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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242942, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468508

RESUMO

Thimerosal is an organomercurial compound, which is used in the preparation of intramuscular immunoglobulin, antivenoms, tattoo inks, skin test antigens, nasal products, ophthalmic drops, and vaccines as a preservative. In most of animal species and humans, the kidney is one of the main sites for mercurial compounds deposition and target organs for toxicity. So, the current research was intended to assess the thimerosal induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were categorized into four groups. The first group was a control group. Rats of Group-II, Group-III, and Group-IV were administered with 0.5µg/kg, 10µg/kg, and 50µg/kg of thimerosal once a day, respectively. Thimerosal administration significantly decreased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), and protein content while increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels dose-dependently. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, urinary albumin and creatinine clearance was reduced dose-dependently in thimerosal treated groups. The results demonstrated that thimerosal significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activities, DNA and histopathological damages dose-dependently. So, the present findings ascertained that thimerosal exerted nephrotoxicity in male albino rats.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo , Timerosal , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Rim , Masculino , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Timerosal/metabolismo , Timerosal/toxicidade
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059993

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Using software for assessment of restorative work on typodonts in the simulation laboratory may enhance the objective evaluation of student work. The study aimed to evaluate the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability using 3-D scans from the Planmeca Emerald™ intra-oral scanner with Romexis Compare® software for assessing preparations for preformed metal crowns (PMCs). METHODS: Three operators independently recorded 3-D scans and digitally measured the features of 30 PMC preparations on typodont primary teeth (# 75). Using Romexis Compare® software, preparations were measured from mesial, distal and occlusal aspects. Measurements were repeated after 2 weeks. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to measure the reliability of measurements between operators and within the one operator. RESULTS: For measuring the extent of tooth reduction, there was excellent intra-rater reliability for each operator (ICC 0.96-0.99). The highest inter-rater reliability was for measurements of the occlusal surface (0.946 and 0.956), followed by the mesial surface (0.852 and 0.862) and then the distal surface (0.746 and 0.724). CONCLUSION: This method was useful and reliable for measuring features of PMC preparation, but with some limitations. Improving the software to provide specific assistance tools would empower greater uptake of this method as an adjunct to traditional visual grading tool in paediatric dentistry preclinical teaching.

3.
Am Heart J ; 238: 75-84, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961830

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major source of financial burden and distress, which has 3 main domains: (1) psychological distress; (2) cost-related care non-adherence or medical care deferral, and (3) tradeoffs with basic non-medical needs. We propose 4 ways to reduce financial distress in CVD: (1) policymakers can expand insurance coverage and curtail underinsurance; (2) health systems can limit expenditure on low-benefit, high-cost treatments while developing services for high-risk individuals; (3) physicians can engage in shared-decision-making for high-cost interventions, and (4) community-based initiatives can support patients with system navigation and financial coping. Avenues for research include (1) analysis of how healthcare policies affect financial burden; (2) comparative effectiveness studies examining high and low-cost strategies for CVD management; and (3) studying interventions to reduce financial burden, financial coaching, and community health worker integration.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Estresse Financeiro/economia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Estresse Financeiro/prevenção & controle , Estresse Financeiro/psicologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 398-405, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153348

RESUMO

Abstract Continuous occurrence of heavy metals is a major cause of environmental pollution due to its toxic effects. At minimum concentrations, these metals are highly reactive and can gather in the food chains and food web, causing major dangers to public health concerns. Soil samples were collected from Paharang drain, Faisalabad. Cadmium tolerant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their MIC against Cd. The isolated bacterial strain GCFSD01 showed MIC value upto 30 mM/L. The bacterial strain with the highest resistance against Cd was selected for further study. Molecular characterization of bacterial isolate GCFSD01 was performed by 16S rRNA which confirmed it as Bacillus cereus. Optimum growth conditions of bacterial strain were also evaluated. Strain GCFSD01 showed optimum growth at pH 7 and 37 °C temperature. Our result revealed that B. cereus strain GCFSD01 reduced 61.3% Cd after 48 hrs. Multiple metal tolerance and Cd reduction by B. cereus indicate its potential for further use for decontamination of polluted soil.


