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1.
FEBS J ; 288(17): 4992-4995, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490732

RESUMO

In this Editorial, we highlight the contents of The FEBS Journal's second Special Issue focussed on COVID-19. The issue covers a variety of aspects related to COVID-19, ranging from the most recent improvements in therapies and the significant impact of rapidly developed COVID-19 vaccines to the emergence of variants of SARS-CoV-2, the role of the immune system in the various stages of the disease and the impact of the disease in different organs. We hope that this collection of articles will give readers an informative and critical perspective on recent advances in understanding and treating COVID-19.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/virologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
2.
EClinicalMedicine ; 40: 101101, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476394

RESUMO

Background: Management and control of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is critically dependent on quick and reliable identification of the virus in clinical specimens. Detection of viral RNA by a colorimetric reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is a simple, reliable and cost-effective assay, deployable in resource-limited settings (RLS). Our objective was to evaluate the intrinsic and extrinsic performances of RT-LAMP in RLS. Methods: This is a multicenter prospective observational study of diagnostic accuracy, conducted from October 2020 to February 2021 in four African Countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya and Nigeria; and in Italy. We enroled 1657 individuals who were either COVID-19 suspect cases, or asymptomatic and presented for screening. RNA extracted from pharyngeal swabs was tested in parallel by a colorimetric RT-LAMP and by a standard real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Findings: The sensitivity and specificity of index RT LAMP compared to standard RT-PCR on 1657 prospective specimens from infected individuals was determined. For a subset of 1292 specimens, which underwent exactly the same procedures in different countries, we obtained very high specificity (98%) and positive predictive value (PPV = 99%), while the sensitivity was 87%, with a negative predictive value NPV = 70%, Stratification of RT-PCR data showed superior sensitivity achieved with an RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) below 35 (97%), which decreased to 60% above 35. Interpretation: In this field trial, RT-LAMP appears to be a reliable assay, comparable to RT-PCR, particularly with medium-high viral loads (Ct < 35). Hence, RT-LAMP can be deployed in RLS for timely management and prevention of COVID-19, without compromising the quality of output.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445123

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis represents one of the major causes of death globally. The high mortality rates and limitations of current therapeutic modalities have urged researchers to explore potential alternative therapies. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system is commonly deployed for investigating the genetic aspects of Atherosclerosis. Besides, advances in CRISPR/Cas system has led to extensive options for researchers to study the pathogenesis of this disease. The recent discovery of Cas9 variants, such as dCas9, Cas9n, and xCas9 have been established for various applications, including single base editing, regulation of gene expression, live-cell imaging, epigenetic modification, and genome landscaping. Meanwhile, other Cas proteins, such as Cas12 and Cas13, are gaining popularity for their applications in nucleic acid detection and single-base DNA/RNA modifications. To date, many studies have utilized the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate disease models of atherosclerosis and identify potential molecular targets that are associated with atherosclerosis. These studies provided proof-of-concept evidence which have established the feasibility of implementing the CRISPR/Cas system in correcting disease-causing alleles. The CRISPR/Cas system holds great potential to be developed as a targeted treatment for patients who are suffering from atherosclerosis. This review highlights the advances in CRISPR/Cas systems and their applications in establishing pathogenetic and therapeutic role of specific genes in atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Animais , DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Genoma/genética , Humanos , RNA/genética , RNA Guia/genética
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4808, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376683

RESUMO

Myocardial regeneration is restricted to early postnatal life, when mammalian cardiomyocytes still retain the ability to proliferate. The molecular cues that induce cell cycle arrest of neonatal cardiomyocytes towards terminally differentiated adult heart muscle cells remain obscure. Here we report that the miR-106b~25 cluster is higher expressed in the early postnatal myocardium and decreases in expression towards adulthood, especially under conditions of overload, and orchestrates the transition of cardiomyocyte hyperplasia towards cell cycle arrest and hypertrophy by virtue of its targetome. In line, gene delivery of miR-106b~25 to the mouse heart provokes cardiomyocyte proliferation by targeting a network of negative cell cycle regulators including E2f5, Cdkn1c, Ccne1 and Wee1. Conversely, gene-targeted miR-106b~25 null mice display spontaneous hypertrophic remodeling and exaggerated remodeling to overload by derepression of the prohypertrophic transcription factors Hand2 and Mef2d. Taking advantage of the regulatory function of miR-106b~25 on cardiomyocyte hyperplasia and hypertrophy, viral gene delivery of miR-106b~25 provokes nearly complete regeneration of the adult myocardium after ischemic injury. Our data demonstrate that exploitation of conserved molecular programs can enhance the regenerative capacity of the injured heart.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Regeneração/genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Cardiomegalia/genética , Células Cultivadas , Ecocardiografia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hiperplasia/genética , Camundongos , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4872, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381052

