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1.
J Sleep Res ; 29(1): e12889, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257666

RESUMO

The high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea has led to increasing interest in ambulatory diagnosis. The SleepMinder™ (SM) is a novel non-contact device that employs radiofrequency wave technology to assess the breathing pattern, and thereby estimate obstructive sleep apnea severity. We assessed the performance of SleepMinder™ in the home diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea. One-hundred and twenty-two subjects were prospectively recruited in two protocols, one from an unselected sleep clinic cohort (n = 67, mean age 51 years) and a second from a hypertension clinic cohort (n = 55, mean age 58 years). All underwent 7 consecutive nights of home monitoring (SMHOME ) with the SleepMinder™ as well as inpatient-attended polysomnography in the sleep clinic cohort or cardiorespiratory polygraphy in the hypertension clinic cohort with simultaneous SleepMinder™ recordings (SMLAB ). In the sleep clinic cohort, median SMHOME apnea-hypopnea index correlated significantly with polysomnography apnea-hypopnea index (r = .68; p < .001), and in the hypertension clinic cohort with polygraphy apnea-hypopnea index (r = .7; p < .001). The median SMHOME performance against polysomnography in the sleep clinic cohort showed a sensitivity and specificity of 72% and 94% for apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15. Device performance was inferior in females. In the hypertension clinic cohort, SMHOME showed a 50% sensitivity and 72% specificity for apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15. SleepMinder™ classified 92% of cases correctly or within one severity class of the polygraphy classification. Night-to-night variability in home testing was relatively high, especially at lower apnea-hypopnea index levels. We conclude that the SleepMinder™ device provides a useful ambulatory screening tool, especially in a population suspected of obstructive sleep apnea, and is most accurate in moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnea.

2.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 15(7): 1051-1061, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383243

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To assess the sleep detection and staging validity of a non-contact, commercially available bedside bio-motion sensing device (S+, ResMed) and evaluate the impact of algorithm updates. METHODS: Polysomnography data from 27 healthy adult participants was compared epoch-by-epoch to synchronized data that were recorded and staged by actigraphy and S+. An update to the S+ algorithm (common in the rapidly evolving commercial sleep tracker industry) permitted comparison of the original (S+V1) and updated (S+V2) versions. RESULTS: Sleep detection accuracy by S+V1 (93.3%), S+V2 (93.8%), and actigraphy (96.0%) was high; wake detection accuracy by each (69.6%, 73.1%, and 47.9%, respectively) was low. Higher overall S+ specificity, compared to actigraphy, was driven by higher accuracy in detecting wake before sleep onset (WBSO), which differed between S+V2 (90.4%) and actigraphy (46.5%). Stage detection accuracy by the S+ did not exceed 67.6% (for stage N2 sleep, by S+V2) for any stage. Performance is compared to previously established variance in polysomnography scored by humans: a performance standard which commercial devices should ideally strive to reach. CONCLUSIONS: Similar limitations in detecting wake after sleep onset (WASO) were found for the S+ as have been previously reported for actigraphy and other commercial sleep tracking devices. S+ WBSO detection was higher than actigraphy, and S+V2 algorithm further improved WASO accuracy. Researchers and clinicians should remain aware of the potential for algorithm updates to impact validity. COMMENTARY: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 935.

3.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2019: 7193-7196, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947494

RESUMO

This paper assesses the performance of a new noncontact sensing system based on Sonar technology as a Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) screener. The respiration and movements of a subject in bed can be measured via a smartphone placed onto a bedside table equipped with a custom app. The app employs novel proprietary algorithms to identify sleep stages and detect SDB patterns.The SDB screener was trained on a set of 94 overnights recorded at a sleep laboratory, where volunteers underwent simultaneous monitoring via a full polysomnography (PSG) system and a smartphone equipped with the app. An additional fully independent set of 68 recordings, uniformly distributed across SDB severity classes, were held out for independent testing. The performance on the test set is excellent and comparable to other existing ambulatory SDB screeners, with a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 97%, for a clinical threshold for the Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) of 15 events/hour.The technology can easily be adopted to scale, as no purchase of dedicated sensors is needed, providing a much needed low- cost alternative for monitoring and potentially screening of large population segments. Furthermore, the non-invasive, contactless sensing does not interfere with the sleeping habits of the user, facilitating longitudinal assessment. This, in combination with the simultaneous measurement of the user's sleep quality, could provide invaluable insights in the subject's response to SDB therapy and lead to increased patient adherence.