Resumo A ocorrência contínua de metais pesados é uma das principais causas de poluição ambiental devido aos seus efeitos tóxicos. A contaminação por metais pesados representa um grande risco para todas as formas de vida encontradas no meio ambiente. Em concentrações mínimas, esses metais são altamente reativos e podem se acumular nas cadeias alimentares e na cadeia alimentar, causando grandes perigos às preocupações com a saúde pública. Amostras de solo foram coletadas no esgoto de Paharang, Faisalabad. Bactérias tolerantes ao cádmio foram isoladas da amostra coletada pelo método da placa de ágar. As colônias separadas individuais selecionadas foram avaliadas quanto às suas concentrações inibitórias mínimas contra Cd. A cepa bacteriana isolada GCFSD01 apresentou valores de CIM de 30 mM/L. A colônia bacteriana que apresentou maior resistência contra o Cd foi selecionada para identificação. Após seleção da maior colônia bacteriana resistente ao Cd, coloração de Gram e diferentes testes bioquímicos foram realizados para a caracterização da bactéria isolada. A caracterização molecular do isolado bacteriano GCFSD01 foi realizada por PCR 16S rRNA confirmando a presença de Bacillus cereus. Após a identificação molecular, as condições ótimas de crescimento da cepa bacteriana também foram verificadas. A cepa GCFSD01 apresentou crescimento ótimo em pH 7 e temperatura de 37 °C. Nosso resultado revelou que a cepa de B. cereus GCFSD01 reduziu 61,3% de Cd após 48 horas. A tolerância a múltiplos metais e a redução de Cd por B. cereus indicam seu potencial para uso posterior na descontaminação do solo poluído.

5.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 17(10): e1440-e1449, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797952

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Insured patients with cancer face high treatment-related, out-of-pocket (OOP) costs and often cannot access financial assistance. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial of Bridge, a patient-facing app designed to identify eligible financial resources for patients. We hypothesized that patients using Bridge would experience greater OOP cost reduction than controls. METHODS: We enrolled patients with cancer who had OOP expenses from January 2018 to March 2019. We randomly assigned patients 1:1 to intervention (Bridge) versus control (financial assistance educational websites). Primary and secondary outcomes were self-reported OOP costs and subjective financial distress 3 months postenrollment. In post hoc analyses, we analyzed application for and receipt of financial assistance at 3 months postenrollment. We used chi-square, Mann-Whitney tests, and logistic regression to compare study arms. RESULTS: We enrolled 200 patients. The median age was 57 years (IQR, 47.0-63.0). Most patients had private insurance (71%), and the median household income was $62,000 in US dollars (USD) (IQR, $36,000-$100,000 [USD]). Substantial missing data precluded assessment of primary and secondary outcomes. In post hoc analyses, patients in the Bridge arm were more likely than controls to both apply for and receive financial assistance. CONCLUSION: We were unable to test our primary outcome because of excessive missing follow-up survey data. In exploratory post hoc analyses, patients who received a financial assistance app were more likely to apply for and receive financial assistance. Ultimately, our study highlights challenges faced in identifying measurable outcomes and retaining participants in a randomized, controlled trial of a mobile app to alleviate financial toxicity.

6.
J Intellect Disabil Res ; 65(6): 561-576, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of literature available on the comparative oral health status of those with Rett syndrome (RTT) despite diurnal bruxism being a supportive diagnostic criterion for the disorder. This study was designed to investigate the dental experiences of individuals with RTT in terms of perceived at-home and professional dental care. METHODS: Using data in the InterRett database, provided by English-speaking families of individuals with a confirmed MECP2 genetic mutation, the study investigated relationships between dental problems, oral care, child factors including bruxism and use of gastrostomy, and socioeconomic indicators. The study also explored relationships between dental presentations and socioeconomic, child, and family-related factors. RESULTS: Individuals with RTT exhibiting bruxism were more likely to access dental treatment. Those who had full oral feeding had a higher incidence rate of dental treatment than those with full tube feeding. A conservative (under) estimation of the overall dental caries progression rate revealed that this may be similar to that of the normal population. CONCLUSIONS: Drivers for dental treatment in RTT include bruxism as well as dental caries. Those who have full oral feeding experience more dental treatment than those with full tube feeding. A higher maternal education level may confer a protective effect for oral health outcomes in those with RTT. Nevertheless, families generally tended to value the importance of oral health despite reported difficulties in day-to-day mouth care.

