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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 987-995, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587868

RESUMO

NKAP is a ubiquitously expressed nucleoplasmic protein that is currently known as a transcriptional regulatory molecule via its interaction with HDAC3 and spliceosomal proteins. Here, we report a disorder of transcriptional regulation due to missense mutations in the X chromosome gene, NKAP. These mutations are clustered in the C-terminal region of NKAP where NKAP interacts with HDAC3 and post-catalytic spliceosomal complex proteins. Consistent with a role for the C-terminal region of NKAP in embryogenesis, nkap mutant zebrafish with a C-terminally truncated NKAP demonstrate severe developmental defects. The clinical features of affected individuals are highly conserved and include developmental delay, hypotonia, joint contractures, behavioral abnormalities, Marfanoid habitus, and scoliosis. In affected cases, transcriptome analysis revealed the presence of a unique transcriptome signature, which is characterized by the downregulation of long genes with higher exon numbers. These observations indicate the critical role of NKAP in transcriptional regulation and demonstrate that perturbations of the C-terminal region lead to developmental defects in both humans and zebrafish.

2.
Clin Genet ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650526

RESUMO

Peters anomaly (PA) is a congenital corneal opacity associated with corneo-lenticular attachments. PA can be isolated or part of a syndrome with most cases remaining genetically unsolved. Exome sequencing of a trio with syndromic PA and 145 additional unexplained probands with developmental ocular conditions identified a de novo splicing and three novel missense heterozygous CDH2 variants affecting the extracellular cadherin domains in four individuals with PA. Syndromic anomalies were seen in three individuals and included left-sided cardiac lesions, dysmorphic facial features, and decreasing height percentiles; brain magnetic resonance imaging identified agenesis of the corpus callosum and hypoplasia of the inferior cerebellar vermis. CDH2 encodes for N-cadherin, a transmembrane protein that mediates cell-cell adhesion in multiple tissues. Immunostaining in mouse embryonic eyes confirmed N-cadherin is present in the lens stalk at the time of separation from the future cornea and in the developing lens and corneal endothelium at later stages, supporting a possible role in PA. Previous studies in animal models have noted the importance of Cdh2/cdh2 in development of the eye, heart, brain, and skeletal structures, also consistent with the patient features presented here. Examination of CDH2 in additional patients with PA is indicated to confirm this association. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Genet Med ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474763

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion in humans, with highly variable phenotypic expression. Whereas congenital heart defects, palatal anomalies, immunodeficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and neuropsychiatric conditions are observed in over 50% of patients with 22q11DS, a subset of patients present with additional "atypical" findings such as craniosynostosis and anorectal malformations. Recently, pathogenic variants in the CDC45 (Cell Division Cycle protein 45) gene, located within the LCR22A-LCR22B region of chromosome 22q11.2, were noted to be involved in the pathogenesis of craniosynostosis. METHODS: We performed next-generation sequencing on DNA from 15 patients with 22q11.2DS and atypical phenotypic features such as craniosynostosis, short stature, skeletal differences, and anorectal malformations. RESULTS: We identified four novel rare nonsynonymous variants in CDC45 in 5/15 patients with 22q11.2DS and craniosynostosis and/or other atypical findings. CONCLUSION: This study supports CDC45 as a causative gene in craniosynostosis, as well as a number of other anomalies. We suggest that this association results in a condition independent of Meier-Gorlin syndrome, perhaps representing a novel condition and/or a cause of features associated with Baller-Gerold syndrome. In addition, this work confirms that the phenotypic variability observed in a subset of patients with 22q11.2DS is due to pathogenic variants on the nondeleted chromosome.

4.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The X-chromosome gene USP9X encodes a deubiquitylating enzyme that has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders primarily in female subjects. USP9X escapes X inactivation, and in female subjects de novo heterozygous copy number loss or truncating mutations cause haploinsufficiency culminating in a recognizable syndrome with intellectual disability and signature brain and congenital abnormalities. In contrast, the involvement of USP9X in male neurodevelopmental disorders remains tentative. METHODS: We used clinically recommended guidelines to collect and interrogate the pathogenicity of 44 USP9X variants associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in males. Functional studies in patient-derived cell lines and mice were used to determine mechanisms of pathology. RESULTS: Twelve missense variants showed strong evidence of pathogenicity. We define a characteristic phenotype of the central nervous system (white matter disturbances, thin corpus callosum, and widened ventricles); global delay with significant alteration of speech, language, and behavior; hypotonia; joint hypermobility; visual system defects; and other common congenital and dysmorphic features. Comparison of in silico and phenotypical features align additional variants of unknown significance with likely pathogenicity. In support of partial loss-of-function mechanisms, using patient-derived cell lines, we show loss of only specific USP9X substrates that regulate neurodevelopmental signaling pathways and a united defect in transforming growth factor ß signaling. In addition, we find correlates of the male phenotype in Usp9x brain-specific knockout mice, and further resolve loss of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate the involvement of USP9X variants in a distinctive neurodevelopmental and behavioral syndrome in male subjects and identify plausible mechanisms of pathogenesis centered on disrupted transforming growth factor ß signaling and hippocampal function.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3644, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409799

