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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298038

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) little is known about the clinical impact of catheter ablation (CA) of septal ventricular tachycardia (VT) resulting in the collateral injury of the conduction system (CICS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety-five consecutive patients with NICM underwent CA of septal VT. Outcomes in patients with no baseline conduction abnormalities who developed CICS (group 1, n = 28 [29%]) were compared to patients with no CICS (group 2, n = 17 [18%]) and to patients with preexisting conduction abnormalities or biventricular pacing (group 3, n = 50 [53%]). Group-1 patients were younger, had a higher left ventricular ejection fraction and a lower prevalence of New York Heart Association III/IV class compared to group 3 while no significant differences were observed with group 2. After a median follow-up of 15 months, VT recurred in 14% of patients in group 1, 12% in group 2 (P = .94) and 32% in group 3 (P = .08) while death/transplant occurred in 14% of patients in group 1, 18% in group 2 (P = .69) and 28% in group 3 (P = .15). A worsening of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (median LVEF variation, -5%) was observed in group 1 compared to group 2 (median LVEF variation, 0%; P < .01) but not group-3 patients (median LVEF variation, -4%; P = .08) with a consequent higher need for new biventricular pacing in group 1 (43%) compared to group 2 (12%; P = .03) and group 3 (16%; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NICM and septal substrate, sparing the abnormal substrate harboring the conduction system provides acceptable VT control while preventing a worsening of the systolic function.

2.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(5): 484-490, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to report a multicenter series of left-sided catheter ablations performed by using intravenous direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) as an alternative to heparin. BACKGROUND: Amidst a looming worldwide shortage of heparin, there are insufficient data to guide nonheparin-based peri-procedural anticoagulation in patients undergoing catheter ablation. METHODS: This study reviewed all catheter ablations at 6 institutions between 2006 and 2019 to assess the safety and efficacy of DTIs for left-sided radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. RESULTS: In total, 53 patients (age 63.0 ± 9.3 years, 68% male, CHA2DS2-VASc [congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65 to 74 years, sex category] score 2.8 ± 1.6, left ventricular ejection fraction 46 ± 15%) underwent ablation with DTIs (75% bivalirudin, 25% argatroban) due to heparin contraindication(s) (72% heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, 21% heparin allergy, 4% protamine reaction, and 4% religious reasons). The patient's usual oral anticoagulant was continued without interruption in 69%. Procedures were performed for atrial fibrillation (64%) or ventricular tachycardia/premature ventricular contractions (36%). Transseptal puncture was undertaken in 81%, and a contact force-sensing catheter was used in 70%. Vascular ultrasound was used in 71%, and femoral arterial access was gained in 36%. A bolus followed by infusion was used in all but 4 cases, and activated clotting time was monitored peri-procedurally in 72%, with 32% receiving additional boluses. Procedure duration was 216 ± 116 min, and ablation time was 51 ± 22 min. No major bleeding or embolic complications were observed. Four patients had minor self-limiting bleeding complications, including a small pericardial effusion (<1 cm), a small groin hematoma, and hematuria. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter series, intravenous DTIs were safely used as an alternative to heparin for left-sided catheter ablation.

4.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(2): 221-230, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine clinical characteristics of procedural and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing catheter ablation (CA) of outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias (OT-VAs) over 16 years. BACKGROUND: CA is an effective treatment strategy for OT-VAs. METHODS: Patients undergoing CA for OT-VAs from 1999 to 2015 were divided into 3 periods: 1999 to 2004 (early), 2005 to 2010 (middle), and 2011 to 2015 (recent). Successful ablation site (right ventricular OT, aortic cusps/left ventricular OT, or coronary venous system/epicardium), VA morphology (right bundle branch block or left bundle branch block), and acute and clinical success rates were assessed. RESULTS: Six hundred eighty-two patients (336 female) were included (early: n = 97; middle: n = 204; recent: n = 381). Over time there was increase in use of irrigated ablation catheters and electroanatomic mapping, and more VAs were ablated from the aortic cusp/left ventricular OT or coronary venous system/epicardium (14% vs. 45% vs. 56%; p < 0.0001). Acute procedural success was achieved in 585 patients (86%) and was similar between groups (82% vs. 84% vs. 88%; p = 0.27). Clinical success was also similar between groups (86% vs. 87% vs. 88%; p = 0.94), but more patients in earlier periods required repeat ablation (18% vs. 17% vs. 9%; p = 0.02). Overall complication rate was 2% (similar between groups). CONCLUSIONS: Over a 16-year period there was an increase in patients undergoing CA for OT-VTs, with more ablations performed at non-right ventricular outflow tract locations using electroanatomic mapping and irrigated-tip catheters. Over time, single procedure success has improved and complications have remained limited.

