient pre-workout supplements (MIPS) has increased in popularity. These supplements are intended to be taken prior to exercise and typically contain a blend of ingredients such as caffeine, creatine, beta-alanine, amino acids, and nitric oxide agents, the combination of which may elicit a synergistic effect on acute exercise performance and subsequent training adaptations compared to single ingredients alone. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to review the theoretical rationale and available scientific evidence assessing the potential ergogenic value of acute and chronic ingestion of MIPS, to address potential safety concerns surrounding MIPS supplementation, and to highlight potential areas for future research. Though direct comparisons between formulations of MIPS or between a MIPS and a single ingredient are challenging and often impossible due to the widespread use of "proprietary blends" that do not disclose specific amounts of ingredients in a given formulation, a substantial body of evidence suggests that the acute pre-exercise consumption of MIPS may positively influence muscular endurance and subjective mood, though mixed results have been reported regarding the acute effect of MIPS on force and power production. The chronic consumption of MIPS in conjunction with a periodized resistance training program appears to augment beneficial changes in body composition through increased lean mass accretion. However, the impact of long-term MIPS supplementation on force production, muscular endurance, aerobic performance, and subjective measures is less clear. MIPS ingestion appears to be relatively safe, though most studies that have assessed the safety of MIPS are relatively short (less than eight weeks) and thus more information is needed regarding the safety of long-term supplementation. As with any dietary supplement, the use of MIPS carries implications for the athlete, as many formulations may intentionally contain banned substances as ingredients or unintentionally as contaminants. We suggest that athletes thoroughly investigate the ingredients present in a given MIPS prior to consumption. In conclusion, it appears that multi-ingredient pre-workout supplements have promise as an ergogenic aid for active individuals, though further information is required regarding long-term efficacy and safety in a wider variety of populations.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Suplementos Nutricionais , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Atletas , Betaína/farmacologia , Cafeína/farmacologia , Creatina/farmacologia , Humanos , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , beta-Alanina/farmacologia
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