RESUMO

B cell development is a highly regulated process involving multiple differentiation steps, yet many details regarding this pathway remain unknown. Sequencing of patients with B cell-restricted immunodeficiency reveals autosomal dominant mutations in TOP2B. TOP2B encodes a type II topoisomerase, an essential gene required to alleviate topological stress during DNA replication and gene transcription, with no previously known role in B cell development. We use Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and knockin and knockout murine models, to demonstrate that patient mutations in TOP2B have a dominant negative effect on enzyme function, resulting in defective proliferation, survival of B-2 cells, causing a block in B cell development, and impair humoral function in response to immunization.

7.
Genet Med ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sifrim-Hitz-Weiss syndrome (SIHIWES) is a recently described multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder caused by de novo variants in CHD4. In this study, we investigated the clinical spectrum of the disorder, genotype-phenotype correlations, and the effect of different missense variants on CHD4 function. METHODS: We collected clinical and molecular data from 32 individuals with mostly de novo variants in CHD4, identified through next-generation sequencing. We performed adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis and nucleosome remodeling assays on variants from five different CHD4 domains. RESULTS: The majority of participants had global developmental delay, mild to moderate intellectual disability, brain anomalies, congenital heart defects, and dysmorphic features. Macrocephaly was a frequent but not universal finding. Additional common abnormalities included hypogonadism in males, skeletal and limb anomalies, hearing impairment, and ophthalmic abnormalities. The majority of variants were nontruncating and affected the SNF2-like region of the protein. We did not identify genotype-phenotype correlations based on the type or location of variants. Alterations in ATP hydrolysis and chromatin remodeling activities were observed in variants from different domains. CONCLUSION: The CHD4-related syndrome is a multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder. Missense substitutions in different protein domains alter CHD4 function in a variant-specific manner, but result in a similar phenotype in humans.

8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2075-2082, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361404

RESUMO

Zinc finger protein 462 (ZNF462) is a relatively newly discovered vertebrate specific protein with known critical roles in embryonic development in animal models. Two case reports and a case series study have described the phenotype of 10 individuals with ZNF462 loss of function variants. Herein, we present 14 new individuals with loss of function variants to the previous studies to delineate the syndrome of loss of function in ZNF462. Collectively, these 24 individuals present with recurring phenotypes that define a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Most have some form of developmental delay (79%) and a minority has autism spectrum disorder (33%). Characteristic facial features include ptosis (83%), down slanting palpebral fissures (58%), exaggerated Cupid's bow/wide philtrum (54%), and arched eyebrows (50%). Metopic ridging or craniosynostosis was found in a third of study participants and feeding problems in half. Other phenotype characteristics include dysgenesis of the corpus callosum in 25% of individuals, hypotonia in half, and structural heart defects in 21%. Using facial analysis technology, a computer algorithm applying deep learning was able to accurately differentiate individuals with ZNF462 loss of function variants from individuals with Noonan syndrome and healthy controls. In summary, we describe a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome associated with haploinsufficiency of ZNF462 that has distinct clinical characteristics and facial features.

9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2144-2151, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287223

RESUMO

Warsaw breakage syndrome (WABS), caused by bi-allelic variants in the DDX11 gene, is a rare cohesinopathy characterized by pre- and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, intellectual disability, facial dysmorphia, and sensorineural hearing loss due to cochlear hypoplasia. The DDX11 gene codes for an iron-sulfur DNA helicase in the Superfamily 2 helicases and plays an important role in genomic stability and maintenance. Fourteen individuals with WABS have been previously reported in the medical literature. Affected individuals have been of various ethnic backgrounds with different pathogenic variants. We report two unrelated individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish descent affected with WABS, who are homozygous for the c.1763-1G>C variant in the DDX11 gene. Their phenotype is consistent with previously reported individuals. RNA studies showed that this variant causes an alternative splice acceptor site leading to a frameshift in the open reading frame. Carrier screening of the c.1763-1G>C variant in the Jewish population revealed a high carrier frequency of 1 in 68 in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Due to the high carrier frequency and the low number of affected individuals, we hypothesize a high rate of miscarriage of homozygous fetuses and/or subfertility for carrier couples. If the carrier frequency is reproducible in additional Ashkenazi Jewish populations, we suggest including DDX11 to Ashkenazi Jewish carrier screening panels.