5.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(1): 21-30, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to investigate incidence of left atrial appendage (LAA) triggers of atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or organized atrial tachycardias (OAT) in patients undergoing AF ablation and to evaluate outcomes after ablation. BACKGROUND: Although LAA isolation is being increasingly performed during AF ablation, the true incidence of LAA triggers for AF remains unclear. METHODS: All patients with LAA triggers of AF and/or OAT during AF ablation from 2001 to 2017 were included. LAA triggers were defined as atrial premature depolarizations from the LAA, which initiated sustained AF and/or OAT. RESULTS: Out of 7,129 patients undergoing AF ablation over 16 years, LAA triggers were observed in 21 (0.3%) subjects (age 60 ± 9 years; 57% males; 52% persistent AF). Twenty (95%) patients were undergoing repeat ablation. The LAA was the only nonpulmonary vein trigger in 3 patients; the remaining 18 patients had both LAA and other nonpulmonary vein triggers. LAA triggers were eliminated in all patients (focal ablation in 19 patients; LAA isolation in 2 patients). Twelve months after ablation, 47.6% remained free from recurrent arrhythmia. After overall follow-up of 5.0 ± 3.6 years (median: 3.7 years; interquartile range: 1.4 to 8.9 years), 38.1% were arrhythmia-free. All 3 patients with triggers limited to the LAA remained free of AF recurrence. One patient undergoing LAA isolation developed LAA thrombus during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of true LAA triggers is very low (0.3%). Most patients with LAA triggers have additional nonpulmonary vein triggers, and despite elimination of LAA triggers, long-term arrhythmia recurrence rates remain high. Potential risks of empiric LAA isolation during AF ablation (especially first-time AF ablation) may outweigh benefits.

6.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(1): e007611, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data characterizing structural changes of arrhythmogenic right ventricular (RV) cardiomyopathy are limited. METHODS: Patients presenting with left bundle branch block ventricular tachycardia in the setting of arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy with procedures separated by at least 9 months were included. RESULTS: Nineteen consecutive patients (84% males; mean age 39±15 years [range, 20-76 years]) were included. All 19 patients underwent 2 detailed sinus rhythm electroanatomic endocardial voltage maps (average 385±177 points per map; range, 93-847 points). Time interval between the initial and repeat ablation procedures was mean 50±37 months (range, 9-162). No significant progression of voltage was observed (bipolar: 38 cm2 [interquartile range (IQR), 25-54] versus 53 cm2 [IQR, 25-65], P=0.09; unipolar: 116 cm2 [IQR, 61-209] versus 159 cm2 [IQR, 73-204], P=0.36) for the entire study group. There was a significant increase in RV volumes (percentage increase, 28%; 206 mL [IQR, 170-253] versus 263 mL [IQR, 204-294], P<0.001) for the entire study population. Larger scars at baseline but not changes over time were associated with a significant increase in RV volume (bipolar: Spearman ρ, 0.6965, P=0.006; unipolar: Spearman ρ, 0.5743, P=0.03). Most patients with progressive RV dilatation (8/14, 57%) had moderate (2 patients) or severe (6 patients) tricuspid regurgitation recorded at either initial or repeat ablation procedure. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy presenting with recurrent ventricular tachycardia, >10% increase in RV endocardial surface area of bipolar voltage consistent with scar is uncommon during the intermediate term. Most recurrent ventricular tachycardias are localized to regions of prior defined scar. Voltage indexed scar area at baseline but not changes in scar over time is associated with progressive increase in RV size and is consistent with adverse remodeling but not scar progression. Marked tricuspid regurgitation is frequently present in patients with arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy who have progressive RV dilation.

