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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714006

RESUMO

BRWD3 has been described as a cause of X-linked intellectual disability, but relatively little is known about the specific phenotype. We report the largest BRWD3 patient series to date, comprising 17 males with 12 distinct null variants and 2 partial gene deletions. All patients presented with intellectual disability, which was classified as moderate (65%) or mild (35%). Behavioral issues were present in 75% of patients, including aggressive behavior, attention deficit/hyperactivity and/or autistic spectrum disorders. Mean head circumference was +2.8 SD (2.8 standard deviations above the mean), and mean BMI was +2.0 SD (in the context of a mean height of +1.3 SD), indicating a predominant macrocephaly/obesity phenotype. Shared facial features included a tall chin, prognathism, broad forehead, and prominent supraorbital ridge. Additional features, reported in a minority (<30%) of patients included cryptorchidism, neonatal hypotonia, and small joint hypermobility. This study delineates the clinical features associated with BRWD3 null variants and partial gene deletions, and suggests that BRWD3 should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with an overgrowth-intellectual disability (OGID) phenotype, particularly in male patients with a mild or moderate intellectual disability associated with macrocephaly and/or obesity.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721432

RESUMO

CHD8 has been reported as an autism susceptibility/intellectual disability gene but emerging evidence suggests that it additionally causes an overgrowth phenotype. This study reports 27 unrelated patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic CHD8 variants (25 null variants, two missense variants) and a male:female ratio of 21:6 (3.5:1, p < .01). All patients presented with intellectual disability, with 85% in the mild or moderate range, and 85% had a height and/or head circumference ≥2 standard deviations above the mean, meeting our clinical criteria for overgrowth. Behavioral problems were reported in the majority of patients (78%), with over half (56%) either formally diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder or described as having autistic traits. Additional clinical features included neonatal hypotonia (33%), and less frequently seizures, pes planus, scoliosis, fifth finger clinodactyly, umbilical hernia, and glabellar hemangioma (≤15% each). These results suggest that, in addition to its established link with autism and intellectual disability, CHD8 causes an overgrowth phenotype, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with increased height and/or head circumference in association with intellectual disability.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479583

RESUMO

Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth-intellectual disability (OGID) syndrome caused by NSD1 pathogenic variants and characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, an intellectual disability, tall stature and/or macrocephaly. Other associated clinical features include scoliosis, seizures, renal anomalies, and cardiac anomalies. However, many of the published Sotos syndrome clinical descriptions are based on studies of children; the phenotype in adults with Sotos syndrome is not yet well described. Given that it is now 17 years since disruption of NSD1 was shown to cause Sotos syndrome, many of the children first reported are now adults. It is therefore timely to investigate the phenotype of 44 adults with Sotos syndrome and NSD1 pathogenic variants. We have shown that adults with Sotos syndrome display a wide spectrum of intellectual ability with functioning ranging from fully independent to fully dependent. Reproductive rates are low. In our cohort, median height in adult women is +1.9 SD and men +0.5 SD. There is a distinctive facial appearance in adults with a tall, square, prominent chin. Reassuringly, adults with Sotos syndrome are generally healthy with few new medical issues; however, lymphedema, poor dentition, hearing loss, contractures and tremor have developed in a small number of individuals.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2049-2055, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400068

RESUMO

Histone Gene Cluster 1 Member E, HIST1H1E, encodes Histone H1.4, is one of a family of epigenetic regulator genes, acts as a linker histone protein, and is responsible for higher order chromatin structure. HIST1H1E syndrome (also known as Rahman syndrome, OMIM #617537) is a recently described intellectual disability (ID) syndrome. Since the initial description of five unrelated individuals with three different heterozygous protein-truncating variants (PTVs) in the HIST1H1E gene in 2017, we have recruited 30 patients, all with HIST1H1E PTVs that result in the same shift in frame and that cluster to a 94-base pair region in the HIST1H1E carboxy terminal domain. The identification of 30 patients with HIST1H1E variants has allowed the clarification of the HIST1H1E syndrome phenotype. Major findings include an ID and a recognizable facial appearance. ID was reported in all patients and is most frequently of moderate severity. The facial gestalt consists of a high frontal hairline and full lower cheeks in early childhood and, in later childhood and adulthood, affected individuals have a strikingly high frontal hairline, frontal bossing, and deep-set eyes. Other associated clinical features include hypothyroidism, abnormal dentition, behavioral issues, cryptorchidism, skeletal anomalies, and cardiac anomalies. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently abnormal with a slender corpus callosum a frequent finding.