10.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(13): 888-905, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222980

RESUMO

Over 50% of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS) have a conotruncal or related cardiac defect (CTRD). We hypothesized that similar genetic variants, developmental pathways and biological functions, contribute to disease risk for CTRD in patients without a 22q11.2 deletion (ND-CTRD) and with a 22q11.2 deletion (DS-CTRD). To test this hypothesis, we performed rare CNV (rCNV)-based analyses on 630 ND-CTRD cases and 602 DS-CTRD cases with comparable cardiac lesions separately and jointly. First, we detected a collection of heart development related pathways from Gene Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology analysis. We then constructed gene regulation networks using unique genes collected from the rCNVs found in the ND-CTRD and DS-CTRD cohorts. These gene networks were clustered and their predicted functions were examined. We further investigated expression patterns of those unique genes using publicly available mouse embryo microarray expression data from single-cell embryos to fully developed hearts. By these bioinformatics approaches, we identified a commonly shared gene expression pattern in both the ND-CTRD and DS-CTRD cohorts. Computational analysis of gene functions characterized with this expression pattern revealed a collection of significantly enriched terms related to cardiovascular development. By our combined analysis of rCNVs in the ND-CTRD and DS-CTRD cohorts, a group of statistically significant shared pathways, biological functions, and gene expression patterns were identified that can be tested in future studies for their biological relevance.

11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1543-1546, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207089

RESUMO

1p36 deletion syndrome is a well-described condition with a recognizable phenotype, including cognitive impairment, seizures, and structural brain anomalies such as periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). In a large series of these individuals by Battaglia et al., "birth history was notable in 50% of the cases for varying degrees of perinatal distress." Given the potential for perinatal distress, seizures and PVL, we questioned if this disorder has clinical overlap with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We reviewed the medical records of 69 individuals with 1p36 deletion to clarify the perinatal phenotype of this disorder and determine if there is evidence of perinatal distress and/or hypoxic injury. Our data provides evidence that these babies have signs of perinatal distress. The majority (59% term; 75% preterm) needed resuscitation and approximately 18% had cardiac arrest. Most had abnormal brain imaging (84% term; 73% preterm) with abnormal white matter findings in over half of patients. PVL or suggestion of "hypoxic insult" was present in 18% of term and 45% of preterm patients. In conclusion, individuals with 1p36 deletion have evidence of perinatal distress, white matter changes, and seizures, which can mimic HIE but are likely related to their underlying chromosome disorder.

13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1442-1450, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111620

RESUMO

Muenke syndrome (MIM #602849), the most common syndromic craniosynostosis, results from the recurrent pathogenic p.P250R variant in FGFR3. Affected patients exhibit wide phenotypic variability. Common features include coronal craniosynostosis, hearing loss, carpal and tarsal anomalies, and developmental/behavioral issues. Our study examined the phenotypic findings, medical management, and surgical outcomes in a cohort of 26 probands with Muenke syndrome identified at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. All probands had craniosynostosis; 69.7% had bicoronal synostosis only, or bicoronal and additional suture synostosis. Three male patients had autism spectrum disorder. Recurrent ear infections were the most common comorbidity, and myringotomy tube placement the most common extracranial surgical procedure. Most patients (76%) required only one fronto-orbital advancement. de novo mutations were confirmed in 33% of the families in which proband and both parents were genetically tested, while in the remaining 66% one of the parents was a mutation carrier. In affected parents, 40% had craniosynostosis, including 71% of mothers and 13% of fathers. We additionally analyzed the medical resource utilization of probands with Muenke syndrome. To our knowledge, these data represent the first comprehensive examination of long-term management in a large cohort of patients with Muenke syndrome. Our study adds valuable information regarding neuropsychiatric and medical comorbidities, and highlights findings in affected relatives.