7.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(2): e007586, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conflicting data have been reported on the association of left atrial (LA) late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with atrial voltage in patients with atrial fibrillation. The association of LGE with electrogram fractionation and delay remains to be examined. We sought to examine the association between LA LGE on cardiac magnetic resonance and electrogram abnormalities in patients with atrial fibrillation. METHODS: High-resolution LGE cardiac magnetic resonance was performed before electrogram mapping and ablation in atrial fibrillation patients. Cardiac magnetic resonance features were quantified using LA myocardial signal intensity Z score (SI-Z), a continuous normalized variable, as well as a dichotomous LGE variable based on previously validated methodology. Electrogram mapping was performed pre-ablation during sinus rhythm or LA pacing, and electrogram locations were coregistered with cardiac magnetic resonance images. Analyses were performed using multilevel patient-clustered mixed-effects regression models. RESULTS: In the 40 patients with atrial fibrillation (age, 63.2±9.2 years; 1312.3±767.3 electrogram points per patient), lower bipolar voltage was associated with higher SI-Z in patients who had undergone previous ablation (coefficient, -0.049; P<0.001) but not in ablation-naive patients (coefficient, -0.004; P=0.7). LA electrogram activation delay was associated with SI-Z in patients with previous ablation (SI-Z: coefficient, 0.004; P<0.001 and LGE: coefficient, 0.04; P<0.001) but not in ablation-naive patients. In contrast, increased LA electrogram fractionation was associated with SI-Z (coefficient, 0.012; P=0.03) and LGE (coefficient, 0.035; P<0.001) only in ablation-naive patients. CONCLUSIONS: The association of LA LGE with voltage is modified by ablation. Importantly, in ablation-naive patients, atrial LGE is associated with electrogram fractionation even in the absence of voltage abnormalities.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440875

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), abnormal electroanatomic mapping (EAM) areas are proportional to extent of T-wave inversion on 12-lead ECG. We aimed to evaluate local repolarization changes and their relationship to EAM substrate in ARVC. METHODS: Using unipolar recordings, we analyzed the proportion of negative T waves ≥ 1 mV in depth (NegT), NegT area, Q-Tpeak (QTP), Tpeak-Tend (TPE) intervals and their relationship to bipolar (< 1.5 mV ENDO, < 1.0 mV EPI) and unipolar (< 5.5 mV) endocardial (ENDO) and epicardial (EPI) low-voltage area (LVA) in 21 pts. (15 men, mean age 39 ± 14) with ARVC. Control group included 5 pts. with normal hearts and idiopathic PVCs. RESULTS: On ENDO, the % of NegT (7 ± 5% vs 30 ± 20%, p = 0.004) and the NegT area (12.9 ± 9.7 c m2 vs 61.4 ± 30.0 cm2, p = 0.001) were smaller in ARVC compared to controls. On EPI, the % of NegT was similar (5 ± 7% vs 3 ± 4%, p = 0.323) and the NegT area, larger (11.0 ± 8.4 cm2 vs 2.7 ± 0.9 cm2, p = 0.027) in ARVC group. In ARVC group, the % of NegT area inside LVA was larger on EPI compared to ENDO for both bipolar (81 ± 27% vs 31 ± 33%, p < 0.001) and unipolar (90 ± 19% vs 73 ± 28%, p = 0.036) recordings. Compared to normal voltage regions, QTP inside ENDO abnormal LVA was on average 58 ± 26 ms shorter and TPE, 25 ± 56 ms longer (97 ± 26 ms and 56 ± 86 ms on EPI, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In ARVC, NegT areas are more closely associated with abnormal depolarization LVA on the EPI and QTP is shorter and TPE longer inside ENDO and EPI abnormal LVA compared to normal voltage regions. The results add to our understanding of ARVC arrhythmia substrate.