5.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 3(5): 322-331, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wilms tumour is the most common childhood renal cancer and is genetically heterogeneous. While several Wilms tumour predisposition genes have been identified, there is strong evidence that further predisposition genes are likely to exist. Our study aim was to identify new predisposition genes for Wilms tumour. METHODS: In this exome sequencing study, we analysed lymphocyte DNA from 890 individuals with Wilms tumour, including 91 affected individuals from 49 familial Wilms tumour pedigrees. We used the protein-truncating variant prioritisation method to prioritise potential disease-associated genes for further assessment. We evaluated new predisposition genes in exome sequencing data that we generated in 334 individuals with 27 other childhood cancers and in exome data from The Cancer Genome Atlas obtained from 7632 individuals with 28 adult cancers. FINDINGS: We identified constitutional cancer-predisposing mutations in 33 individuals with childhood cancer. The three identified genes with the strongest signal in the protein-truncating variant prioritisation analyses were TRIM28, FBXW7, and NYNRIN. 21 of 33 individuals had a mutation in TRIM28; there was a strong parent-of-origin effect, with all ten inherited mutations being maternally transmitted (p=0·00098). We also found a strong association with the rare epithelial subtype of Wilms tumour, with 14 of 16 tumours being epithelial or epithelial predominant. There were no TRIM28 mutations in individuals with other childhood or adult cancers. We identified truncating FBXW7 mutations in four individuals with Wilms tumour and a de-novo non-synonymous FBXW7 mutation in a child with a rhabdoid tumour. Biallelic truncating mutations in NYNRIN were identified in three individuals with Wilms tumour, which is highly unlikely to have occurred by chance (p<0·0001). Finally, we identified two de-novo KDM3B mutations, supporting the role of KDM3B as a childhood cancer predisposition gene. INTERPRETATION: The four new Wilms tumour predisposition genes identified-TRIM28, FBXW7, NYNRIN, and KDM3B-are involved in diverse biological processes and, together with the other 17 known Wilms tumour predisposition genes, account for about 10% of Wilms tumour cases. The overlap between these 21 constitutionally mutated predisposition genes and 20 genes somatically mutated in Wilms tumour is limited, consisting of only four genes. We recommend that all individuals with Wilms tumour should be offered genetic testing and particularly, those with epithelial Wilms tumour should be offered TRIM28 genetic testing. Only a third of the familial Wilms tumour clusters we analysed were attributable to known genes, indicating that further Wilms tumour predisposition factors await discovery. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(4): 588-594, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793471

RESUMO

Overgrowth-intellectual disability (OGID) syndromes are characterized by increased growth (height and/or head circumference ≥+2 SD) in association with an intellectual disability. Constitutive EED variants have previously been reported in five individuals with an OGID syndrome, eponymously designated Cohen-Gibson syndrome and resembling Weaver syndrome. Here, we report three additional individuals with constitutive EED variants, identified through exome sequencing of an OGID patient series. We compare the EED phenotype with that of Weaver syndrome (56 individuals), caused by constitutive EZH2 variants. We conclude that while there is considerable overlap between the EED and EZH2 phenotypes with both characteristically associated with increased growth and an intellectual disability, individuals with EED variants more frequently have cardiac problems and cervical spine abnormalities, boys have cryptorchidism and the facial gestalts can usually be distinguished.

8.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 46, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29900417

RESUMO

Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS; OMIM 615879), also known as the DNMT3A-overgrowth syndrome, is an overgrowth intellectual disability syndrome first described in 2014 with a report of 13 individuals with constitutive heterozygous DNMT3A variants. Here we have undertaken a detailed clinical study of 55 individuals with de novoDNMT3A variants, including the 13 previously reported individuals. An intellectual disability and overgrowth were reported in >80% of individuals with TBRS and were designated major clinical associations. Additional frequent clinical associations (reported in 20-80% individuals) included an evolving facial appearance with low-set, heavy, horizontal eyebrows and prominent upper central incisors; joint hypermobility (74%); obesity (weight ³2SD, 67%); hypotonia (54%); behavioural/psychiatric issues (most frequently autistic spectrum disorder, 51%); kyphoscoliosis (33%) and afebrile seizures (22%). One individual was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia in teenage years. Based upon the results from this study, we present our current management for individuals with TBRS.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(5): 725-736, 2017 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28475857