RESUMO

The Netrin-1 receptor UNC5B is an axon guidance regulator that is also expressed in endothelial cells (ECs), where it finely controls developmental and tumor angiogenesis. In the absence of Netrin-1, UNC5B induces apoptosis that is blocked upon Netrin-1 binding. Here, we identify an UNC5B splicing isoform (called UNC5B-Δ8) expressed exclusively by ECs and generated through exon skipping by NOVA2, an alternative splicing factor regulating vascular development. We show that UNC5B-Δ8 is a constitutively pro-apoptotic splicing isoform insensitive to Netrin-1 and required for specific blood vessel development in an apoptosis-dependent manner. Like NOVA2, UNC5B-Δ8 is aberrantly expressed in colon cancer vasculature where its expression correlates with tumor angiogenesis and poor patient outcome. Collectively, our data identify a mechanism controlling UNC5B's necessary apoptotic function in ECs and suggest that the NOVA2/UNC5B circuit represents a post-transcriptional pathway regulating angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Vasos Sanguíneos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Receptores de Netrina/metabolismo , Isoformas de RNA/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Neoplasias do Colo/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Morfogênese , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Receptores de Netrina/genética , Netrina-1/metabolismo , Isoformas de RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Peixe-Zebra
7.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 694762, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34434106

RESUMO

Cardiovascular toxicity remains one of the most adverse side effects in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is rich in cancer preventive polyphenols endowed with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant activities which could exert protective effects on heart cells. One very interesting derivative of EVOO preparation is represented by purified extracts from olive mill waste waters (OMWW) rich in polyphenols. Here, we have investigated the anti-cancer activity of a OMWW preparation, named A009, when combined with chemotherapeutics, as well as its potential cardioprotective activities. Mice bearing prostate cancer (PCa) xenografts were treated with cisplatin, alone or in combination with A009. In an in vivo model, we found synergisms of A009 and cisplatin in reduction of prostate cancer tumor weight. Hearts of mice were analyzed, and the mitochondria were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The hearts of mice co-treated with A009 extracts along with cisplatin had reduced mitochondria damage compared to the those treated with chemotherapy alone, indicating a cardioprotective role. To confirm the in vivo results, tumor cell lines and rat cardiomyocytes were treated with cisplatin in vitro, with and without A009. Another frequently used chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), was also tested in this assay, observing a similar effect. In vitro, the combination of A009 with cisplatin or 5-FU was effective in decreasing prostate and colon cancer cell growth, while it did not further reduce growth of rat cardiomyocytes also treated with cisplatin or 5-FU. A009 cardioprotective effects towards side effects caused by 5-FU chemotherapy were further investigated, using cardiomyocytes freshly isolated from mice pups. A009 mitigated toxicity of 5-FU on primary cultures of mouse cardiomyocytes. Our study demonstrates that the polyphenol rich purified A009 extracts enhance the effect of chemotherapy in vitro and in vivo, but mitigates chemotherpy adverse effects on heart and on isolated cardiomyocytes. Olive mill waste water extracts could therefore represent a potential candidate for cardiovascular prevention in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy.

8.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite growing evidence about myocardial injury in hospitalized COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the mechanism behind this injury is only poorly understood and little is known about its association with SARS-CoV-2-mediated myocarditis. Furthermore, definite evidence of the presence and role of SARS-CoV-2 in cardiomyocytes in the clinical scenario is still lacking. METHODS: We histologically characterized myocardial tissue of 40 patients deceased with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first wave of the pandemic. Clinical data were also recorded and analyzed. In case of findings supportive of myocardial inflammation, histological analysis was complemented by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry for SARS-CoV-2 viral antigens and in situ RNA hybridization for the detection of viral genomes. RESULTS: Both chronic and acute myocardial damage was invariably present, correlating with the age and comorbidities of our population. Myocarditis of overt entity was found in one case (2.5%). SARS-CoV-2 genome was not found in the cardiomyocytes of the patient with myocarditis, while it was focally and negligibly present in cardiomyocytes of patients with known viral persistence in the lungs and no signs of myocardial inflammation. The presence of myocardial injury was not associated with myocardial inflammatory infiltrates. CONCLUSIONS: In this autopsy cohort of COVID-19 patients, myocarditis is rarely found and not associated with SARS-CoV-2 presence in cardiomyocytes. Chronic and acute forms of myocardial damage are constantly found and correlate with the severity of COVID-19 disease and pre-existing comorbidities.

