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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(12): 3035-3039, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016642

RESUMO

A range of clinical findings have been associated with heterozygous mutations in the Beta Tubulin (TUBB) gene, including microcephaly, structural brain abnormalities, intellectual disability, and skin creases. We report a 5-year-old male who presented for evaluation of cleft palate, cardiac defects, growth retardation, hemivertebrae causing scoliosis, and preauricular skin tags. Previous clinical exome sequencing of this patient was nondiagnostic, but reanalysis in the research setting identified a de novo missense c. 925C>G p.(Arg309Gly) mutation in TUBB. This mutation was not found in population allele frequency databases, and was classified to be likely pathogenic. This patient shares some phenotypic characteristics with previous reported patients of TUBB mutations of the two TUBB-related phenotypes: "Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 6" [MIM 615771] and "Circumferential Skin Creases Kunze type (CSC-KT)" [MIM 156610], but has no excess skin creases or structural brain anomalies. We also report previously undescribed features, including transposition of the great arteries and vertebral fusion, thus representing phenotype expansion of TUBB-associated disorders.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(12): 2926-2938, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043588

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in the homologous and highly conserved genes-CREBBP and EP300-are causal for Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS). CREBBP and EP300 encode histone acetyltransferases (HAT) that act as transcriptional co-activators, and their haploinsufficiency causes the pathology characteristic of RSTS by interfering with global transcriptional regulation. Though generally a well-characterized syndrome, there is a clear phenotypic spectrum; rare associations have emerged with increasing diagnosis that is critical for comprehensive understanding of this rare syndrome. We present 12 unreported patients with RSTS found to have EP300 variants discovered through gene sequencing and chromosomal microarray. Our cohort highlights rare phenotypic features associated with EP300 variants, including imperforate anus, retained fetal finger pads, and spina bifida occulta. Our findings support the previously noted prevalence of pregnancy-related hypertension/preeclampsia seen with this disease. We additionally performed a meta-analysis on our newly reported 12 patients and 62 of the 90 previously reported patients. We demonstrated no statistically significant correlation between phenotype severity (within the domains of intellectual disability and major organ involvement, as defined in our Methods section) and variant location and type; this is in contrast to the conclusions of some smaller studies and highlights the importance of large patient cohorts in characterization of this rare disease.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(12): 2919-2925, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954677

RESUMO

Congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDH) confer substantial morbidity and mortality. Genetic defects, including chromosomal anomalies, copy number variants, and sequence variants are identified in ~30% of patients with CDH. A genetic etiology is not yet found in 70% of patients, however there is a growing number of genetic syndromes and single gene disorders associated with CDH. While there have been two reported individuals with X-linked Opitz G/BBB syndrome with MID1 mutations who have CDH as an associated feature, CDH appears to be a much more prominent feature of a SPECC1L-related autosomal dominant Opitz G/BBB syndrome. Features unique to autosomal dominant Opitz G/BBB syndrome include branchial fistulae, omphalocele, and a bicornuate uterus. Here we present one new individual and five previously reported individuals with CDH found to have SPECC1L mutations. These cases provide strong evidence that SPECC1L is a bona fide CDH gene. We conclude that a SPECC1L-related Opitz G/BBB syndrome should be considered in any patient with CDH who has additional features of hypertelorism, a prominent forehead, a broad nasal bridge, anteverted nares, cleft lip/palate, branchial fistulae, omphalocele, and/or bicornuate uterus.

5.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 138: 110236, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890936

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have a variety of anatomic anomalies. For surgeons operating in proximity to the retropharynx, the most pertinent is medial displacement of the internal carotid arteries. The purpose of this study is to describe the preoperative use of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in surgical planning and update the incidence rate of medial carotid displacement in patients with 22q11.2DS. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion and preoperative MRA <18 years old who underwent tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, Furlow palatoplasty (FPP), posterior pharyngeal flap (PPF), sphincter pharyngoplasty (SPP), or submucosal cleft palate (SMCP) repair between January 1st, 2008 and December 31st, 2019. RESULTS: Ninety patients who met the inclusion criteria underwent 133 procedures. The majority identified as Caucasian (84.4%); 52.2% were female. Cervical MRA was more likely to be ordered before a PPF (80.9%) and tonsillectomy (72.7%) over a FPP (47.6%) or adenoidectomy (11.1%). Carotid medialization was visualized in 23 patients (25.6%) and was mild in 11 cases, moderate in 7 cases, and significant in 5 cases. There was no association between sex, race/ethnicity, or genetic diagnosis with carotid medialization. Flap shortening was necessary in 20% of PPF cases to avoid injuring the medialized vessel. CONCLUSION: Patients with 22q11.2DS may have higher rates of medialization of the carotid arteries than previously thought. Given the risk for complications in these patients during pharyngeal operations, there may be a critical place for MRA in surgical planning for patients with 22q11.2DS.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12235, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699385

