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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 715: 136946, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007898

RESUMO

High-mountain lakes are pristine ecosystems characterized by extreme environmental conditions. The atmospheric transport of pollutants from lowlands may add further stress to organisms inhabiting these environments. We investigated the environmental stress pressure on brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from a high-mountain lake in the Cottian Alps (Piedmont, northwest Italy). To do this, males and females of brook trout were sampled from Balma Lake in summer (August) and autumn (October) 2017 in order to assess the influence of trace elements accumulation and environmental parameters (physicochemical parameters and nutrient characteristics of water) on oxidative stress biomarkers. Bioaccumulation of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Ni, Se, and Zn and metallothionein levels were measured in muscle tissue of males and females. Liver, gills, kidney, and spleen tissue samples were analyzed for superoxide dismutase, catalase, total glutathione peroxidase, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase activity. Analysis of environmental parameters showed changes in biomarker levels with seasonal variations. Water temperature was significantly higher in summer than autumn (Wilcoxon test; p = .0078), while pH was significantly higher in autumn than in summer (Wilcoxon test; p = .0078). Sex-related differences in oxidative stress biomarkers in tissues were unremarkable, whereas seasonal variability of oxidative stress biomarkers was observed, with major differences occurred for liver in summer and for gills, kidney, spleen and muscle in autumn. Positive correlations between environmental parameters and biomarkers were noted. Major fluctuations in water temperature, pH, Cu, Pb and Hg produced changes in biomarker levels; however, increased food intake during the ice-free season was probably the main factor that influenced changes in oxidative stress biomarker levels in brook trout in this extreme ecosystem.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 708: 134592, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780144

RESUMO

Dry feed for dogs and cats sold in Europe are mostly formulated with cereals and cereal by-products, so the contamination of this food with mycotoxins represents a potential risk for these pets. We analyzed a representation of the best-selling feed brands in Spain. The presence of Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2), Ochratoxin A, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, Deoxynivalenol, Zearalenone, and Fumonisins (B1 and B2) was quantified, using immunoaffinity columns and LC-MS/MS. In general, mycotoxins were frequently and simultaneously (6-11) detected, with AFB1, FB1, FB2, Deoxynivalenol, and HT-2 detected in 100% of the samples. However, the concentrations of most of them are among the lowest reported so far. Fumonisins were the exception since we report the highest concentrations to date, particularly in cat feed. We practically found no significant differences in the level of mycotoxin contamination in relation to the presumed quality of the feed. We also calculated the daily exposure, and evaluated the acute and chronic health risk posed by these feeds. None of the brands analyzed presented acute risk for any of the mycotoxins. However, the high levels of fumonisins found in some samples could become problematic, if there are hidden forms of them. This is also evident in relation to long-term risk, since in the case of fumonisins the level of exposure exceeds the tolerable daily intake level in 3.5 and 12 times, for dogs and cats respectively. The exposure levels to zearalenone and deoxynivalenol could also be of long-term concern, especially considering the possibility that the continuous exposure to several mycotoxins simultaneously might produce potentiated toxic effects as a result of their synergistic action. Further research on the potential adverse health effects deriving from chronic exposure to low doses of multi-mycotoxin mixtures in pets is needed.

3.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11577, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068967

RESUMO

Mass strandings of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are rare in the Mediterranean Sea. Nevertheless, in 2014 a pod of 7 specimens stranded alive along the Italian coast of the Central Adriatic Sea: 3 individuals died on the beach after a few hours due to internal damages induced by prolonged recumbency; the remaining 4 whales were refloated after great efforts. All the dead animals were genetically related females; one was pregnant. All the animals were infected by dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) and the pregnant whale was also affected by a severe nephropathy due to a large kidney stone. Other analyses ruled out other possible relevant factors related to weather conditions or human activities. The results of multidisciplinary post-mortem analyses revealed that the 7 sperm whales entered the Adriatic Sea encountering adverse weather conditions and then kept heading northward following the pregnant but sick leader of the pod, thereby reaching the stranding site. DMV infection most likely played a crucial role in impairing the health condition and orientation abilities of the whales. They did not steer back towards deeper waters, but eventually stranded along the Central Adriatic Sea coastline, a real trap for sperm whales.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Cachalote , Animais , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Infecções por Morbillivirus/patologia
4.
Res Vet Sci ; 113: 1-4, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28810132