7.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 17(6): e872-e881, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566677

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although financial toxicity is a well-documented aspect of cancer care, little is known about how patients narratively characterize financial experiences related to breast cancer treatment. We sought to examine these patient experiences through mixed methods analysis. METHODS: Women (≥ 18 years old) with a history of breast cancer were recruited from the Love Research Army and Sisters Network to complete an 88-item electronic survey including an open-ended response. Quantitative data were used to sort and stratify responses to the open-ended question, which comprised the qualitative data evaluated here. Descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis were used to evaluate the financial costs and other burdens resulting from breast cancer surgery. RESULTS: In total, 511 respondents completed the survey in its entirety and wrote an open-ended response. Participants reported significant financial burden in different categories including direct payments for medical care and indirect costs such as lost wages and travel expenses. Treatment-related costs burdened participants for years after diagnosis, forming a financial arc for many participants. Discrepancies existed between the degree of financial burden reported on multiple-choice questions and participants' corresponding open-ended descriptions of financial burden. Participants described a lack of communication surrounding costs with their providers and difficulty negotiating payments with insurance. CONCLUSION: Breast cancer care can result in ongoing financial burden years after diagnosis among all patients, even those with adequate insurance patient populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Adolescente , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Mastectomia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Eur Arch Paediatr Dent ; 22(4): 667-674, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566287

RESUMO

PURPOSE: With the advancements in technology, dental pedagogy has also evolved, and new learning technologies have emerged. Virtual reality (VR) as an education tool in dentistry is underutilised. VR as an adjunct in local anaesthesia (LA) teaching in paediatric dentistry has not been investigated. The study aimed to investigate dental student's perception of dental LA VR simulation on a paediatric patient and to determine whether this can improve students learning experience. METHODS: Seventy-one students participated in a self-administered questionnaire before and after the use of dental LA VR simulator. Descriptive analysis was performed to determine the perceptions of experience gained through VR. The data were tabulated, graphed, and analysed using SPSS and GraphPad Prism software. RESULTS: The study noted that 89.9% of participants perceived that it would improve their LA skills. After using dental LA VR, 83.1% of participants experienced more engaged in the learning activity, and 55.0% of participants agreed/strongly agreed that it improved their understanding of anatomical landmarks. Around 56.4% of participants agreed/strongly agreed that it added value compared with traditional LA teaching methods. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that the use of VR simulation can enhance students engagement and learning experience in paediatric dentistry settings and can be used as an additional means of LA training.


Assuntos
Realidade Virtual , Anestesia Local , Anestésicos Locais , Criança , Competência Clínica , Educação em Odontologia , Humanos , Odontopediatria
9.
Clin Radiol ; 76(5): 391.e1-391.e18, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579517

RESUMO

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) encompasses over 40 different haematological malignancies, including low and high-grade neoplasms, such as follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) respectively. A key clinical issue in the context of NHL is delayed and inaccurate diagnosis, which contributes adversely to patient morbidity and mortality. This article will address relevant imaging aspects, with particular reference to advancements in NHL imaging, including computed tomography (CT), integrated positron-emission tomography (PET)-CT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We provide multiparametric (anato-functional) imaging display items, including histological correlation. We will also introduce our original concept of "Specialist Integrated Haematological Malignancy Imaging Reporting" (SIHMIR), a paradigm shift in lymphoma radiology.


Assuntos
Linfoma não Hodgkin/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Sistemas de Informação em Radiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
10.
Oncologist ; 26(6): 465-e917, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469991