RESUMO

The most prevalent microdeletion in humans occurs at 22q11.2, a region rich in chromosome-specific low copy repeats (LCR22s). The structure of this region has defied elucidation due to its size, regional complexity, and haplotype diversity, and is not well represented in the human genome reference. Most individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) carry a de novo hemizygous deletion of ~ 3 Mbp occurring by non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) mediated by LCR22s. In this study, optical mapping has been used to elucidate LCR22 structure and variation in 88 individuals in thirty 22q11.2DS families to uncover potential risk factors for germline rearrangements leading to 22q11.2DS offspring. Families were optically mapped to characterize LCR22 structures, NAHR locations, and genomic signatures associated with the deletion. Bioinformatics analyses revealed clear delineations between LCR22 structures in normal and deletion-containing haplotypes. Despite no explicit whole-haplotype predisposing configurations being identified, all NAHR events contain a segmental duplication encompassing FAM230 gene members suggesting preferred recombination sequences. Analysis of deletion breakpoints indicates that preferred recombinations occur between FAM230 and specific segmental duplication orientations within LCR22A and LCR22D, ultimately leading to NAHR. This work represents the most comprehensive analysis of 22q11.2DS NAHR events demonstrating completely contiguous LCR22 structures surrounding and within deletion breakpoints.

7.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(6): 392-400, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715620

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with impaired cognitive functions and increased risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Speech and language deficits are prominent, with evidence of decline anteceding emergence of psychosis. There is paucity of data examining language function in children with 22q11DS with follow-up assessment of psychosis spectrum (PS) symptoms. We examined the association between early language measures, obtained clinically, and PS status, obtained on average 10.1 years later, in 166 youths with 22q11DS, with repeated language testing in 48. Participants were administered the Preschool Language Scale (receptive/expressive), and/or, for school aged children, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (receptive/expressive), and age appropriate IQ tests. The structured interview for prodromal syndromes (SIPS) assessed PS symptoms. We found that performance on all preschool measures showed age associated decline, and males performed more poorly on core composite (receptive/expressive) and receptive language measures. For language assessment later in childhood, poorer performance was consistently associated with subsequent PS status. Furthermore, steeper age-related decline was seen in the PS group across language measures and marginally for full-scale IQ. These findings suggest that while preschool language testing is useful in characterizing performance decline in individuals with 22q11DS, it does not robustly differentiate those with subsequent PS from those without. However, language testing in the school age population can help identify individuals with 22q11DS who are at risk for psychosis. Such data are needed for elucidating a lifespan trajectory for affected individuals and may help understand pathways to psychosis applicable to the general population.

8.
Autism Res ; 13(7): 1227-1238, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567802

RESUMO

Previous studies investigating the association between dysmorphology and cognitive, behavioral, and developmental outcomes among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been limited by the binary classification of dysmorphology and lack of comparison groups. We assessed the association using a continuous measure of dysmorphology severity (DS) in preschool children aged 2-5 years (322 with ASD and intellectual disability [ID], 188 with ASD without ID, and 371 without ASD from the general population [POP]). In bivariate analyses, an inverse association between DS and expressive language, receptive language, fine motor, and visual reception skills was observed in children with ASD and ID. An inverse association of DS with fine motor and visual reception skills, but not expressive language and receptive language, was found in children with ASD without ID. No associations were observed in POP children. These results persisted after exclusion of children with known genetic syndromes or major morphologic anomalies. Quantile regression models showed that the inverse relationships remained significant after adjustment for sex, race/ethnicity, maternal education, family income, study site, and preterm birth. DS was not associated with autistic traits or autism symptom severity, behaviors, or regression among children with ASD with or without ID. Thus, DS was associated with a global impairment of cognitive functioning in children with ASD and ID, but only with fine motor and visual reception deficits in children with ASD without ID. A better understanding is needed for mechanisms that explain the association between DS and cognitive impairment in children with different disorders. Autism Res 2020, 13: 1227-1238. © 2020 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: We examined whether having more dysmorphic features (DFs) was related to developmental problems among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with or without intellectual disability (ID), and children without ASD from the general population (POP). Children with ASD and ID had more language, movement, and learning issues as the number of DFs increased. Children with ASD without ID had more movement and learning issues as the number of DFs increased. These relationships were not observed in the POP group. Implications are discussed.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500973