RESUMO

Enrofloxacin (EF) is a veterinary drug for respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections. Parenteral administration at doses higher than the manufacturer recommended dosage has induced cartilage lesions in juvenile mammals and poultry. In elasmobranchs EF is commonly used for the treatment of infectious diseases, however only one study has been performed previously to evaluate pharmacokinetics and the potential chondrotoxicity of a fluoroquinolone in adult skates. In present study juvenile lesser spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula, Linnaeus, 1758) were treated with low (LD, 5mg/kg) and high dose (HD, 10mg/kg) of EF daily via intramuscular injection for 15 consecutive days, as indicated in a recognized treatment. Hematological parameters, oxidative stress and histology of vertebral cartilage were evaluated. No cartilage damage was observed. Hematological parameters evaluation underlined a significant (p=0.035), dose-dependent reduction in red blood cell count and in hematocrit (40% and 6%, respectively). Anyway, the biological significance of this reduction is doubtful, due to limited decrease observed. The evaluation of oxidative stress parameters underlined that glutathione levels, as well as glutathione S-transferase and catalase activities, were significantly increased in HD group animals, with respect to untreated and solvent control groups. Obtained data do not support a toxic effect of EF on dogfish cartilage, while concern arises from hematological and oxidative stress data.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Cartilagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Cação (Peixe) , Fluoroquinolonas/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Cação (Peixe)/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Enrofloxacina , Fluoroquinolonas/administração & dosagem , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Coluna Vertebral/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 575: 919-931, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27670595

RESUMO

Adverse effects of chemical contaminants associated with seafood counteract the undoubted benefits for the health of its valuable nutrients. So much so that many dietary guidelines recommend no more than one serving a week of fish and seafood. Although is estimated that aquaculture provides more than 50% of the fish and seafood consumed globally, few research studies have focused in the assessment of the intake of pollutants through aquaculture products. In this study we determined the levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and toxic elements (Pb, Cd, Ni, Al, As, and Hg) in a large sample of farmed and wild-caught seafood, and we estimated the intake of these contaminants in two hypothetical models of consumers: those consuming only farmed fish, and those consuming only wild fish. Measured levels of most organic and many inorganic pollutants were higher in aquaculture products, and consequently intake levels if only such products were consumed would be also significantly higher. Thus, the intake of ∑PAHs in adults consuming aquaculture seafood would be 3.30ng/kg-bw/day, and consuming seafood from extractive fishing 2.41ng/kg-bw/day (p<0.05); ∑OCPs, 3.36 vs. 1.85ng/kg-bw/day, respectively (p<0.05); ∑PCBs, 2.35 vs. 2.11ng/kgbw/day, respectively; and the intake of Pb, Ni, As, and Al would be also significantly higher consuming farmed seafood. For children the estimations were very similar, but the difference of intake of PCBs reached statistical significance. The implementation of several decontamination practices in aquaculture would allow not only match the levels of pollution from wild-caught seafood, but also could provide products with much lower levels of pollutants than those, which in turn would allow to increase consumption over the "one serving per week", and so benefit the consumer of the enormous positive health effects of the valuable nutrients of seafood.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Metais Pesados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 576: 528-537, 2017 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27810742

RESUMO

The Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) is one of the most endangered marine mammals in the world. The biggest sub-population of the species survives in Greece, where understanding the effects of pollution on the survival of the species has been identified as a national research and conservation priority. From 1990 to 2013 we collected tissue samples from 59 deceased monk seals in order to: (i) Define the concentration of trace elements (As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Se, Cr, Ni) in three different matrices (i.e., blubber, liver and kidney), (ii) Determine whether differences in trace element concentrations are age- or gender-related, (iii) Evaluate the potential effects of these pollutants. The study recorded differences in trace element concentrations among matrices, but in general, trace element exposure in Mediterranean monk seals in Greece was low and within the non-acutely toxic levels for Pinnipeds. Only arsenic concentrations were at the upper limit of the normal range observed in other marine mammals (0.69±0.55mg/kg w.w. in blubber, 0.79±0.62mg/kg w.w. in liver and 0.79±0.59mg/kg w.w. in kidney). We recorded also exceptionally high Hg concentrations in a single adult female (24.88mg/kg w.w.). Age- and gender-related differences were also recorded and were due to various biological, ecological and chemical factors. Based on the results of the study, potentially adverse effects on the immune and endocrine system of the Mediterranean monk seal from some pollutants (e.g., As, Cd, Se, Ni, Cr) cannot be ruled out, which may expose the Mediterranean seal population in Greece to epizootics and stochastic phenomena of mass mortality. It is therefore of utmost importance that pollutant monitoring becomes an integral component of the standard monitoring protocol of the endangered Mediterranean monk seal in the eastern Mediterranean.