14.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 64, 2019 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ADNP syndrome is a rare Mendelian disorder characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, and autism. It is caused by truncating mutations in ADNP, which is involved in chromatin regulation. We hypothesized that the disruption of chromatin regulation might result in specific DNA methylation patterns that could be used in the molecular diagnosis of ADNP syndrome. RESULTS: We identified two distinct and partially opposing genomic DNA methylation episignatures in the peripheral blood samples from 22 patients with ADNP syndrome. The "epi-ADNP-1" episignature included ~ 6000 mostly hypomethylated CpGs, and the "epi-ADNP-2" episignature included ~ 1000 predominantly hypermethylated CpGs. The two signatures correlated with the locations of the ADNP mutations. Epi-ADNP-1 mutations occupy the N- and C-terminus, and epi-ADNP-2 mutations are centered on the nuclear localization signal. The episignatures were enriched for genes involved in neuronal system development and function. A classifier trained on these profiles yielded full sensitivity and specificity in detecting patients with either of the two episignatures. Applying this model to seven patients with uncertain clinical diagnosis enabled reclassification of genetic variants of uncertain significance and assigned new diagnosis when the primary clinical suspicion was not correct. When applied to a large cohort of unresolved patients with developmental delay (N = 1150), the model predicted three additional previously undiagnosed patients to have ADNP syndrome. DNA sequencing of these subjects, wherever available, identified pathogenic mutations within the gene domains predicted by the model. CONCLUSIONS: We describe the first Mendelian condition with two distinct episignatures caused by mutations in a single gene. These highly sensitive and specific DNA methylation episignatures enable diagnosis, screening, and genetic variant classifications in ADNP syndrome.

15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(6): 1063-1068, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924273

RESUMO

We evaluated a newborn with acrofacial dysostosis in whom a clinical diagnosis of Nager syndrome was entertained. Radiographs revealed hypoplasia of the scapulae and bilateral humeroradial synostosis, with absent ulna on the left and hypoplastic ulna on the right. The finding of bilateral humeroradial synostosis had not been seen in cases of Nager syndrome before and we considered other diagnoses. Humeroradial synostosis has been found in three cases of acrofacial dysostosis Rodriguez type, a syndrome characterized by mandibular hypoplasia, upper and lower extremity phocomelia, and oligodactyly of the upper limbs. More recently, haploinsufficiency of the SF3B4 gene has been identified as the cause of both Nager and Rodriguez syndrome, leading many to believe that Rodriguez syndrome represents a more severe end of a Nager syndrome spectrum. An SF3B4 mutation was found in our patient, prompting a review of the previous known cases of Rodriguez syndrome, which revealed no clustering of SF3B4 mutations, and four cases of Rodriguez syndrome with mutations identical to those in cases of Nager syndrome. Rodriguez syndrome was previously thought of as a lethal acrofacial dysostosis distinct from Nager syndrome. A number of more mild cases, as well as our case, intermediate between the two phenotypes, illustrate that Rodriguez syndrome is a severe manifestation of Nager syndrome, and is not lethal with aggressive medical care.

16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(4): 542-551, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719864

RESUMO

Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by distinctive facial features and intellectual disability caused by haploinsufficiency of the NSD1 gene. Genotype-phenotype correlations have been observed, with major anomalies seen more frequently in patients with 5q35 deletions than those with point mutations in NSD1. Though endocrine features have rarely been described, transient hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HI) of the neonatal period has been reported as an uncommon presentation of Sotos syndrome. Eight cases of 5q35 deletions and one patient with an intragenic NSD1 mutation with transient HI have been reported. Here, we describe seven individuals with HI caused by NSD1 gene mutations with three having persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. These patients with persistent HI and Sotos syndrome caused by NSD1 mutations, further dispel the hypothesis that HI is due to the deletion of other genes in the deleted 5q35 region. These patients emphasize that NSD1 haploinsufficiency is sufficient to cause HI, and suggest that Sotos syndrome should be considered in patients presenting with neonatal HI. Lastly, these patients help extend the phenotypic spectrum of Sotos syndrome to include HI as a significant feature.

17.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(5): 2184-2202, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783897

RESUMO

The presence of multiple dysmorphic features in some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) might identify distinct ASD phenotypes and serve as potential markers for understanding causes and prognoses. To evaluate dysmorphology in ASD, children aged 3-6 years with ASD and non-ASD population controls (POP) from the Study to Explore Early Development were evaluated using a novel, systematic dysmorphology review approach. Separate analyses were conducted for non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic children. In each racial/ethnic group, ~ 17% of ASD cases were Dysmorphic compared with ~ 5% of POP controls. The ASD-POP differential was not explained by known genetic disorders or birth defects. In future epidemiologic studies, subgrouping ASD cases as Dysmorphic vs. Non-dysmorphic might help delineate risk factors for ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/complicações , Facies , Fenótipo , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/classificação , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(3): 381-385, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582277