9.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(7): 801-813, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the performance of established risk models in predicting outcomes after catheter ablation (CA) in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) and ventricular tachycardia (VT). BACKGROUND: A correct pre-procedural risk stratification of patients with NIDCM and VT undergoing CA is crucial. The performance of different pre-procedural risk stratification approaches to predict outcomes of CA of VT in patients with NIDCM is unknown. METHODS: The study compared the performance of 8 prognostic scores (SHFM [Seattle Heart Failure Model], MAGGIC [Meta-analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure], ADHERE [Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry], EFFECT [Enhanced Feedback for Effective Cardiac Treatment-Heart Failure], OPTIMIZE-HF [Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure], CHARM [Candesartan in Heart Failure-Assessment of Reduction in Mortality], EuroSCORE [European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation], and PAINESD [Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Age > 60 Years, Ischemic Cardiomyopathy, New York Heart Association Functional Class III or IV, Ejection Fraction <25%, Presentation With VT Storm, Diabetes Mellitus]) for the endpoints of death/cardiac transplantation and VT recurrence in 282 consecutive patients (age 59 ± 15 years, left ventricular ejection fraction: 36 ± 13%) with NIDCM undergoing CA of VT. Discrimination and calibration of each model were evaluated through area under the curve (AUC) of receiver-operating characteristic curve and goodness-of-fit test. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 48 (interquartile range: 19-67) months, 43 patients (15%) died, 24 (9%) underwent heart transplantation, and 58 (21%) experienced VT recurrence. The prognostic accuracy of SHFM (AUC = 0.89; goodness-of-fit p = 0.68 for death/transplant and AUC = 0.77; goodness-of-fit p = 0.16 for VT recurrence) and PAINESD (AUC = 0.83; goodness-of-fit p = 0.24 for death/transplant and AUC = 0.68; goodness-of-fit p = 0.58 for VT recurrence) were significantly superior to that of other scores. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NIDCM and VT undergoing CA, the SHFM and PAINESD risk scores are powerful predictors of recurrent VT and death/transplant during follow-up, with similar performance and significantly superior to other scores. A pre-procedural calculation of the SHFM and PAINESD can be useful to predict outcomes.

10.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(9): 1526-1534, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187564

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is characterized by an epicardial (EPI) to endocardial (ENDO) fibrofatty infiltration of the RV predisposing to both EPI and ENDO ventricular tachycardia (VT). The relative timing between the VT QRS onset on the far-field ventricular electrogram (VEGM) to the local activation time recorded at the RV apex on the near-field VEGM from stored implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) events of VT can be helpful to discriminate ENDO from EPI VT in ARVC. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed consecutive ARVC patients undergoing catheter ablation between 2006 and 2018. Only patients with retrievable ICD VEGMs of clinical VTs which could be matched with VTs induced at the time of ablation were included. A total of 26 VT events (16 ENDO, 10 EPI) from 19 ARVC patients were examined, yielding a mean far-field to near-field interval of 33 ± 15 ms for ENDO VTs and 52 ± 20 ms for EPI VTs (P = .020). At receiver-operating characteristic analysis, a far-field to a near-field interval of 60 ms or more ruled out ENDO VTs in 16 (100%) cases and identified EPI VTs with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 73%. An interval of less than or equal to 30 ms ruled out EPI VTs in eight (80%) cases and diagnosed ENDO VTs with a PPV of 80% and an NPV of 50%. CONCLUSION: Far-field to near-field ICD VEGM timing may be used to predict ENDO vs EPI VT in ARVC before ablation, indicating an ENDO origin if the timing is less than or equal to 30 ms and an EPI origin if greater than or equal to 60 ms.