RESUMO

To explore the genetic architecture of human overgrowth syndromes and human growth control, we performed experimental and bioinformatic analyses of 710 individuals with overgrowth (height and/or head circumference ≥+2 SD) and intellectual disability (OGID). We identified a causal mutation in 1 of 14 genes in 50% (353/710). This includes HIST1H1E, encoding histone H1.4, which has not been associated with a developmental disorder previously. The pathogenic HIST1H1E mutations are predicted to result in a product that is less effective in neutralizing negatively charged linker DNA because it has a reduced net charge, and in DNA binding and protein-protein interactions because key residues are truncated. Functional network analyses demonstrated that epigenetic regulation is a prominent biological process dysregulated in individuals with OGID. Mutations in six epigenetic regulation genes-NSD1, EZH2, DNMT3A, CHD8, HIST1H1E, and EED-accounted for 44% of individuals (311/710). There was significant overlap between the 14 genes involved in OGID and 611 genes in regions identified in GWASs to be associated with height (p = 6.84 × 10-8), suggesting that a common variation impacting function of genes involved in OGID influences height at a population level. Increased cellular growth is a hallmark of cancer and there was striking overlap between the genes involved in OGID and 260 somatically mutated cancer driver genes (p = 1.75 × 10-14). However, the mutation spectra of genes involved in OGID and cancer differ, suggesting complex genotype-phenotype relationships. These data reveal insights into the genetic control of human growth and demonstrate that exome sequencing in OGID has a high diagnostic yield.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Epigênese Genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
11.
Nat Genet ; 49(7): 1148-1151, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28553959

RESUMO

Through exome sequencing, we identified six individuals with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in TRIP13. All six developed Wilms tumor. Constitutional mosaic aneuploidies, microcephaly, developmental delay and seizures, which are features of mosaic variegated aneuploidy (MVA) syndrome, were more variably present. Through functional studies, we show that TRIP13-mutant patient cells have no detectable TRIP13 and have substantial impairment of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), leading to a high rate of chromosome missegregation. Accurate segregation, as well as SAC proficiency, is rescued by restoring TRIP13 function. Individuals with biallelic TRIP13 or BUB1B mutations have a high risk of embryonal tumors, and here we show that their cells display severe SAC impairment. MVA due to biallelic CEP57 mutations, or of unknown cause, is not associated with embryonal tumors and cells from these individuals show minimal SAC deficiency. These data provide insights into the complex relationships between aneuploidy and carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Pontos de Checagem da Fase M do Ciclo Celular/genética , Tumor de Wilms/genética , ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares , Aneuploidia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Pré-Escolar , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Mosaicismo , Mutação , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Convulsões/genética , Tumor de Células de Sertoli-Leydig/genética
12.
PLoS Genet ; 13(5): e1006787, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28545128

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma is a cancer of the developing sympathetic nervous system that most commonly presents in young children and accounts for approximately 12% of pediatric oncology deaths. Here, we report on a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a discovery cohort or 2,101 cases and 4,202 controls of European ancestry. We identify two new association signals at 3q25 and 4p16 that replicated robustly in multiple independent cohorts comprising 1,163 cases and 4,396 controls (3q25: rs6441201 combined P = 1.2x10-11, Odds Ratio 1.23, 95% CI:1.16-1.31; 4p16: rs3796727 combined P = 1.26x10-12, Odds Ratio 1.30, 95% CI: 1.21-1.40). The 4p16 signal maps within the carboxypeptidase Z (CPZ) gene. The 3q25 signal resides within the arginine/serine-rich coiled-coil 1 (RSRC1) gene and upstream of the myeloid leukemia factor 1 (MLF1) gene. Increased expression of MLF1 was observed in neuroblastoma cells homozygous for the rs6441201 risk allele (P = 0.02), and significant growth inhibition was observed upon depletion of MLF1 (P < 0.0001) in neuroblastoma cells. Taken together, we show that common DNA variants within CPZ at 4p16 and upstream of MLF1 at 3q25 influence neuroblastoma susceptibility and MLF1 likely plays an important role in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Carboxipeptidases/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 4/genética , Neuroblastoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Inativação Gênica , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo
14.
Nat Genet ; 47(12): 1471-4, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26551668

