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2.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 52, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at exploring the relationships between physical activity, weight control, and psycho-social aspects of the COVID-19 lockdown, which have characterized the Israeli population's behavior during the COVID-19 global crisis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey research. METHODS: Participants included 1855 men and women aged 18 and above, from different regions in the country and representing different sectors. They were recruited through the social media in a "snowball" sampling, and filled out a self-administered six-part survey: Demographic background, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the positive and negative affect scales (PANAS), the Conor and Davidson resilience scale, a questionnaire for measuring depressive symptoms, and questions regarding weight change based on the Israeli National Health and Nutrition (MABAT) survey. RESULTS: Routine physical activity (PA) was reported by 76.3% of the participants before the lockdown, 19.3% stopped exercising during this period, and 9.3% began exercising during the lockdown. The participants who were physically active during the lockdown period reported a higher level of resilience and positive feelings, and a lower level of depression, compared with those who were not physically active. People who were physically active during the lockdown maintained their weight compared with those who were inactive. Concerning weight change, 44.8% of the respondents maintained their weight, and a higher percentage of people reported weight gain than those who reported weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous PA before and during the COVID-19 lockdown were associated with higher resilience and positive emotions, and depressive symptoms, in people aged 18 and above. Although a causal link cannot be established, in light of the results of the present study, encouraging physical activity may contribute to improving mental health and a sense of self-efficacy, as well as to maintaining weight during a crisis.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , COVID-19 , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Idoso , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resiliência Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299888

RESUMO

The present study aimed to assess the influence of an emotional-based program for novice physical education teachers on their perception of the affective domain in teaching, and the influence of the program on their social-emotional orientation. Thirty-two physical educators in their induction year participated. Instrumentations included reflective assignments: individual tasks, a group artwork task, short videos containing student-teacher scenarios, and summary reflections. The study covered tasks that contained a variety of emotional expressions-verbalizing, acting, and art creation. Content analysis was conducted for each of the assignments. The results indicate that the participants felt that they gradually developed an awareness of the role of emotions in their practice. In addition to personal gain, they felt that their empathy for others-especially their students-was enhanced. These results highlight the important influence that an emotional-based program has on physical educators' social-emotional orientation.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Educação , Educação Física e Treinamento , Emoções , Empatia , Humanos , Estudantes , Ensino
4.
Eur Rev Aging Phys Act ; 18(1): 5, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main purpose of the research was to examine the differences between adults in the age group 70+ and two other age groups (45-59 and 60-69), concerning their healthy and active lifestyle. The death toll of the current COVID-19 pandemic is strongly biased toward the elderly. However, some studies of crises suggest that older adults tend to perceive events as less stressful than do younger people. Therefore, we examined healthy behavior in populations at risk according to the age cutoff-points used by the Ministry of Health at the time of vaccination, and divided the participants into three age groups (45-59, 60-69, and 70+) following health organizations' recommendations. METHODS: Participants were 1202 people, 381 males and 821 females, aged 45-90. A survey comprised of six parts was used: Demographic background, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short version, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule - PANAS, the Connor and Davidson Resilience Scale, a questionnaire for measuring depressive moods, and questions regarding weight change, based on the Israeli National Health and Nutrition (MABAT) survey. Data were collected in Israel during the first complete lockdown. The questionnaire was distributed via e-mail, WhatsApp, Twitter, and Facebook using a snowball sampling method. RESULTS: Resilience and negative feelings and depression symptoms were higher in age group 45-59 compared to 70+ year-old participants, and the depression symptoms score was also higher among participants aged 45-59 compared to ages 60-69. Physical activity was associated with higher resilience, fewer depression symptoms, and fewer negative emotions. Regarding gender and psychological variables, no differences were found. During the time of lockdown, weight change was not prevalent and sleeping hours increased. CONCLUSION: In adults at 70+, the physical activity level, physical activity before and during the lockdown, emotions, sleeping hours, and weight change were similar to the other adult groups that were examined (45-59 and 60-69). However, in the older adults groups (70+ and 60-69), resilience and depression symptoms were lower than in the youngest age group.