Assuntos
Focas Verdadeiras , Oligoelementos/análise , Tecido Adiposo/química , Animais , Feminino , Grécia , Mar Mediterrâneo
7.
Vet Res Forum ; 8(4): 333-339, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29326793

RESUMO

Anthropogenic environmental changes are hypothesized as main reasons for animal species population declines. Heavy metals contamination is one of the worst threats to animals among human-caused threats. As most of the heavy metals bioaccumulate in organisms, analyzing concentrations of heavy metals in long living animals, such as turtles, would be very useful for biomonitoring of environmental quality. The European pond turtle is classified as a Near Threatened in the red list of International Union for Conservation of Nature. The objective of this study was to obtain information on heavy metals contamination in this species, as a sentinels, to evaluate the overall health of both the European pond turtles and their ecosystem in Golestan and Mazandaran provinces. Biological samples of 10 living and 15 dead European pond turtles were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd contaminations. Highest concentration of Zn (202.6 ± 58.5 µg g-1), Cd (4.4 ± 1.3 µg g-1) and Cu (3.8 ± 1.7 µg g-1) was detected in livers and the highest accumulation of Pb (45.6 ±16.3 µg g-1) occurred in kidneys. Positive correlations were detected among Zn, Pb and Cd tissue concentrations and carapaces curve length. Heavy metal levels were higher in males than females. Heavy metals contamination of sampled turtles stood in high degree. However, there is clearly a need to evaluate heavy metals physiologic effects on European pond turtles.

8.
J Aquat Anim Health ; 28(4): 258-265, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27791693

RESUMO

Florfenicol (FF) is employed in fish farms to contest or prevent bacterial infections. However, this pharmaceutical may produce reactive oxygen species that may cause biochemical changes in antibiotic-treated fish. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of FF on Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss treated for 10 d with 7.5 and 15 mg/kg FF followed by a withdrawal period of 5 d. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II, total glutathione, lactic dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase were investigated in the livers of treated and untreated fish. A general impairment of antioxidant enzymes and metabolic indicators was measured in FF-treated Rainbow Trout. Onset of oxidative damage may have occurred during the antibiotic treatment as a consequence of the effect of FF toxicity at mainly the highest dose. Nevertheless, the rise in levels of total glutathione and glutathione S-transferase even after the withdrawal period may shield the antibiotic-mediated oxidative processes. Received December 22, 2015; accepted May 26, 2016.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tianfenicol/análogos & derivados , Animais , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inativação Metabólica , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Tianfenicol/metabolismo , Tianfenicol/toxicidade
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 557-558: 808-18, 2016 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27060748

RESUMO

In this work we have evaluated the potential carcinogenic and acutely toxic risks associated to the exposure to highly prevalent organic and inorganic contaminants through the consumption of fishery products by the Spanish population. The concentrations of 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs), 7 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (expressed as benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (B[a]Peq)), and three inorganic toxic elements [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg)] were determined in 93 samples of the most consumed species of white fish, blue fish, cephalopods and seafood species, which were acquired directly in markets and supermarkets in the Canary Islands, Spain. The chemical concentration data were combined with the pattern of consumption of these foodstuffs in order to calculate the daily intake of these contaminants, and on this basis the risk quotients for carcinogenicity and acute toxicity were determined for Spanish adults and children. Our results showed that the daily intake of OCPs, PCBs and B[a]Peq, which is associated to blue fish consumption was the highest within the fish group. The estimated intake of pollutants can be considered low or very low for the individual contaminants, when compared to reference values, except in the case of HCB and As. All the estimated intakes were below the reported Tolerable Daily Intakes. Considering the additive effects of multiple contaminants, the risk of acute toxic effects can also be considered as low or very low. However, our results reflect that the current consumption of white fish in adults and children, and also the blue fish in the case of adults, poses a moderate carcinogenic risk to Spanish consumers, mainly related to their concentrations of As. The conclusions of this research may be useful for the design of appropriate risk communication campaigns.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Arsênico , Cádmio , Carcinógenos , Substâncias Perigosas , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Mercúrio , Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Espanha , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 70(1): 1-8, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26499130