9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2237, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854047

RESUMO

Acquisition of cell-associated tumor antigens by type 1 dendritic cells (cDC1) is essential to induce and sustain tumor specific CD8+ T cells via cross-presentation. Here we show that capture and engulfment of cell associated antigens by tissue resident lung cDC1 is inhibited during progression of mouse lung tumors. Mechanistically, loss of phagocytosis is linked to tumor-mediated downregulation of the phosphatidylserine receptor TIM4, that is highly expressed in normal lung resident cDC1. TIM4 receptor blockade and conditional cDC1 deletion impair activation of tumor specific CD8+ T cells and promote tumor progression. In human lung adenocarcinomas, TIM4 transcripts increase the prognostic value of a cDC1 signature and predict responses to PD-1 treatment. Thus, TIM4 on lung resident cDC1 contributes to immune surveillance and its expression is suppressed in advanced tumors.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Apresentação Cruzada , Humanos , Vigilância Imunológica , Pulmão/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos
10.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483724

RESUMO

Heart failure-either with reduced or preserved ejection fraction (HFrEF/HFpEF)-is a clinical syndrome of multifactorial and gender-dependent aetiology, indicating the insufficiency of the heart to pump blood adequately to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs. Typical symptoms commonly include shortness of breath, excessive fatigue with impaired exercise capacity, and peripheral oedema, thereby alluding to the fact that heart failure is a syndrome that affects multiple organ systems. Patients suffering from progressed heart failure have a very limited life expectancy, lower than that of numerous cancer types. In this position paper, we provide an overview regarding interactions between the heart and other organ systems, the clinical evidence, underlying mechanisms, potential available or yet-to-establish animal models to study such interactions and finally discuss potential new drug interventions to be developed in the future. Our working group suggests that more experimental research is required to understand the individual molecular mechanisms underlying heart failure and reinforces the urgency for tailored therapeutic interventions that target not only the heart but also other related affected organ systems to effectively treat heart failure as a clinical syndrome that affects and involves multiple organs.

11.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(1): 256-270, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999325

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiac ischaemia does not elicit an efficient angiogenic response. Indeed, lack of surgical revascularization upon myocardial infarction results in cardiomyocyte death, scarring, and loss of contractile function. Clinical trials aimed at inducing therapeutic revascularization through the delivery of pro-angiogenic molecules after cardiac ischaemia have invariably failed, suggesting that endothelial cells in the heart cannot mount an efficient angiogenic response. To understand why the heart is a poorly angiogenic environment, here we compare the angiogenic response of the cardiac and skeletal muscle using a lineage tracing approach to genetically label sprouting endothelial cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: We observed that overexpression of the vascular endothelial growth factor in the skeletal muscle potently stimulated angiogenesis, resulting in the formation of a massive number of new capillaries and arterioles. In contrast, response to the same dose of the same factor in the heart was blunted and consisted in a modest increase in the number of new arterioles. By using Apelin-CreER mice to genetically label sprouting endothelial cells we observed that different pro-angiogenic stimuli activated Apelin expression in both muscle types to a similar extent, however, only in the skeletal muscle, these cells were able to sprout, form elongated vascular tubes activating Notch signalling, and became incorporated into arteries. In the heart, Apelin-positive cells transiently persisted and failed to give rise to new vessels. When we implanted cancer cells in different organs, the abortive angiogenic response in the heart resulted in a reduced expansion of the tumour mass. CONCLUSION: Our genetic lineage tracing indicates that cardiac endothelial cells activate Apelin expression in response to pro-angiogenic stimuli but, different from those of the skeletal muscle, fail to proliferate and form mature and structured vessels. The poor angiogenic potential of the heart is associated with reduced tumour angiogenesis and growth of cancer cells.

12.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(1): 43-59, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365197

RESUMO

Echocardiography is a reliable and reproducible method to assess non-invasively cardiac function in clinical and experimental research. Significant progress in the development of echocardiographic equipment and transducers has led to the successful translation of this methodology from humans to rodents, allowing for the scoring of disease severity and progression, testing of new drugs, and monitoring cardiac function in genetically modified or pharmacologically treated animals. However, as yet, there is no standardization in the procedure to acquire echocardiographic measurements in small animals. This position paper focuses on the appropriate acquisition and analysis of echocardiographic parameters in adult mice and rats, and provides reference values, representative images, and videos for the accurate and reproducible quantification of left ventricular function in healthy and pathological conditions.