RESUMO

LESSONS LEARNED: Antitumor activity was observed in the study population. Dose modifications of cabozantinib improve long-term tolerability. Biomarkers are needed to identify patient populations most likely to benefit. Further study of cabozantinib with or without panitumumab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer is warranted. BACKGROUND: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody panitumumab is active in patients with RAS wild-type (WT) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), but nearly all patients experience resistance. MET amplification is a driver of panitumumab resistance. Cabozantinib is an inhibitor of multiple kinases, including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and c-MET, and may delay or reverse anti-EGFR resistance. METHODS: In this phase Ib clinical trial, we established the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of cabozantinib and panitumumab. We then treated an expansion cohort to further describe the tolerability and clinical activity of the RP2D. Eligibility included patients with KRAS WT mCRC (later amended to include only RAS WT mCRC) who had received prior treatment with a fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and bevacizumab. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were enrolled and treated. The MTD/RP2D was cabozantinib 60 mg p.o. daily and panitumumab 6 mg/kg I.V. every 2 weeks. The objective response rate (ORR) was 16%. Median progression free survival (PFS) was 3.7 months (90% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-7.1). Median overall survival (OS) was 12.1 months (90% CI, 7.5-14.3). Five patients (20%) discontinued treatment due to toxicity, and 18 patients (72%) required a dose reduction of cabozantinib. CONCLUSION: The combination of cabozantinib and panitumumab has activity. Dose reductions of cabozantinib improve tolerability.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Anilidas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Humanos , Panitumumabe/farmacologia , Panitumumabe/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras) , Piridinas
11.
N C Med J ; 82(1): 14-20, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Patients with cancer are at risk for both objective and subjective financial distress. Financial distress during treatment is adversely associated with physical and mental well-being. Little is known about whether patients' subjective financial distress changes during the course of their treatment.method This is a cross-sectional study of insured adults with solid tumors on anti-cancer therapy for ≥1 month, surveyed at a referral center and three rural oncology clinics. The goal was to investigate how financial distress varies depending on where patients are in the course of cancer therapy. Financial distress (FD) was assessed via a validated measure; out-of-pocket (OOP) costs were estimated and medical records were reviewed for disease/treatment data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the potential association between treatment length and financial distress.RESULTS Among 300 participants (86% response rate), median age was 60 years (range 27-91), 52.3% were male, 78.3% had stage IV cancer or metastatic recurrence, 36.7% were retired, and 56% had private insurance. Median income was $60,000/year and median OOP costs including insurance premiums were $592/month. Median FD score (7.4/10, SD 2.5) corresponded to low FD with 16.3% reporting high/overwhelming distress. Treatment duration was not associated with the odds of experiencing high/overwhelming FD in single-predictor (OR = 1.01, CI [.93, 1.09], P = .86) or multiple predictor regression models (OR = .98, CI [.86, 1.12], P = .79). Treatment duration was not correlated with FD as a continuous variable (P = .92).LIMITATIONS This study is limited by its cross-sectional design and generalizability to patients with early-stage cancer and those being treated outside of a major referral center.CONCLUSION Severity of cancer treatment-related financial distress did not correlate with time on treatment, indicating that patients are at risk for FD throughout the treatment continuum. Screening for and addressing financial distress should occur throughout the course of cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Neoplasias , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/terapia
12.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 71(2): 100-106, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226648

RESUMO

Cancer treatment is associated with financial hardship for many patients and families. Screening for financial hardship and referrals to appropriate resources for mitigation are not currently part of most clinical practices. In fact, discussions regarding the cost of treatment occur infrequently in clinical practice. As the cost of cancer treatment continues to rise, the need to mitigate adverse consequences of financial hardship grows more urgent. The introduction of quality measurement and reporting has been successful in establishing standards of care, reducing disparities in receipt of care, and improving other aspects of cancer care outcomes within and across providers. The authors propose the development and adoption of financial hardship screening and management as an additional quality metric for oncology practices. They suggest relevant stakeholders, conveners, and approaches for developing, testing, and implementing a screening and management tool and advocate for endorsement by organizations such as the National Quality Forum and professional societies for oncology care clinicians. The confluence of increasingly high-cost care and widening disparities in ability to pay because of underinsurance and lack of health insurance coverage makes a strong argument to take steps to mitigate the financial consequences of cancer.

13.
Braz J Biol ; 81(2): 398-405, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696847

RESUMO

Continuous occurrence of heavy metals is a major cause of environmental pollution due to its toxic effects. At minimum concentrations, these metals are highly reactive and can gather in the food chains and food web, causing major dangers to public health concerns. Soil samples were collected from Paharang drain, Faisalabad. Cadmium tolerant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their MIC against Cd. The isolated bacterial strain GCFSD01 showed MIC value upto 30 mM/L. The bacterial strain with the highest resistance against Cd was selected for further study. Molecular characterization of bacterial isolate GCFSD01 was performed by 16S rRNA which confirmed it as Bacillus cereus. Optimum growth conditions of bacterial strain were also evaluated. Strain GCFSD01 showed optimum growth at pH 7 and 37 °C temperature. Our result revealed that B. cereus strain GCFSD01 reduced 61.3% Cd after 48 hrs. Multiple metal tolerance and Cd reduction by B. cereus indicate its potential for further use for decontamination of polluted soil.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Bacillus cereus/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
15.
J Interprof Care ; : 1-9, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290117