RESUMO

More than 50 individuals with activating variants in the receptor tyrosine kinase PDGFRB have been reported, separated based on clinical features into solitary myofibromas, infantile myofibromatosis, Penttinen syndrome with premature aging and osteopenia, Kosaki overgrowth syndrome, and fusiform aneurysms. Despite their descriptions as distinct clinical entities, review of previous reports demonstrates substantial phenotypic overlap. We present a case series of 12 patients with activating variants in PDGFRB and review of the literature. We describe five patients with PDGFRB activating variants whose clinical features overlap multiple diagnostic entities. Seven additional patients from a large family had variable expressivity and late-onset disease, including adult onset features and two individuals with sudden death. Three patients were treated with imatinib and had robust and rapid response, including the first two reported infants with multicentric myofibromas treated with imatinib monotherapy and one with a recurrent p.Val665Ala (Penttinen) variant. Along with previously reported individuals, our cohort suggests infants and young children had few abnormal features, while older individuals had multiple additional features, several of which appeared to worsen with advancing age. Our analysis supports a diagnostic entity of a spectrum disorders due to activating variants in PDGFRB. Differences in reported phenotypes can be dramatic and correlate with advancing age, genotype, and to mosaicism in some individuals.

10.
Genet Med ; 22(8): 1338-1347, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424177

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Genitopatellar syndrome and Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson syndrome are caused by variants in the KAT6B gene and are part of a broad clinical spectrum called KAT6B disorders, whose variable expressivity is increasingly being recognized. METHODS: We herein present the phenotypes of 32 previously unreported individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of a KAT6B disorder, report 24 new pathogenic KAT6B variants, and review phenotypic information available on all published individuals with this condition. We also suggest a classification of clinical subtypes within the KAT6B disorder spectrum. RESULTS: We demonstrate that cerebral anomalies, optic nerve hypoplasia, neurobehavioral difficulties, and distal limb anomalies other than long thumbs and great toes, such as polydactyly, are more frequently observed than initially reported. Intestinal malrotation and its serious consequences can be present in affected individuals. Additionally, we identified four children with Pierre Robin sequence, four individuals who had increased nuchal translucency/cystic hygroma prenatally, and two fetuses with severe renal anomalies leading to renal failure. We also report an individual in which a pathogenic variant was inherited from a mildly affected parent. CONCLUSION: Our work provides a comprehensive review and expansion of the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of KAT6B disorders that will assist clinicians in the assessment, counseling, and management of affected individuals.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(5): 623-631, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275884

RESUMO

Nucleoporins (NUPs) are an essential component of the nuclear-pore complex, which regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport of macromolecules. Pathogenic variants in NUP genes have been linked to several inherited human diseases, including a number with progressive neurological degeneration. We present six affected individuals with bi-allelic truncating variants in NUP188 and strikingly similar phenotypes and clinical courses, representing a recognizable genetic syndrome; the individuals are from four unrelated families. Key clinical features include congenital cataracts, hypotonia, prenatal-onset ventriculomegaly, white-matter abnormalities, hypoplastic corpus callosum, congenital heart defects, and central hypoventilation. Characteristic dysmorphic features include small palpebral fissures, a wide nasal bridge and nose, micrognathia, and digital anomalies. All affected individuals died as a result of respiratory failure, and five of them died within the first year of life. Nuclear import of proteins was decreased in affected individuals' fibroblasts, supporting a possible disease mechanism. CRISPR-mediated knockout of NUP188 in Drosophila revealed motor deficits and seizure susceptibility, partially recapitulating the neurological phenotype seen in affected individuals. Removal of NUP188 also resulted in aberrant dendrite tiling, suggesting a potential role of NUP188 in dendritic development. Two of the NUP188 pathogenic variants are enriched in the Ashkenazi Jewish population in gnomAD, a finding we confirmed with a separate targeted population screen of an international sampling of 3,225 healthy Ashkenazi Jewish individuals. Taken together, our results implicate bi-allelic loss-of-function NUP188 variants in a recessive syndrome characterized by a distinct neurologic, ophthalmologic, and facial phenotype.