11.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(6): 865-876, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834593

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nonpulmonary vein (non-PV) triggers of atrial fibrillation (AF) are targets for ablation but their localization remains challenging. The aim of this study was to describe P-wave (PW) morphologic characteristics and intra-atrial activation patterns and timing from multipolar coronary sinus (CS) and crista terminalis (CT) catheters that localize non-PV triggers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Selective pacing from six right and nine left atrial common non-PV trigger sites was performed in 30 consecutive patients. We analyzed 12 lead ECG features based on PW duration, amplitude and morphology, and patterns and timing of multipolar activation for all 15 sites. Regionalization and then precise localization required criteria present in at least 70% of assessments at each pacing site. The algorithm was then prospectively evaluated by four blinded observers in a validation cohort of 18 consecutive patients undergoing the same pacing protocol and 60 consecutive patients who underwent successful non-PV trigger ablation. The algorithm for site regionalization included 1) negative PW in V1, ≥30 µV change in PW amplitude across the leads V1-V3, and PW duration ≤100 milliseconds in lead 2 and 2) unique intra-atrial activation patterns and timing noted in the multipolar catheters. Specific ECG and intra-atrial activation timing characteristics included in the algorithm allowed for more precise site localization after regionalization. In the prospective evaluation, the algorithm identified the site of origin for 72% of paced and 70% of spontaneous non-PV trigger sites. CONCLUSION: An algorithm based on PW morphology and intra-atrial multipolar activation pattern and timing can help identify non-PV trigger sites of origin.

12.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(5): 631-638, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706975

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: After atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation, oral anticoagulation (OAC) is recommended if stroke risk as assessed by CHA2 DS 2 -VASc score is high. However, patients without AF are often reluctant to take daily OAC. We describe outcome using as needed nonvitamin K antagonist (NOACs) guided by pulse monitoring to detect AF following successful ablation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 99 patients (84% male, age 64 ± 8 years), CHA2 DS 2 -VASc score greater than or equal to 1 in men and greater than or equal to 2 in women (median 2, range 1-6), capable of pulse assessment twice daily and no AF on extended monitoring after AF ablation. All patients were instructed to start NOAC if AF >1 hour or recurrent shorter episodes. Duration of NOAC use after restart was typically 2 to 4 weeks. After 30 ± 14 months (total 244 patient-years), 22 patients (22%) transitioned to daily NOAC because of noncompliance with pulse assessment or patient preference (six patients) or because of suspected or documented AF episode(s) in 16 (16%) patients. Of the remaining 77 (78%), 14 (14%) used NOACs but did not transition back to daily use, most (10 patients) with single use (seven patients) or non-AF rhythm (three patients) documented. There was only one thromboembolic event (0.4%/yr of follow-up) in patient without AF and one mild bleeding event (epistaxis). CONCLUSION: The use of as needed NOACs when AF is suspected with pulse monitoring is effective and safe to maintain low risk of stroke and bleeding after successful ablation. Transition back to daily NOAC use should be anticipated in about one quarter of patients.

13.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(1): 28-38, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the substrate, procedural strategies, safety, and outcomes of catheter ablation (CA) for ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with aortic valve replacement (AVR). BACKGROUND: VT ablation in patients with AVR is challenging, particularly when mapping and ablation in the periaortic region are necessary. METHODS: We identified consecutive patients with mechanical, bioprosthetic, and transcatheter AVR who underwent CA for VT refractory to antiarrhythmic drugs and analyzed VT substrate, approach to LV access, complications, and long-term outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 29 patients (87% men, mean age 67.9 ± 9.8 years, left ventricular ejection fraction 39 ± 10%) with prior AVR (13 mechanical, 15 bioprosthetic, 1 transcatheter AVR) underwent 40 ablations from 2004 to 2016. Left-sided mapping/CA was performed in 27 patients (36 procedures). Access was retrograde aortic in 11 procedures (all bioprosthetic), transseptal in 24 (13 mechanical; 10 bioprosthetic; 1 transcatheter AVR), or transventricular septal in 1. Periaortic bipolar or unipolar scar was detected in all 24 patients in whom detailed periaortic mapping was performed. Clinical VT circuit(s) involved the periaortic region in 10 patients (34%), 2 (7%) had bundle branch re-entry VT, and 17 (59%) had substrate unrelated to AVR. There were 2 major complications (both related to vascular access). Only 2 patients (9.1%) had VT recurrence. Over median follow-up of 12.8 months, 11 patients died (none as a result of recurrent VT). CONCLUSIONS: Whereas most patients undergoing CA for VT after AVR had VT from substrate unrelated to AVR, periaortic scar is universally present and bundle branch re-entry can be the VT mechanism. CA can be safely performed with excellent long-term VT elimination.