RESUMO

It is widely recognized that marine mammals are exposed to a wide variety of pollutants, with a weight of evidence indicating impacts on their health. Since hundreds of new chemicals enter the global market every year,the methods, approaches and technologies used to characterize pollution levels or impacts are also in a constant state of flux. However, legal and ethical constraints often limit the type and extent of toxicological research being carried out in marine mammals. Nevertheless, new and emerging in vivo, in vitro as well as in silico research opportunities abound in the field of marine mammal toxicology. In the application of findings to population-, species-, or habitat-related risk assessments, the identification of causal relationships which inform source apportionment is important. This, in turn, is informed by a comprehensive understanding of contaminant classes, profiles and fate overspace and time. Such considerations figure prominently in the design and interpretation of marine mammal (eco)-toxicology research. This mini-review attempts to follow the evolution behind marine mammal toxicology until now,highlight some of the research that has been done and suggest opportunities for future research. This Special Issue will showcase new developments in marine mammal toxicology, approaches for exposure-effect research in risk assessment as well as future opportunities.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Mamíferos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ecossistema , Medição de Risco , Água do Mar/química
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 536: 489-498, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26232758

RESUMO

The mercury (Hg) level in the marine environment has tripled in recent decades, becoming a great concern because of its high toxic potential. This study reports Hg and selenium (Se) status, and the first Se/Hg molar ratio assessment in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the waters of the Canary Islands. Total Hg and Se concentrations were determined in the blubber and liver collected from 30 specimens stranded along the coasts of the archipelago from 1997 to 2013. The median values for total Hg in the blubber and liver were 80.83 and 223.77 µg g(-1) dry weight (dw), and the median levels for Se in both tissues were 7.29 and 68.63 µg g(-1) dw, respectively. Hg concentrations in the liver were lower than 100 µg g(-1) wet weight (ww), comparable to those obtained in bottlenose dolphins from the North Sea, the Western Atlantic Ocean and several locations in the Pacific Ocean. The Mediterranean Sea and South of Australia are the most contaminated areas for both elements in this cetacean species. In addition, it must be stressed that the levels of Hg and Se in the liver showed an increasing trend with the age of the animals. As expected, a strong positive correlation between Hg and Se was observed (rs=0.960). Surprisingly, both younger and older specimens had a Se/Hg molar ratio different from 1, suggesting that these individuals may be at greater toxicological risk for high concentrations of both elements or a deficiency of Se without a protective action against Hg toxicity.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Espanha
12.
Chemosphere ; 108: 62-9, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24875913

RESUMO

In the last twenty years, many concerns have raised in Campania region (Southern Italy) about illegal waste dumping and toxic waste and their possible adverse effects on health. Many human activities are considered to be important sources of environmental pollutants, elements among them. In this study, pet dogs were enrolled as environmental sentinels from three different areas of Campania, with a different degree of pollution, evaluating elements in blood and hair. The obtained data indicated that dogs from less polluted area were exposed to a hot spot of pollution, as only animals from one city (Sessa Aurunca) presented elements concentrations very close to toxic levels. When excluding these animals, the area proved to be the less contaminated. The present report confirm the higher degree of pollution of the most industrialized areas, and a certain concern originates from Cr, Ni and As, which are present as levels well above toxic thresholds. These data are indicative of a reduced pollution of the areas considered by Cd and Pb, but arise concern for Hg, As, Cr and Ni, which reach concentrations high enough to impact dogs and humans health, in term of acute (in the city of Sessa Aurunca) and chronic toxicity (i.e. reproduction impairment, endocrine disruption, immunosuppression). Additional studies are necessary to better define not only the precise distribution of hot spots of pollution, but also the real impact of such an exposure on the health of dogs, in term of endocrine balance and/or immune system activity.