Assuntos
Alelos , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/genética , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Dendritos/metabolismo , Dendritos/patologia , Drosophila melanogaster , Anormalidades do Olho/mortalidade , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Genes Recessivos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Judeus/genética , Masculino , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/deficiência , Convulsões/metabolismo , Síndrome , beta Carioferinas/metabolismo
13.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(11): 1900-1921, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196547

RESUMO

CTNND1 encodes the p120-catenin (p120) protein, which has a wide range of functions, including the maintenance of cell-cell junctions, regulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and transcriptional signalling. Due to advances in next-generation sequencing, CTNND1 has been implicated in human diseases including cleft palate and blepharocheilodontic (BCD) syndrome albeit only recently. In this study, we identify eight novel protein-truncating variants, six de novo, in 13 participants from nine families presenting with craniofacial dysmorphisms including cleft palate and hypodontia, as well as congenital cardiac anomalies, limb dysmorphologies and neurodevelopmental disorders. Using conditional deletions in mice as well as CRISPR/Cas9 approaches to target CTNND1 in Xenopus, we identified a subset of phenotypes that can be linked to p120-catenin in epithelial integrity and turnover, and additional phenotypes that suggest mesenchymal roles of CTNND1. We propose that CTNND1 variants have a wider developmental role than previously described and that variations in this gene underlie not only cleft palate and BCD but may be expanded to a broader velocardiofacial-like syndrome.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133772

RESUMO

Craniofacial morphogenesis is regulated in part by signaling from the Endothelin receptor type A (EDNRA). Pathogenic variants in EDNRA signaling pathway components EDNRA, GNAI3, PCLB4, and EDN1 cause Mandibulofacial Dysostosis with Alopecia (MFDA), Auriculocondylar syndrome (ARCND) 1, 2, and 3, respectively. However, cardiovascular development is normal in MFDA and ARCND individuals, unlike Ednra knockout mice. One explanation may be that partial EDNRA signaling remains in MFDA and ARCND, as mice with reduced, but not absent, EDNRA signaling also lack a cardiovascular phenotype. Here we report an individual with craniofacial and cardiovascular malformations mimicking the Ednra -/- mouse phenotype, including a distinctive micrognathia with microstomia and a hypoplastic aortic arch. Exome sequencing found a novel homozygous missense variant in EDNRA (c.1142A>C; p.Q381P). Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays revealed that this amino acid substitution in helix 8 of EDNRA prevents recruitment of G proteins to the receptor, abrogating subsequent receptor activation by its ligand, Endothelin-1. This homozygous variant is thus the first reported loss-of-function EDNRA allele, resulting in a syndrome we have named Oro-Oto-Cardiac Syndrome. Further, our results illustrate that EDNRA signaling is required for both normal human craniofacial and cardiovascular development, and that limited EDNRA signaling is likely retained in ARCND and MFDA individuals. This work illustrates a straightforward approach to identifying the functional consequence of novel genetic variants in signaling molecules associated with malformation syndromes.

15.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(7): 589-600, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is among the strongest known genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported variable alterations in subcortical brain structures in 22q11DS. To better characterize subcortical alterations in 22q11DS, including modulating effects of clinical and genetic heterogeneity, the authors studied a large multicenter neuroimaging cohort from the ENIGMA 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Working Group. METHODS: Subcortical structures were measured using harmonized protocols for gross volume and subcortical shape morphometry in 533 individuals with 22q11DS and 330 matched healthy control subjects (age range, 6-56 years; 49% female). RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the 22q11DS group showed lower intracranial volume (ICV) and thalamus, putamen, hippocampus, and amygdala volumes and greater lateral ventricle, caudate, and accumbens volumes (Cohen's d values, -0.90 to 0.93). Shape analysis revealed complex differences in the 22q11DS group across all structures. The larger A-D deletion was associated with more extensive shape alterations compared with the smaller A-B deletion. Participants with 22q11DS with psychosis showed lower ICV and hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus volumes (Cohen's d values, -0.91 to 0.53) compared with participants with 22q11DS without psychosis. Shape analysis revealed lower thickness and surface area across subregions of these structures. Compared with subcortical findings from other neuropsychiatric disorders studied by the ENIGMA consortium, significant convergence was observed between participants with 22q11DS with psychosis and participants with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest neuroimaging study of 22q11DS to date, the authors found widespread alterations to subcortical brain structures, which were affected by deletion size and psychotic illness. Findings indicate significant overlap between 22q11DS-associated psychosis, idiopathic schizophrenia, and other severe neuropsychiatric illnesses.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/patologia , Transtornos Mentais/patologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atrofia/patologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Síndrome de DiGeorge/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertrofia/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961069

RESUMO

Tatton-Brown Rahman syndrome (TBRS) is an overgrowth-intellectual disability syndrome caused by heterozygous variants in DNMT3A. Seventy-eight individuals have been reported with a consistent phenotype of somatic overgrowth, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and similar dysmorphisms. We present six individuals with TBRS, including the youngest individual thus far reported, first individual to be diagnosed with tumor testing and two individuals with variants at the Arg882 domain, bringing the total number of reported cases to 82. Patients reported herein have additional clinical features not previously reported in TBRS. One patient had congenital diaphragmatic hernia. One patient carrying the recurrent p.Arg882His DNMT3A variant, who was previously reported as having a phenotype due to a truncating variant in the CLTC gene, developed a ganglioneuroblastoma at 18 months and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma at 6 years of age. Four patients manifested symptoms suggestive of autonomic dysfunction, including central sleep apnea, postural orthostatic hypotension, and episodic vasomotor instability in the extremities. We discuss the molecular and clinical findings in our patients with TBRS in context of existing literature.