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) involves multiple organ systems with variable phenotypic expression. Genitourinary tract abnormalities have been noted to be present in up to 30-40% of patients. At our institution, an internationally recognized, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary 22q11.2DS care center has been providing care to these children. We sought to report on the incidence of genitourinary tract anomalies in this large cohort and, therefore, retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent a complete evaluation from 1992 to March 2017. We identified all children with any genital or urinary tract anomaly. For all children with a diagnosis of hydronephrosis, the underlying etiology was determined, when possible. Overall, 1,073 of 1,267 children with 22q11.2DS underwent renal evaluations at our institution. Hundered Sixty-Two (15.1%) children had structural abnormalities of their kidneys/urinary tracts. The majority of children with hydronephrosis (63%) had isolated upper tract dilation without any additional diagnoses. Boys were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with a genital abnormality than girls (7.7 vs. 0.5%, p < 0.001). Of the 649 boys in the entire cohort, 24 (3.7%) had cryptorchidism and 24 (3.7%) had hypospadias, which was noted to be mild in all except one boy. Overall, findings of hydronephrosis, unilateral renal agenesis, and multicystic dysplastic kidney occur at higher rates than expected in the general population. Given these findings, in addition to routine physical examination, we believe that all patients with 22q11.2DS warrant screening RBUS at time of diagnosis.

19.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 116: 43-48, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554706

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine demographics and practice patterns of surgeons treating velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). METHODS: An anonymous electronic survey study was administered to the surgical membership of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association and the Society for Ear Nose and Throat Advances in Children. The survey queried surgeon demographics and differences in management practices for submucous cleft palate (SMCP), pharyngoplasty algorithms, and self-reported complications for nonsyndromic versus 22q11.2DS patients. RESULTS: 126 surveys were returned from 9 international regions with the majority from the United States (73%), followed by Western Europe (9.5%) and Canada (7.9%). Plastic surgery was the most common specialty (61.9%), followed by otolaryngology (27.8%). 88.1% reported fellowship training, and 33% completed multiple fellowships. Prior to proceeding with pharyngoplasty in 22q11.2DS patients, surgeons required the following assessments: speech evaluation (79.4%), velopharyngeal imaging (51.6%), cardiac evaluation (50.0%), carotid artery MRI (29.4%), and cervical spine x-rays (11.1%). Nasoendoscopy was the most common modality used for imaging the velopharynx. Overall, providers managed patients with 22q11.2DS similarly to nonsyndromic patients, with several significant exceptions including that they were more likely to perform SMCP repair alone as a first approach in nonsyndromic patients (p = 0.031) and posterior pharyngeal flap without SMCP repair in those with 22q11.2DS (p = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Practice patterns for the management of VPD in patients with 22q11.2DS vary across providers. Further collaborative studies are needed to develop optimal treatment paradigms for VPD in patients with 22q11.2 DS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de DiGeorge/complicações , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/cirurgia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/efeitos adversos , Autorrelato , Cirurgiões , Inquéritos e Questionários , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/etiologia
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 752-768, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388402

RESUMO

The nuclear factor I (NFI) family of transcription factors play an important role in normal development of multiple organs. Three NFI family members are highly expressed in the brain, and deletions or sequence variants in two of these, NFIA and NFIX, have been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and brain malformations. NFIB, however, has not previously been implicated in human disease. Here, we present a cohort of 18 individuals with mild ID and behavioral issues who are haploinsufficient for NFIB. Ten individuals harbored overlapping microdeletions of the chromosomal 9p23-p22.2 region, ranging in size from 225 kb to 4.3 Mb. Five additional subjects had point sequence variations creating a premature termination codon, and three subjects harbored single-nucleotide variations resulting in an inactive protein as determined using an in vitro reporter assay. All individuals presented with additional variable neurodevelopmental phenotypes, including muscular hypotonia, motor and speech delay, attention deficit disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and behavioral abnormalities. While structural brain anomalies, including dysgenesis of corpus callosum, were variable, individuals most frequently presented with macrocephaly. To determine whether macrocephaly could be a functional consequence of NFIB disruption, we analyzed a cortex-specific Nfib conditional knockout mouse model, which is postnatally viable. Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging and histology, we demonstrate that Nfib conditional knockout mice have enlargement of the cerebral cortex but preservation of overall brain structure and interhemispheric connectivity. Based on our findings, we propose that haploinsufficiency of NFIB causes ID with macrocephaly.

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