5.
Front Sports Act Living ; 2: 572891, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345134

RESUMO

The purpose of this review was to examine the literature on gaze behavior in referees. A literature search found only 12 relevant studies. Five of those studies were conducted on referees in association football (soccer), three on judges in gymnastics, one on softball umpires, and one each on referees in team handball, rugby, and ice hockey. Seven studies reported differences in gaze behavior between referees of a higher skill level and those of a lower skill level, while four studies found no differences. In addition, five studies reported differences between referees of different skill levels in both gaze behavior and performance, while four studies found differences in performance only. A number of methodological concerns arise from the current review. Among them are the lack of studies conducted in ecologically valid conditions, the lack of studies on peripheral vision, and the lack of data on referees who are working together as teams. Based on this review, we conclude that additional research is needed to clarify the relationships between gaze behavior and performance in refereeing. Practitioners who work with referees should be cautious when adopting gaze training strategies to improve selective attention, since the data on their effectiveness are scarce and sometimes contradictory.

6.
Physiol Behav ; 196: 144-149, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to compare the physiological and perceived exertion responses of two different interval-training protocols - decreasing- and increasing-distance, matched for total distance, throughout a six-week training period. METHODS: Forty male physical education students (23 ±â€¯1.3 years) were randomly assigned to either the increasing- or decreasing-distance interval-training group (ITG and DTG). The ITG performed increasing-distance interval training (100-200-300-400-500 m) and the DTG performed decreasing-distance interval training (500-400-300-200-100 m), twice a week for each. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) responses were monitored in each of the six-week training program sessions. RESULTS: Mean HR values were significantly higher (p = .00) in the DTG (181 ±â€¯2.8 bpm) compared with the ITG (163 ±â€¯10.4 bpm). Mean RPE values were significantly higher (p = .00) in the ITG (7.5 ±â€¯0.3 a.u.) compared with the DTG (5.8 ±â€¯0. 6 a.u.). The percent change in RPE responses throughout the six-week training program was significantly greater (p = .00) in the DTG (50% ±â€¯0.7) compared with the ITG (25% ±â€¯0.7). CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrated that physiological responses may not necessarily match the participant's perceived exertion, and that in addition to training physical load, a sensation of relief from the achievement is probably a significant factor to be considered during training.


Assuntos
Percepção , Esforço Físico , Corrida/fisiologia , Corrida/psicologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Health Promot Int ; 33(6): 946-957, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106554

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) announced the 'Global School Health Initiative' in 1995 following recommendations formulated in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Hence, the aims of the present study were to describe the various programs for nurturing an active and healthy lifestyle implemented during 2011-12 in schools in Israel, and to identify variables that may explain the success versus lack of success in implementing these programs. Participants were a nationwide representative sample of 126 school principals from six supervisory districts of the Ministry of Education, including six sectors, from the elementary, junior-high and senior-high school levels. Semi-structured telephone interviews were recorded and processed using the ATLAS.ti software for qualitative analysis. Physical education teachers, sciences teachers and social coordinators led the programs' implementation. The programs included four main activities domains: health, physical education, nutrition and sustainability. Three types of program implementation were observed: leading principles, teaching methods, and external programs. Parents were involved mostly in elementary schools. Evidence of program integration into school life was presented by changes in children's behaviors, whereas difficulties stemmed from lack of budget and teaching hours. Science and physical education lessons constituted the anchor for the programs. The schools needed a committed leader to help conduct and maintain the program. Thus, the role of the school principal was to initiate the idea of developing a program, encourage its implementation, select a leader for the program, and then, most importantly, to reinforce the teachers' enthusiasm.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Israel , Ciências da Nutrição , Educação Física e Treinamento , Professores Escolares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
8.
J Sport Health Sci ; 6(3): 302-310, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356611

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study was to test and expand the Motivation of Marathoners Scale (MOMS) model (Masters et al., 1993). Methods: The MOMS questionnaire was distributed to 306 male and female marathon runners (age range: 20-77 years) with experience in marathon running (range: 1-44 runs). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed that the original model failed to fit the data. Hence, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to test the best factorial solution for the current data, and a subsequent CFA was performed on the revised factorial structure. Then, a series of EFAs using maximum likelihood factor extraction method were performed. Results: The best structure solution for model-data fit resulted in 11 factors: psychological coping-emotional-related coping, psychological coping-everyday-life management, life meaning, self-esteem, recognition, affiliation, weight concerns, general health orientation-reduced disease prevalence and longevity, general health orientation-keep fit, competition, and personal goal achievement. Conclusion: This study provides a sound and solid framework for studying motivation for physically demanding tasks such as marathon runs, and needs to be similarly applied and tested in studies incorporating physical tasks which vary in mental demands.