13.
J Biophotonics ; 14(3): e202000350, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151640

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy on Pseudomonas aeruginosa of nanomicelles loaded with curcumin (CUR) alone and activated by blue laser light in an antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) approach. First, free CUR in liquid suspension and loaded in three amphiphilic nanomicelles (CUR-DAPMA, CUR-SPD and CUR-SPM) were tested both on bacteria and keratinocytes. While free CUR exerted limited efficacy showing moderate cytotoxicity, a strong inhibition of bacterial growth was obtained using all three nanosystems without toxicity on eukaryotic cells. CUR-SPM emerged as the most effective, and was therefore employed in APDT experiments. Among the three sublethal blue laser (λ 445 nm) protocols tested, the ones characterized by a fluence of 18 and 30 J/cm2 further decreased the antimicrobial concentration to 50 nM. The combination of blue laser APDT with CUR-SPM nanomicelles results in an effective synergistic activity that represents a promising novel therapeutic approach on resistant species.

14.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 275, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287867

RESUMO

Alternative splicing (AS) is a pervasive molecular process generating multiple protein isoforms, from a single gene. It plays fundamental roles during development, differentiation and maintenance of tissue homeostasis, while aberrant AS is considered a hallmark of multiple diseases, including cancer. Cancer-restricted AS isoforms represent either predictive biomarkers for diagnosis/prognosis or targets for anti-cancer therapies. Here, we discuss the contribution of AS regulation in cancer angiogenesis, a complex process supporting disease development and progression. We consider AS programs acting in a specific and non-redundant manner to influence morphological and functional changes involved in cancer angiogenesis. In particular, we describe relevant AS variants or splicing regulators controlling either secreted or membrane-bound angiogenic factors, which may represent attractive targets for therapeutic interventions in human cancer.

15.
EBioMedicine ; 61: 103104, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a deadly pulmonary disease with peculiar characteristics, which include variable clinical course and thrombophilia. A thorough understanding of the pathological correlates of the disease is still missing. METHODS: Here we report the systematic analysis of 41 consecutive post-mortem samples from individuals who died of COVID-19. Histological analysis is complemented by immunohistochemistry for cellular and viral antigens and the detection of viral genomes by in situ RNA hybridization. FINDINGS: COVID-19 is characterized by extensive alveolar damage (41/41 of patients) and thrombosis of the lung micro- and macro-vasculature (29/41, 71%). Thrombi were in different stages of organization, consistent with their local origin. Pneumocytes and endothelial cells contained viral RNA even at the later stages of the disease. An additional feature was the common presence of a large number of dysmorphic pneumocytes, often forming syncytial elements (36/41, 87%). Despite occasional detection of virus-positive cells, no overt signs of viral infection were detected in other organs, which showed non-specific alterations. INTERPRETATION: COVID-19 is a unique disease characterized by extensive lung thrombosis, long-term persistence of viral RNA in pneumocytes and endothelial cells, along with the presence of infected cell syncytia. Several of COVID-19 features might be consequent to the persistence of virus-infected cells for the duration of the disease. FUNDING: This work was supported by a King's Together Rapid COVID-19 Call grant from King's College London. MG is supported by the European Research Council (ERC) Advanced Grant 787971 "CuRE" and by Programme Grant RG/19/11/34633 from the British Heart Foundation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Trombose/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/citologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/virologia , Autopsia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cuidados Críticos , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Feminino , Células Gigantes/citologia , Células Gigantes/virologia , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
16.
Biomarkers ; 25(8): 677-684, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960109

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oral mucositis (OM) is a severe side effect in patients undergoing anticancer therapies, which negatively impacts on their quality of life often leading to either the interruption of the therapy. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is emerging as an effective strategy allowing a faster wound healing. OBJECTIVES: This pilot study aims at verifying whether PBM modulates the inflammatory response in patients and its effect on the oral microbiome composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Buccal swabs were collected from four patients affected by OM, both on ulcerated and clinically healthy areas, before and on the last day of PBM therapy, as well as on the first day after treatment discontinuation. The concentration of 38 cytokines and the composition of oral microbiome were measured. RESULTS: Most of the pro-inflammatory cytokines were reduced, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines resulted up-regulated by PBM. In addition, PBM influenced the composition of oral microbiome, by decreasing the amount of pathogenic species and promoting the growth of commensal bacteria. These changes were even more evident when separately analysing patients who clinically responded to PBM and the only patient who did not respond. CONCLUSIONS: PBM reduces inflammatory burden in patients affected by OM and positively influences the composition of the oral microbiome.