18.
Ann Plast Surg ; 84(6): 665-671, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913900

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize airway problems, speech outcomes, and facial growth in patients with Stickler syndrome undergoing cleft palate repair. METHODS: A retrospective, longitudinal study was performed at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia on 25 patients with Stickler syndrome and 53 nonsyndromic patients with clefts of the secondary palate repaired between 1977 and 2000. Airway problems were characterized by the incidence of Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS) and the necessity for surgical airway management. Speech was analyzed using the Pittsburgh weighted values for speech symptoms associated with velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI). Longitudinal anthropometric measurements represented up to 12 years of longitudinal cephalofacial growth. RESULTS: Seventy-two percent of patients with Stickler syndrome were diagnosed with PRS, 55.6% of whom required surgical airway management. Conversely, 20.8% of nonsyndromic patients were diagnosed with PRS (P < 0.0001), 18% of whom required surgical intervention (P < 0.05). Speech outcomes were poorer in patients with Stickler syndrome with 40% demonstrating borderline VPI and 13.3% demonstrating VPI, compared with 21.8% and 9.1%, respectively, in the nonsyndromic group. Both groups exhibited significantly shallower upper and mid facial depths and wider upper facial breadths when compared with normal standards of facial growth. Although there was a tendency toward decreased facial depths in patients with Stickler syndrome relative to nonsyndromic patients, the differences were nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with Stickler syndrome show significant potential for early airway compromise and a poorer prognosis for speech outcome after cleft palate repair. Their cephalofacial growth does not differ significantly from that of nonsyndromic cleft palate patients.

19.
Genet Med ; 22(2): 389-397, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sifrim-Hitz-Weiss syndrome (SIHIWES) is a recently described multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder caused by de novo variants inCHD4. In this study, we investigated the clinical spectrum of the disorder, genotype-phenotype correlations, and the effect of different missense variants on CHD4 function. METHODS: We collected clinical and molecular data from 32 individuals with mostly de novo variants in CHD4, identified through next-generation sequencing. We performed adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis and nucleosome remodeling assays on variants from five different CHD4 domains. RESULTS: The majority of participants had global developmental delay, mild to moderate intellectual disability, brain anomalies, congenital heart defects, and dysmorphic features. Macrocephaly was a frequent but not universal finding. Additional common abnormalities included hypogonadism in males, skeletal and limb anomalies, hearing impairment, and ophthalmic abnormalities. The majority of variants were nontruncating and affected the SNF2-like region of the protein. We did not identify genotype-phenotype correlations based on the type or location of variants. Alterations in ATP hydrolysis and chromatin remodeling activities were observed in variants from different domains. CONCLUSION: The CHD4-related syndrome is a multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder. Missense substitutions in different protein domains alter CHD4 function in a variant-specific manner, but result in a similar phenotype in humans.

20.
Genet Med ; 22(2): 326-335, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474763

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion in humans, with highly variable phenotypic expression. Whereas congenital heart defects, palatal anomalies, immunodeficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and neuropsychiatric conditions are observed in over 50% of patients with 22q11DS, a subset of patients present with additional "atypical" findings such as craniosynostosis and anorectal malformations. Recently, pathogenic variants in the CDC45 (Cell Division Cycle protein 45) gene, located within the LCR22A-LCR22B region of chromosome 22q11.2, were noted to be involved in the pathogenesis of craniosynostosis. METHODS: We performed next-generation sequencing on DNA from 15 patients with 22q11.2DS and atypical phenotypic features such as craniosynostosis, short stature, skeletal differences, and anorectal malformations. RESULTS: We identified four novel rare nonsynonymous variants in CDC45 in 5/15 patients with 22q11.2DS and craniosynostosis and/or other atypical findings. CONCLUSION: This study supports CDC45 as a causative gene in craniosynostosis, as well as a number of other anomalies. We suggest that this association results in a condition independent of Meier-Gorlin syndrome, perhaps representing a novel condition and/or a cause of features associated with Baller-Gerold syndrome. In addition, this work confirms that the phenotypic variability observed in a subset of patients with 22q11.2DS is due to pathogenic variants on the nondeleted chromosome.

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