14.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(1): 55-65, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the long-term outcomes of catheter ablation (CA) of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in a series of patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) without background implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy. BACKGROUND: Endo-epicardial CA of VT has been demonstrated to be highly effective in reducing recurrent VT in patients with ARVC. METHODS: Thirty-two patients (age 45 ± 13 years, 72% male) with ARVC and VT underwent CA in the absence of ICD therapy. ICD was recommended in all cases, but implantation was not performed due to patient refusal (63%) or financial hardship (37%). CA was guided by activation/entrainment mapping for mappable VT and pace mapping/targeting of abnormal substrate in cases of unmappable VT. RESULTS: Symptoms associated with clinical VT included palpitations (78%), chest pain and shortness of breath (22%), pre-syncope (16%), and syncope (13%). Prior to ablation, 22 patients (69%) failed a mean of 1.3 ± 0.5 antiarrhythmic drugs. Epicardial mapping and ablation was performed as first-line strategy (20 [63%]) or in case of recurrent VT or persistent inducibility after endocardial-only ablation (3 [9%]-surgical epicardial cryoablation in 1 patient). After a mean of 1.6 (range 1 to 3) procedures, all patients demonstrated noninducibility of sustained VT from at least 2 RV sites; 75% also had stimulation on isoproterenol with no inducible VT. At a median follow-up of 46 months (range 26 to 65 months) following the last ablation, no deaths were observed and freedom from recurrent VT was 81%. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter international registry of patients with ARVC and VT, CA performed in the absence of background ICD was associated with a low rate of symptomatic VT recurrence (19%) without mortality during 46-month median follow-up. These data suggest that further prospective studies may refine selection of patients with structural heart disease at low risk for SCD, possibly obviating the benefit of ICD therapy.

15.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(5): 724-732, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal site of ablation of idiopathic left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) is challenging as activation mapping can reveal similar activation times in different anatomical sites, suggesting an intramural origin. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess whether in patients with intramural VAs and with multiple early activation sites (EASs), sequential ablation of all the early EASs could improve acute and long-term clinical outcomes. METHODS: A total of 116 patients undergoing catheter ablation for symptomatic LVOT VAs were enrolled in this study. Thirty-nine patients (34%) were referred for a redo procedure, whereas the remaining presented for a first procedure. Mapping was performed manually in 86 cases (74%) and with a magnetic robotic system (Niobe, Stereotaxis, St. Louis, MO) in the remainder of the cases. RESULTS: Of the 116 patients, 15 (13%) were found to have multiple sites of equally early activation. In patients with multiple EASs, the mean pre-QRS activation time was significantly less than in patients with a single EASs (-26 ± 3 ms vs -38 ± 6 ms; P < .005). Sequential ablation of all the EASs was possible in 14 patients (93%), resulting in complete arrhythmia suppression. After a mean follow-up of 21 ± 5 months, all patients with successful ablation of all multiple early EASs remained free from clinical VAs. CONCLUSION: Intramural LVOT VAs manifesting with multiple EASs require ablation at all sites to achieve acute and long-term success, particularly if none of the EASs is > -30ms pre-QRS activation time.

16.
Europace ; 21(3): 484-491, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535322

RESUMO

AIMS: Catheter ablation of outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias (OTVAs) with the earliest activation within the coronary venous system (CVS) can be challenging. When ablation from the CVS is not feasible or ineffective, an approach from anatomically adjacent site(s) can be considered. We report the outcomes of an anatomical approach for OTVAs linked to the CVS. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively analysed 665 OTVA patients. Of these, 65 (9.8%) had the earliest activation within the CVS. In 53 (82%) cases, an anatomical approach was attempted. The targeted adjacent anatomical structure was the endocardial left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) in 24 (45%), the left coronary cusp or the left/right cusp junction in 17 (32%) patients, and the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) in 12 (23%). The anatomical approach was successful in 26 (49%) patients (27% from the coronary cusps, 65% from the LVOT, and 8% from the RVOT). The difference in activation times between the earliest activation site within the CVS and the targeted site was not significantly different between the successful and unsuccessful groups (14.2 ± 11.2 ms vs. 13.2 ± 9.3 ms; P = 0.89). The anatomical distance from the earliest activation site to the targeted site was shorter for the successful group (9.7 ± 2.4 mm vs. 13.1 ± 6.5 mm; P < 0.05). In particular, when the anatomical distance was >12.8 mm, anatomical approach was successful in only 1/13 (8%). CONCLUSION: In patients with OTVAs linked to the CVS, an anatomical approach targeting an adjacent site can be effective, particularly when the distance between the sites is <12.8 mm.