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are among the most frequently occurring conditions that have a substantial effect on the global health economy. The literature regarding medical professionals' knowledge of the bidirectional link between diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease has not been analyzed systematically. The review aimed to investigate the knowledge and understanding of physicians and specialists regarding the two-way relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease and their approach to referring their patients for a dental consultation. An electronic search of PubMed and Google Scholar databases was conducted to review the studies that assessed knowledge and understanding of medical professionals regarding the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease. Data from 13 included studies involved 4,027 participants: 3,256 primary care physicians and 771 medical specialists. Just over 50% of the medical professionals had an understanding of oral health and/or periodontal disease. Over one-third of medical professionals were ignorant of the relationship between oral health and diabetes mellitus. Only 30% reported ever referring their patients for an oral health assessment. Another key finding of the investigation was the absence of interprofessional collaborative care between medical and dental professionals while managing patients with diabetes mellitus. Medical professionals with an integrated knowledge of elementary oral health education and training could play a central role in the timely diagnosis and management of periodontal disease in patients living with diabetes mellitus.

16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1698-1704, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | ID: biblio-1131578

RESUMO

The present study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence and hematological effects of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep and goat in district Dera Ghazi Khan. Blood samples (n=204) were collected comprise goats (n=101) and sheep (n=103) alongwith age, gender and breeds of animals. Samples were collected randomly from 25 flocks of 7 different union council Viz. Vehova, Tibbi Qaisrani, Lakhani, Kohar, Tuman Qaisrani, Nutkani and Kot Qaisrani of Tehsil Taunsa Sharif at least 4 animals from each flock. All ruminants divide into three groups based on age, breed and gender. The prevalence was detected through two different kits Viz. LAT and ELISA kit. The overall prevalence suspected in goats through LAT and ELISA kit was (35.64%), (32.67%) and in sheep was (25.24%), (23.30%) respectively. The Toxoplasma gondii had a significant effect on goats in age groups and non-significant all other groups of goats and sheep. Toxoplasma gondii had a significant effect on all hematological parameters like Hemoglobin, total leukocyte cells, granulocytes, lymphocytes, platelets, and red blood cells, except monocytes. In conclusion of the current study, toxoplasmosis is prevalent among ruminants, reveals the possibility of transmission to humans on the use of host animals as protein source.(AU)


O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a prevalência e efeitos hematológicos de Toxoplasma gondii em ovelhas e cabras no distrito Dera Ghazi Khan. Amostras de sangue (n=204) foram coletadas para incluir cabras (n=101) e ovelhas (n=103), além de idade, gênero e raça dos animais. Amostras foram coletadas aleatoriamente de 25 rebanhos de 7 conselhos sindicais: Vehova, Tibbi Qaisrani, Lakhani, Kohar, Tuman Qaisrani, Nutkani e Kot Qaisrani of Tehsil Taunsa Sharif com pelo menos 4 animais em cada rebanho. Todos os ruminantes foram divididos em três grupos baseados em idade, raça e gênero. A prevalência foi detectada usando dois kits, LAT e ELISA. A prevalência total suspeita em cabras através dos kits LAT e ELISA foi (35.64%), (32.67%) e em ovelhas foi (25.24%), (23.30%) respectivamente. O Toxoplasma gondii teve efeito significativo em cabras em grupos de idade e não significativo em todos os outros grupos de cabras e ovelhas. Toxoplasma gondii teve efeito significativo em todos os parâmetros hematológicos como hemoglobina, células totais de leucócitos, granulócitos, linfócitos, plaquetas e glóbulos vermelhos, exceto monócitos. O presente estudo conclui que toxoplasmose é prevalente entre ruminantes, e revela a possibilidade de transmissão para humanos com o uso de animais hospedeiros como fonte de proteína.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Cabras/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Paquistão , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Prevalência
17.
J Mycol Med ; 30(4): 101024, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826154

RESUMO

Candida species are the commensal organisms of human mucosa and opportunistically cause the diseases in susceptible persons. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and virulence of different Candida spp. among nephrolithiatic patients and their association with complicated UTI (cUTI). A total of 164 urine samples were collected from surgical units of two tertiary care hospitals (Poly Clinic and Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital, Islamabad). From 74 kidney stone patients, 77 isolates of Candida spp. were confirmed through standard microbiological and molecular characterization. C. albicans was the predominant species with 51 isolates (66.2%) followed by 26 (33.8%) of C. non-albicans. The nephrolithiatic patients suffering from cUTI were more prone to be infected with Candida (P=0.047). Among all isolates, 83% (64) of the Candida isolates were biofilm formers, 80% (60) showed the esterase production and 64.9% (50) showed phospholipase production. Candida isolates positive for various virulence factors were more prevalently isolated from both catheterized and recurrent UTI patients. Among Candida spp., 16.9% (13) isolates showed resistance to fluconazole and 19.5% (15) against voriconazole and 11 isolates were resistant for both tested antifungals. Candida isolated from cUTI cases showed comparatively enhanced virulence attributes and antifungal resistance, suggesting that these factors might have role in development of cUTI in nephrolithiatic patients. Hence, this work highlights the high prevalence of both C. albicans and non albicans spp. in nephrolithiatic patients. So, there is need to administer evidence based antifungal therapy rather than empirical therapy to reduce the cUTI in nephrolithiatic patients.