17.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(11): 1805-1819, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638021

RESUMO

Vast parts of mammalian genomes are actively transcribed, predominantly giving rise to non-coding RNA (ncRNA) transcripts including microRNAs, long ncRNAs, and circular RNAs among others. Contrary to previous opinions that most of these RNAs are non-functional molecules, they are now recognized as critical regulators of many physiological and pathological processes including those of the cardiovascular system. The discovery of functional ncRNAs has opened up new research avenues aiming at understanding ncRNA-related disease mechanisms as well as exploiting them as novel therapeutics in cardiovascular therapy. In this review, we give an update on the current progress in ncRNA research, particularly focusing on cardiovascular physiological and disease processes, which are under current investigation at the ESC Working Groups of Myocardial Function and Cellular Biology of the Heart. This includes a range of topics such as extracellular vesicle-mediated communication, neurohormonal regulation, inflammation, cardiac remodelling, cardio-oncology as well as cardiac development and regeneration, collectively highlighting the wide-spread involvement and importance of ncRNAs in the cardiovascular system.

18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718071

RESUMO

With the increased prevalence of chronic diseases, non-healing wounds place a significant burden on the health system and the quality of life of affected patients. Non-healing wounds are full-thickness skin lesions that persist for months or years. While several factors contribute to their pathogenesis, all non-healing wounds consistently demonstrate inadequate vascularization, resulting in the poor supply of oxygen, nutrients, and growth factors at the level of the lesion. Most existing therapies rely on the use of dermal substitutes, which help the re-epithelialization of the lesion by mimicking a pro-regenerative extracellular matrix. However, in most patients, this approach is not efficient, as non-healing wounds principally affect individuals afflicted with vascular disorders, such as peripheral artery disease and/or diabetes. Over the last 25 years, innovative therapies have been proposed with the aim of fostering the regenerative potential of multiple immune cell types. This can be achieved by promoting cell mobilization into the circulation, their recruitment to the wound site, modulation of their local activity, or their direct injection into the wound. In this review, we summarize preclinical and clinical studies that have explored the potential of various populations of immune cells to promote skin regeneration in non-healing wounds and critically discuss the current limitations that prevent the adoption of these therapies in the clinics.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Reepitelização , Regeneração , Pele , Cicatrização , Ferimentos e Lesões , Animais , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Pele/lesões , Pele/metabolismo , Ferimentos e Lesões/metabolismo , Ferimentos e Lesões/patologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
19.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(11): 1820-1834, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683451

RESUMO

In western countries, cardiovascular (CV) disease and cancer are the leading causes of death in the ageing population. Recent epidemiological data suggest that cancer is more frequent in patients with prevalent or incident CV disease, in particular, heart failure (HF). Indeed, there is a tight link in terms of shared risk factors and mechanisms between HF and cancer. HF induced by anticancer therapies has been extensively studied, primarily focusing on the toxic effects that anti-tumour treatments exert on cardiomyocytes. In this Cardio-Oncology update, members of the ESC Working Groups of Myocardial Function and Cellular Biology of the Heart discuss novel evidence interconnecting cardiac dysfunction and cancer via pathways in which cardiomyocytes may be involved but are not central. In particular, the multiple roles of cardiac stromal cells (endothelial cells and fibroblasts) and inflammatory cells are highlighted. Also, the gut microbiota is depicted as a new player at the crossroads between HF and cancer. Finally, the role of non-coding RNAs in Cardio-Oncology is also addressed. All these insights are expected to fuel additional research efforts in the field of Cardio-Oncology.

20.
J Physiol ; 598(14): 2923-2939, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816576

RESUMO

The crosstalk between endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes has emerged as a requisite for normal cardiac development, but also a key pathogenic player during the onset and progression of cardiac disease. Endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes are in close proximity and communicate through the secretion of paracrine signals, as well as through direct cell-to-cell contact. Here, we provide an overview of the endothelial cell-cardiomyocyte interactions controlling heart development and the main processes affecting the heart in normal and pathological conditions, including ischaemia, remodelling and metabolic dysfunction. We also discuss the possible role of these interactions in cardiac regeneration and encourage the further improvement of in vitro models able to reproduce the complex environment of the cardiac tissue, in order to better define the mechanisms by which endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes interact with a final aim of developing novel therapeutic opportunities.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais , Miócitos Cardíacos , Coração
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