17.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(6): 873-878, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) has been considered a relative contraindication to electrophysiology (EP) procedures that require transfemoral venous placement of multiple catheters and/or long sheaths. There are inadequate data related to complex EP procedures in this population. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of a single high-volume center with respect to complex EP procedures in patients with IVCFs. METHODS: Patients with IVCFs undergoing complex EP procedures between 2004 and 2018 were identified. Clinical characteristics, IVCF type, procedural findings, and complications were analyzed. RESULTS: Fifty complex ablation procedures were performed in 40 patients (mean age 63.8 ± 10.9 years; 68% men). The mean IVCF dwell time was 69.1 ± 19.1 months, and 48 patients (96%) were on chronic oral anticoagulation. Procedures included ablation of atrial fibrillation (n = 21), ventricular tachycardia (n = 20), supraventricular tachycardia (n = 3), cavotricuspid isthmus flutter (n = 3), supraventricular tachycardia and cavotricuspid isthmus flutter (n = 1), and transvenous lead extraction (n = 3). Twenty procedures included quadripolar catheters (mean 1.4 ± 0.75), and 33 procedures involved deflectable decapolar catheters (mean 1.7 ± 0.47). Long sheaths were used in 35 cases (mean 1.63 ± 0.49) and intracardiac echocardiography in 38. In 4 cases (involving 3 patients), the IVCF was occluded and could not be crossed. There were no procedural complications related to the IVCF. CONCLUSION: The substantial majority of IVCFs in patients presenting for complex EP procedures were patent and easily crossed under fluoroscopic guidance. The presence of an IVCF should not discourage operators from performing procedures that require transfemoral deployment of multiple catheters and/or sheaths.

18.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 4(9): 1155-1162, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize septal substrate in patients with nonischemic left ventricular cardiomyopathy (NILVCM) undergoing ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation. BACKGROUND: The interventricular septum is an important site of VT substrate in NILVCM. METHODS: The authors studied 95 patients with NILVCM and VT. Electroanatomic mapping using standard bipolar (<1.5 mV) and unipolar (<8.3 mV) low-voltage criteria identified septal scar location and size. Analysis of unipolar voltage was performed and scars quantified using graded unipolar cutoffs from 4 to 8.3 mV were correlated with delayed gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (DE-CMR), performed in 57 patients. RESULTS: Detailed LV endocardial mapping (mean 262 ± 138 points) showed septal bipolar and unipolar voltage abnormalities (VAs) in 44 (46%) and 79 (83%) patients, most commonly with basal anteroseptal involvement. Of the 59 patients in whom the septum was targeted, bipolar and unipolar septal VAs were seen in 36 (61%) and 54 (92%). Of the 35 with CMR-defined septal scar, bipolar and unipolar septal VAs were seen in 18 (51%) and 31 (89%). In 12 patients without CMR septal scar, 6 (50%) had isolated unipolar septal VAs on electroanatomic mapping, a subset of whom the septum was targeted for ablation (44%). In the graded unipolar analysis, the optimal cutoff associated with magnetic resonance imaging septal scar was 4.8 mV (sensitivity 75%, specificity 70%; area under the curve: 0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.60 to 0.90). CONCLUSIONS: Septal substrate by unipolar or bipolar voltage mapping in patients with NILVCM and VT is common. A unipolar voltage cutoff of 4.8 mV provides the best correlation with DE-CMR. A subset of patients with septal VT had normal DE-CMR or endocardial bipolar voltage with abnormal unipolar voltage.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Septo Interventricular/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Ablação por Cateter , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Taquicardia Ventricular/cirurgia , Septo Interventricular/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 29(11): 1515-1522, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230106