RESUMO

Wilms tumor is the most common childhood renal cancer. To identify mutations that predispose to Wilms tumor, we are conducting exome sequencing studies. Here we describe 11 different inactivating mutations in the REST gene (encoding RE1-silencing transcription factor) in four familial Wilms tumor pedigrees and nine non-familial cases. Notably, no similar mutations were identified in the ICR1000 control series (13/558 versus 0/993; P < 0.0001) or in the ExAC series (13/558 versus 0/61,312; P < 0.0001). We identified a second mutational event in two tumors, suggesting that REST may act as a tumor-suppressor gene in Wilms tumor pathogenesis. REST is a zinc-finger transcription factor that functions in cellular differentiation and embryonic development. Notably, ten of 11 mutations clustered within the portion of REST encoding the DNA-binding domain, and functional analyses showed that these mutations compromise REST transcriptional repression. These data establish REST as a Wilms tumor predisposition gene accounting for ∼2% of Wilms tumor.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Tumor de Wilms/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos
15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 24(17): 4775-9, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25972378

RESUMO

Overgrowth syndromes comprise a group of heterogeneous disorders characterised by excessive growth parameters, often in association with intellectual disability. To identify new causes of human overgrowth, we have been undertaking trio-based exome sequencing studies in overgrowth patients and their unaffected parents. Prioritisation of functionally relevant genes with multiple unique de novo mutations revealed four mutations in protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit B family genes protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', beta (PPP2R5B); protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', gamma (PPP2R5C); and protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', delta (PPP2R5D). This observation in 3 related genes in 111 individuals with a similar phenotype is greatly in excess of the expected number, as determined from gene-specific de novo mutation rates (P = 1.43 × 10(-10)). Analysis of exome-sequencing data from a follow-up series of overgrowth probands identified a further pathogenic mutation, bringing the total number of affected individuals to 5. Heterozygotes shared similar phenotypic features including increased height, increased head circumference and intellectual disability. The mutations clustered within a region of nine amino acid residues in the aligned protein sequences (P = 1.6 × 10(-5)). We mapped the mutations onto the crystal structure of the PP2A holoenzyme complex to predict their molecular and functional consequences. These studies suggest that the mutations may affect substrate binding, thus perturbing the ability of PP2A to dephosphorylate particular protein substrates. PP2A is a major negative regulator of v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT). Thus, our data further expand the list of genes encoding components of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signalling cascade that are disrupted in human overgrowth conditions.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Exoma , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Modelos Moleculares , Fenótipo , Conformação Proteica , Proteína Fosfatase 2/química
16.
Nat Commun ; 5: 4398, 2014 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25099282

RESUMO

Wilms tumour is a childhood kidney cancer. Here we identify inactivating CTR9 mutations in 3 of 35 Wilms tumour families, through exome and Sanger sequencing. By contrast, no similar mutations are present in 1,000 population controls (P<0.0001). Each mutation segregates with Wilms tumour in the family and a second mutational event is present in available tumours. CTR9 is a key component of the polymerase-associated factor 1 complex which has multiple roles in RNA polymerase II regulation and is implicated in embryonic organogenesis and maintenance of embryonic stem cell pluripotency. These data establish CTR9 as a Wilms tumour predisposition gene and suggest it acts as a tumour suppressor gene.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Tumor de Wilms/genética , Processamento Alternativo , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Exoma , Éxons , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Rim/patologia , Linfócitos/citologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Linhagem
17.
Nat Genet ; 46(4): 385-8, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24614070