Assuntos
Cães/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Animais , Arsênico/análise , Arsênico/sangue , Cromo/análise , Cromo/sangue , Cidades , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Itália , Masculino , Níquel/análise , Níquel/sangue
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 487: 436-42, 2014 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24802267

RESUMO

We monitored the levels of 57 organic pollutants and 11 elements in the blood of 61 live stranded loggerhead sea turtles at the beginning and end of the rehabilitation period with the goal of evaluating whether recuperation of normal physiological conditions has an influence on the circulating levels of these pollutants from the blood. According to our results, several pollutants (OCPs, PCBs and toxic elements) are mobilized from storage tissues to the blood in sick turtles, and this is more evident in the subgroup of cachectic animals. We observed a significant decrease in the concentrations of some contaminants at the end of the rehabilitation period, probably due to redistribution processes. In contrast, an increase in the levels of the essential elements selenium and zinc was observed after a period of correct feeding and supplementation during hospitalization.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/sangue , Animais , Substâncias Perigosas/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Praguicidas/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue , Tartarugas/sangue
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 472: 1044-51, 2014 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24345864

RESUMO

We determined the levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the plasma of captive adult killer whales and in their food. The goal of this research was the assessment of the dietary exposure of killer whales to these pollutants to gain insight on what is the actual magnitude of the exposure in this species, which is considered among the most contaminated in the planet. Plasma median ∑OCP and ∑PCB contents were 3150.3 and 7985.9 ng g(-1)l.w., respectively. A total of 78.9% of the PCBs were marker-PCBs, and 21.1% were dioxin-like PCBs (6688.7 pg g(-1)l.w. dioxin toxic equivalents). This is the first report of the blood levels of PAHs in killer whales, and their median value was 1023.1 ng g(-1)l.w. In parallel, we also determined the levels of these contaminants in the fish species that are used to feed these animals to estimate the orcas' average daily dietary intake of pollutants. All the contaminants in the fish were detected in the plasma of the killer whales, and proportionality between the intake and the blood levels was observed in all the animals. The calculated intake was extremely high for certain contaminants, which is a concern, giving a glimpse of what possibly occurs in the wild, where exposure to these contaminants can be even higher. Therefore, although many of these chemicals have been banned for decades, even today, the levels of these chemicals could reach very toxic concentrations in the tissues of these endangered animals because of their diet.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Orca/metabolismo , Animais , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 186(4): 2205-13, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24242233

RESUMO

Heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg and Se) concentrations in the muscle and bone of four fish species (Mullus barbatus, Merluccius merluccius, Micromesistius poutassou, and Scomber scombrus) from the central Adriatic Sea were measured and the relationships between fish size (length and weight) and metal concentrations in the tissues were investigated. Samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometry with automatic dual viewing. In the muscle, results of linear regression analysis showed that, except for mercury, significant relationships between metal concentrations and fish size were negative. Only mercury levels were positively correlated with Atlantic mackerel size (p < 0.05). No significant variations of heavy metal concentrations were observed in muscles of the examined species, but a significant difference (p < 0.01) was found for As, Cd, Pb, and Se concentrations in bone. All the investigated metals showed higher values in the muscle than in bone, except for lead and zinc. Regarding cadmium, lead, and mercury maximum levels, set for the edible portion by European legislation, several samples exceeded these values, confirming the heavy metal presence in species caught near the Jabuka Pit.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Peixes/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Itália , Músculos/metabolismo
16.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 100(1): 71-6, 2012 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22885515

RESUMO

Leatherback sea turtles Dermochelys coriacea are regularly reported in the Mediterranean Sea but rarely reach the northern Adriatic Sea. In the summer of 2009, a well-preserved carcass of an adult female of this species was found dead along the coast of Lido di Venezia. A complete necropsy was carried out, along with evaluation of levels of tissue trace elements. The the post-mortem revealed acute severe bacterial gastroenteritis caused by Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida, an opportunistic agent that infected an apparently debilitated animal weakened by ingested plastic debris. High levels of heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd and As) found in the liver and kidneys might have contributed to the animal's demise. These findings support previous indications that marine debris is one of the major threats to marine animals, particularly for critically endangered species such as the leatherback turtle.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Photobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Tartarugas , Animais , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Corpos Estranhos/patologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Metais Pesados/química , Poluentes da Água
17.
Physiol Biochem Zool ; 83(1): 191-5, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19929374

RESUMO

Vitellogenin (VTG) is considered as a marker of endocrine disruption. A Western blot method for VTG quantification in Caretta caretta turtle plasma was developed using anti-VTG antibody for Chelonia mydas. A screening of samples (n = 61) collected in the southern Mediterranean Sea around Lampedusa Island, Italy, was performed. The antibody showed a good cross-reactivity with C. caretta VTG, suggesting a certain conservation of the core of the protein in different sea turtle species. The optimal operative condition for Western blot analysis consists of using diluted plasma at 1:50. In field samples, a certain mismatch with morphological sexing was observed, and VTG was detected in young animals. These results suggest the possibility of a precocious activation of VTG-encoding genes before sexual maturation and/or exposure to endocrine disrupter substances.