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Differentiation of right versus left ventricular outflow tract (RVOT vs. LVOT) arrhythmia origin with left bundle branch block right inferior axis (LBRI) morphology is relevant to ablation planning and risk discussion. Our aim was to determine if lead I R-wave amplitude is useful for differentiation of RVOT from LVOT arrhythmias with LBRI morphology. METHODS: The R-wave amplitude in lead I was measured in a retrospective cohort of 75 consecutive patients with LBRI pattern ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) successfully ablated from the RVOT (n = 54), LVOT (n = 16), or the anterior interventricular vein (AIV; n = 5). The optimal R-wave threshold was identified and diagnostic indices were compared with the previously reported transitional zone (TZ) index and V2S/V3R index. RESULTS: An R-wave amplitude greater than or equal to 0.1 mV predicted LVOT origin with 75% sensitivity and 98.2% specificity. In comparison, the TZ and V2S/V3R indices had 50% and 68.8% sensitivity, and 75.9% and 88.9% specificity, respectively, for predicting LVOT origin. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.85 for lead I R-wave amplitude, 0.87 for V2S/V3R, and 0.72 for the TZ index. Of 36 cases with QS in lead I, 30 (83.3%) were from the anterior RVOT, three (8.3%) from the LVOT, and three (8.3%) from the AIV. CONCLUSION: The presence of R-wave amplitude in lead I (≥0.1 mV) is a simple and useful criterion to identify LVOT cusp or endocardium focus in LBRI arrhythmias. A QS pattern in lead I suggests an origin in the anterior RVOT, or less commonly the adjacent LV summit.


Assuntos
Bloqueio de Ramo/diagnóstico , Bloqueio de Ramo/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Eletrocardiografia/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 29(11): 1530-1539, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230120

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The characteristics of the epicardial (EPI) substrate responsible for ventricular tachycardia (VT) in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) are undefined, and data on the long-term outcomes of EPI catheter ablation limited. We evaluated the prevalence, electrophysiologic features, and outcomes of catheter ablation of EPI VT in ICM. METHODS AND RESULTS: From December 2010 to June 2013, a total of 13 of 93 (14%) patients with ICM underwent catheter ablation at our institution and had conclusive evidence of critical EPI substrate demonstrated to participate in VT with activation, entrainment and/or pace mapping during sinus rhythm (two other patients underwent EPI mapping but had no optimal ablation targets). The electrophysiologic substrate characteristics and activation/entrainment mapping data were compared with a reference group of ICM patients without evidence of critical EPI substrate (N = 44), defined as a complete procedural success (noninducibility of any VT at programmed stimulation) after endocardial (ENDO)-only ablation. Patients with failed EPI access (N = 2) or history of cardiac surgery (N = 92) were excluded from the study. All 13 patients had evidence of abnormal EPI substrate with fractionated/late/split electrograms and low-bipolar voltage areas. The critical VT ablation sites were all located within the EPI bipolar "dense" scar (<1.0 mV) opposite the ENDO bipolar scar in 77% of cases and extending beyond the ENDO bipolar scar (within the ENDO unipolar low-voltage area) in the remaining patients. Compared with the reference ENDO-only group, patients with EPI VT had a smaller ENDO bipolar scar area, 54.0 (37.1-84) vs 86.7 (55.6-112) cm2 ; P = 0.0159, with a similar extent of ENDO unipolar low voltage. No other substrate characteristics or location differed between the two groups. After 35.2 ± 24.2 months of follow-up, VT-free survival was 73% in patients with EPI VT compared with 66% in the ENDO-only group (log-rank P = 0.56). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of the critical EPI substrate responsible for VT can be demonstrated in at least 14% of patients with ICM. The majority of EPI critical ablation sites are distributed opposite the ENDO bipolar scar area and catheter ablation is effective in achieving long-term arrhythmia control.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/epidemiologia , Ablação por Cateter/tendências , Eletrocardiografia/tendências , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/epidemiologia , Idoso , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatias/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/cirurgia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
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