Assuntos
Candida/isolamento & purificação , Nefrolitíase/epidemiologia , Nefrolitíase/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/classificação , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase/complicações , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Candidíase/microbiologia , Candidíase/cirurgia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrolitíase/complicações , Nefrolitíase/cirurgia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Urinárias/complicações , Infecções Urinárias/cirurgia
18.
Ann Ig ; 32(4): 368-375, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appropriate utilization of therapeutic agents is a basic component of the quality of health outcomes for the patients and the community. A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the rational use of medicines and antibiotics, based on World Health Organization (who) prescribing indicators. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional pilot study in the medical outpatient departments in four tertiary care hospitals of Islamabad, Pakistan, in order to verify the correct prescribing of medicines according to the validated indicators prepared by the World Health Organization (who). METHODS: The Registries of all the prescriptions formulated during the period April 02 2017 - April 01 2018 by the outpatient departments of four tertiary care hospitals (two government funded hospitals (GH-A and GH-B) and two private funded hospitals (PH-C and PH-D) were considered. According to the World Health Organization recommendations, during the following month (April 02 2018 to May 1 2018), 600 prescriptions (150 per hospital) were collected by a random sampling method, verified and analyzed through a statistical tool (SPSS version 22.0). RESULTS: Mean number of medicines per prescription were 4.6 (Optimal value ≤ 2), with the highest value observed in GH-B hospital. Out of these, 350 (58.3%) (Optimal value < 30%) prescriptions consisted of antibiotics and 340 (56.6%) (Optimal value < 25%) prescriptions consisted of injectable medicines, with marked differences between hospitals. About 550 (19.6%) medicines were prescribed by generic name in all selected prescriptions with the lowest value observed in PH-D (9.9%) (Optimal value = 100%). Overall, 88% medicines were prescribed from National essential medicine list/formulary (Optimal value = 100%). All the prescribing core indicators showed significant difference between hospitals (P = 0.001). The most commonly prescribed antibiotic was ceftriaxone (37.4%), followed by ciprofloxacin (15.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Poor adherence to WHO prescribing indicators were observed in all medical outpatient departments in selected hospitals. WHO recommended core interventions should be implemented on trial basis to develop strategies to achieve long-lasting benefits.

19.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 18(7): 825-831, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Financial distress from medical treatment is an increasing concern. Healthcare organizations may have different levels of organizational commitment, existing programs, and expected outcomes of screening and management of patient financial distress. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In November 2018, representatives from 17 (63%) of the 27 existing NCCN Member Institutions completed an online survey. The survey focused on screening and management practices for patient financial distress, perceived barriers in implementation, and leadership attitudes about such practices. Due to the lack of a validated questionnaire in this area, survey questions were generated after a comprehensive literature search and discussions among the study team, including NCCN Best Practices Committee representatives. RESULTS: Responses showed that 76% of centers routinely screened for financial distress, mostly with social worker assessment (94%), and that 56% screened patients multiple times. All centers offered programs to help with drug costs, meal or gas vouchers, and payment plans. Charity care was provided by 100% of the large centers (≥10,000 unique annual patients) but none of the small centers that responded (<10,000 unique annual patients; P=.008). Metrics to evaluate the impact of financial advocacy services included number of patients assisted, bad debt/charity write-offs, or patient satisfaction surveys. The effectiveness of institutional practices for screening and management of financial distress was reported as poor/very poor by 6% of respondents. Inadequate staffing and resources, limited budget, and lack of reimbursement were potential barriers in the provision of these services. A total of 94% agreed with the need for better integration of financial advocacy into oncology practice. CONCLUSIONS: Three-fourths of NCCN Member Institutions reported screening and management programs for financial distress, although the actual practices and range of services vary. Information from this study can help centers benchmark their performance relative to similar programs and identify best practices in this area.

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