9.
Percept Mot Skills ; 122(2): 365-74, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27166321

RESUMO

The effect of three types of physical activity on two types of working memory were investigated. Participants were 20 adult males who trained twice a week in volleyball two hours per session. Procedures included two pre and post intervention tests of working memory: the Digit span and Visual Memory Span subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Interventions included tactical volleyball formation, body-weight resistance exercises, 15 minutes of running, and sub-maximal aerobic activity. Volleyball activity improved memory performance to a greater extent than the other two activities. Results indicate that immediately after acute exercise there is an increase in working memory function, more evident after physical activity in which cognitive functioning is inherent.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Voleibol/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Treinamento de Força , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 13(6): 723-31, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24251751

RESUMO

This study examined whether body perception (BP) and body satisfaction (BS) among adolescents correspond with healthy body size criteria as recommended by various world health authorities, and assessed the relationships between BP and BS and physical activity (PA) among adolescents. Participants included 6274 Israeli boys and girls from grades 7-12 who took part in the first Israeli Health and Nutrition Youth survey. Data regarding their BP and BS, body mass index (BMI) and PA were gathered. Among the overweight and obese participants, 66.4% and 40.6% of the boys, respectively, and 46.7% and 26.1% of the girls, respectively, perceived their body shape and size as satisfactory (OK). Another important finding was that overweight and obese girls were three times more active than underweight girls, and the highest per cent of active boys appeared among the overweight boys or those who perceived themselves as fat. Regression analyses revealed that BMI, gender and age accounted for 29.8% of the variance in participants' BP; BMI, gender and age accounted for 22.1% of BS variance, and PA was not related to either BP or BS. In conclusion, adolescents do not perceive their body according to healthy body size criteria recommended by various world health authorities. In addition, PA as a variable does not explain body image. Therefore, increasing body awareness seems to be a fundamental step in programs that aim to reduce obesity.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Tamanho Corporal , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Obesidade/psicologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/psicologia
11.
Ann Hum Biol ; 39(6): 499-504, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23067342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An accurate measurement of full height while standing is sometimes not possible among older adults, in particular among the frail elderly. For such cases, the use of knee height (KH) and ulna bone length (UL) has been suggested for standing height estimation. Studies have shown that predictive equations of height were ethnic-specific. AIM: This study attempted to develop representative equations to predict standing height based on KH, UL and waist circumference (WC) for older adult Israeli women and men. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A random sample of 1500 older adults (aged 74.48 ± 6.09 years old). Participants were interviewed in their homes and measurements of Standing height, KH, UL and WC were taken. A quadratic regression analysis, for each sex separately, was performed to predict standing height based on age, KH, UL and WC. RESULTS: The adjusted r (2) standing height prediction equations were 0.51 and 0.67 for women and men, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prediction of the standing height of frail elderly Israelis, by KH, UL, WC and age, may be an alternative method when actual standing height is difficult or not possible to measure.


Assuntos
Estatura , Ulna/anatomia & histologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria , Peso Corporal , Coleta de Dados , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Israel , Joelho , Masculino , Postura , Análise de Regressão , Circunferência da Cintura
12.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 24(12): 2027-36, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22850080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Official health organizations have established the dose of physical activity needed for preserving both physical and psychological health in old age. The objective of this study was to explore whether adherence to the recommended criterion of physical activity accounted for better psychological functioning in older adults in Israel. METHODS: A random sample of 1,663 (799 men) Israelis reported their physical activity routine, and based on official guidelines were divided into sufficiently active, insufficiently active, and inactive groups. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used for assessing mental health and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for assessing cognitive functioning. RESULTS: Factor analysis performed on the GHQ yielded two factors - positive and negative. Logistic regressions for the GHQ factors and for the MMSE were conducted for explaining their variance, with demographic variables entered first, followed by health and then physical activity. The explained variance in the three steps was Cox and Snell R2 = 0.022, 0.023, 0.039 for the positive factor, 0.066, 0.093, 0.101 for the negative factor, and 0.204, 0.206, 0.209 for the MMSE. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to the recommended dose of physical activity accounted for better psychological functioning beyond demographic and health variables; however, the additional explained variance was small. More specific guidelines of physical activity may elucidate a stronger relationship, but only randomized controlled trials can reveal cause-effect relationship between physical activity and psychological functioning. More studies are needed focusing on the positive factor of psychological functioning.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Saúde Mental/normas , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Avaliação Geriátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Israel , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividade Motora
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