Assuntos
Western Blotting/métodos , Tartarugas/sangue , Vitelogeninas/sangue , Animais , Anticorpos/química , Anticorpos/imunologia , Ecossistema , Feminino , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mar Mediterrâneo , Vitelogeninas/imunologia
18.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 83(2): 244-8, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19434348

RESUMO

The presence of total mercury in fish, crustacean and cephalopod from Adriatic Sea, was investigated. The highest concentrations were observed in decreasing order in: Norway lobster (0.97 +/- 0.24 mg/kg; mean +/- SE), European hake (0.59 +/- 0.14 mg/kg), red mullet (0.48 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), blue whiting (0.38 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), Atlantic mackerel (0.36 +/- 0.08 mg/kg) and European flying squid (0.25 +/- 0.03 mg/kg). A significant difference (p < 0.01) was found between the levels of total mercury in Norway lobster and those detected in all other species. The 25% of all samples exceeded the maximum limit fixed by Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006. The results show that fish and fishery products can exceed the maximum levels and stress the need of more information for consumers in particular for people that eat large amount of fish.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Decapodiformes/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Itália , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Nephropidae/metabolismo , Oceanos e Mares , Especificidade da Espécie , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
19.
Life Sci ; 79(13): 1242-7, 2006 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16643956

RESUMO

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a secondary fungal metabolite produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium strains that elicits a broad spectrum of toxicological effects in animals and man. A single oral OTA administration (10 mg/kg) in mice induced after 24 h oxidative damage and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration in parenchymal organs. In fact, OTA treatment increased lipid peroxidation (via malondialdehyde formation) in kidney and liver and PMN accumulation in duodenum, as shown by myeloperoxidase activity. Following in vivo OTA treatment an increase of cyclooxygenase-2 and of heat shock protein 72 expression was evidenced in peritoneal macrophage lysates by Western blot. That OTA modulates these proteins involved in the inflammatory process indicates that the mycotoxin is able to activate immune cells. This study suggests that the oxidative stress, the neutrophil accumulation in parenchymal tissues and the modulation of inflammatory parameters in peritoneal macrophages induced by OTA are involved in its toxicity, and represent early events related to several aspects of OTA mycotoxicosis.


Assuntos
Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/biossíntese , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP72/biossíntese , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Ocratoxinas/farmacologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Células Cultivadas , Duodeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Duodeno/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/enzimologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 328(1-3): 83-93, 2004 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15207575

RESUMO

In 2001, samples of liver (n = 38) and perirenal fat (n = 25) (only in males) were taken from European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) populating a hilly, wooded protected area in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocycloexane alpha-, beta- and gamma-isomers (alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH), alpha-endosulfan, aldrin, dieldrin and endrin, and the seven PCB 'indicator' congeners IUPAC Nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180, in order to investigate the current state of contamination of the area and to assess the possible toxicological risks for the monitored species. p,p'-DDE was detected in 95% of the liver and perirenal fat samples (n = 63), at concentrations ranging from < dl to 629.3 ng/g lipid weight, which were much higher than those found for HCB and gamma-HCH. The concentrations of the other measured organochlorine pesticides and metabolites were below the detection limit in all the samples. PCBs were found in 97% of the liver and perirenal fat samples, at total levels ranging between < dl to 414.5 ng/g lipid weight. The hepta- and hexa-chlorinated congeners 180, 153 and 138 were predominant and comprised more than 70% of the total seven PCBs in both the liver and perirenal fat samples. In the male roe deer, significantly higher concentrations of HCB, p,p'-DDE and PCBs were found in the liver than in the perirenal fat (P < 0.001). Hepatic levels of p,p'-DDE and PCBs were significantly higher in males than in females (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). No significant differences in organochlorine concentrations were observed between juvenile and adult males in either tissue sample (P > 0.05). Females were not statistically tested because they were all adults. The levels of organochlorine contaminants were well below those associated with adverse reproductive effects and lethality in mammals.


Assuntos
Cervos/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Inseticidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Tecido Adiposo/química , Análise de Variância , Animais , Feminino , Itália , Fígado/química , Masculino
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