RESUMO

Overgrowth disorders are a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by increased growth parameters and other variable clinical features such as intellectual disability and facial dysmorphism. To identify new causes of human overgrowth, we performed exome sequencing in ten proband-parent trios and detected two de novo DNMT3A mutations. We identified 11 additional de novo mutations by sequencing DNMT3A in a further 142 individuals with overgrowth. The mutations alter residues in functional DNMT3A domains, and protein modeling suggests that they interfere with domain-domain interactions and histone binding. Similar mutations were not present in 1,000 UK population controls (13/152 cases versus 0/1,000 controls; P < 0.0001). Mutation carriers had a distinctive facial appearance, intellectual disability and greater height. DNMT3A encodes a DNA methyltransferase essential for establishing methylation during embryogenesis and is commonly somatically mutated in acute myeloid leukemia. Thus, DNMT3A joins an emerging group of epigenetic DNA- and histone-modifying genes associated with both developmental growth disorders and hematological malignancies.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Sequência de Bases , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/química , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Exoma/genética , Componentes do Gene , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Síndrome , Reino Unido
18.
Nature ; 493(7432): 406-10, 2013 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23242139

RESUMO

Improved sequencing technologies offer unprecedented opportunities for investigating the role of rare genetic variation in common disease. However, there are considerable challenges with respect to study design, data analysis and replication. Using pooled next-generation sequencing of 507 genes implicated in the repair of DNA in 1,150 samples, an analytical strategy focused on protein-truncating variants (PTVs) and a large-scale sequencing case-control replication experiment in 13,642 individuals, here we show that rare PTVs in the p53-inducible protein phosphatase PPM1D are associated with predisposition to breast cancer and ovarian cancer. PPM1D PTV mutations were present in 25 out of 7,781 cases versus 1 out of 5,861 controls (P = 1.12 × 10(-5)), including 18 mutations in 6,912 individuals with breast cancer (P = 2.42 × 10(-4)) and 12 mutations in 1,121 individuals with ovarian cancer (P = 3.10 × 10(-9)). Notably, all of the identified PPM1D PTVs were mosaic in lymphocyte DNA and clustered within a 370-base-pair region in the final exon of the gene, carboxy-terminal to the phosphatase catalytic domain. Functional studies demonstrate that the mutations result in enhanced suppression of p53 in response to ionizing radiation exposure, suggesting that the mutant alleles encode hyperactive PPM1D isoforms. Thus, although the mutations cause premature protein truncation, they do not result in the simple loss-of-function effect typically associated with this class of variant, but instead probably have a gain-of-function effect. Our results have implications for the detection and management of breast and ovarian cancer risk. More generally, these data provide new insights into the role of rare and of mosaic genetic variants in common conditions, and the use of sequencing in their identification.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mosaicismo , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Alelos , Análise por Conglomerados , Éxons , Feminino , Humanos , Isoenzimas/genética , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Proteína Fosfatase 2C , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
19.
Nat Genet ; 44(6): 681-4, 2012 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22544364

RESUMO

Wilms tumor is the most common renal malignancy of childhood. To identify common variants that confer susceptibility to Wilms tumor, we conducted a genome-wide association study in 757 individuals with Wilms tumor (cases) and 1,879 controls. We evaluated ten SNPs in regions significantly associated at P < 5 × 10(-5) in two independent replication series from the UK (769 cases and 2,814 controls) and the United States (719 cases and 1,037 controls). We identified clear significant associations at 2p24 (rs3755132, P = 1.03 × 10(-14); rs807624, P = 1.32 × 10(-14)) and 11q14 (rs790356, P = 4.25 × 10(-15)). Both regions contain genes that are plausibly related to Wilms tumorigenesis. We also identified candidate association signals at 5q14, 22q12 and Xp22.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Tumor de Wilms/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2 , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Oncotarget ; 2(12): 1127-33, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22190405

RESUMO

The biological processes controlling human growth are diverse, complex and poorly understood. Genetic factors are important and human height has been shown to be a highly polygenic trait to which common and rare genetic variation contributes. Weaver syndrome is a human overgrowth condition characterised by tall stature, dysmorphic facial features, learning disability and variable additional features. We performed exome sequencing in four individuals with Weaver syndrome, identifying a mutation in the histone methyltransferase, EZH2, in each case. Sequencing of EZH2 in additional individuals with overgrowth identified a further 15 mutations. The EZH2 mutation spectrum in Weaver syndrome shows considerable overlap with the inactivating somatic EZH2 mutations recently reported in myeloid malignancies. Our data establish EZH2 mutations as the cause of Weaver syndrome and provide further links between histone modifications and regulation of human growth.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Estatura , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste , Facies , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Histona Metiltransferases , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2 , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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