4.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2019: 2230-2233, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31946344

RESUMO

This paper presents the validation results of a new non-contact ultrasonic technology, which employs inaudible Sonar to monitor the movements and respiration of a subject in bed. Sleep monitoring can be achieved by placing a smartphone onto the bedside table and starting a custom app. The app employs sophisticated and novel proprietary algorithms to identify sleep stages: Wake (W), Light Sleep (N1, N2 sleep), Deep Sleep (N3 sleep), Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep or Absence.The sleep staging performance of the app were assessed by testing it against expert manually scored polysomnography (PSG) of 38 subjects gathered in a sleep laboratory. As a secondary assessment, on the same dataset, the performance of the app is compared to that of a reference non-contact device, the S+ by ResMed.Performance across different sleep stage detections was balanced, exceeding the agreement typically reported for actigraphy based devices [1], [2] thanks to a significantly higher sensitivity for all sleep stages. Furthermore, the performance of the app was found to be comparable to the S+ by ResMed product [3], [4].The combination of unobtrusive non-contact sensing and accurate sleep quality assessment, coupled with removal of the requirement to purchase a custom device to enable monitoring of sleep, enables consumers to measure their sleep in the home environment in a zero-cost and accessible manner, while providing sleep staging information not otherwise available with actigraphy based devices.

5.
Sleep Breath ; 22(1): 131-138, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28822017

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recent studies found that the non-contact screening device SleepMinder (ResMed Sensor Technologies, Dublin, Ireland) detects sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) with high diagnostic accuracy in cohorts suspected of this disorder. However, it was reported that in patients with periodic limb movement in sleep (PLMS), this non-contact device overestimates the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). We aimed to overcome this limitation by introducing the novel sleep disorder index (SDI) which is sum of the AHI and the period limb movement index (PLMI). METHODS: Between January 2011 and December 2013, we studied a mixed cohort of 57 patients (31 OSA, 19 PLMS). The easy-to-use non-contact device emits a very weak electromagnetic radiation and detects body movement by measuring the Doppler effect. We interpreted the device-generated movement index as the SDI and validated the diagnostic accuracy against simultaneous application of the gold-standard polysomnography (PSG). RESULTS: We found that the SDI of the non-contact device correlated well with the sum of AHI and PLMI derived from PSG (r = 0.79, p = 0.01). For PSG-derived SDI cutoff ≥ 15/h, we obtained a sensitivity of 92.2% and a specificity of 95.8%. Positive likelihood ratio was 23.3 and negative likelihood ratio 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: The studied non-contact screening device detects accurately the combination of the sleep disorders SDB and/or PLM. However, further testing is required in order to specify the nature of the underlying sleep disorder. At the current stage of algorithm development, the clinical strength is that the studied non-contact device can be used as a rule-out screening device for SDB and PLM.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Mioclonia Noturna/complicações , Síndrome da Mioclonia Noturna/diagnóstico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sono
6.
ESC Heart Fail ; 3(3): 212-219, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28834663

RESUMO

AIMS: At least 50% of patients with heart failure (HF) may have sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Overnight in-hospital polysomnography (PSG) is considered the gold standard for diagnosis, but a lack of access to such testing contributes to under-diagnosis of SDB. Therefore, there is a need for simple and reliable validated methods to aid diagnosis in patients with HF. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of a non-contact type IV screening device, SleepMinderTM (SM), compared with in-hospital PSG for detecting SDB in patients with HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study included 75 adult patients with systolic HF and suspected SDB who underwent simultaneous PSG and SM recordings. An algorithm was developed from the SM signals, using digital signal processing and pattern recognition techniques to calculate the SM apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI). This was then compared with expert-scored PSGAHI . The SM algorithm had 70% sensitivity and 89% specificity for identifying patients with clinically significant SDB (AHI ≥ 15/h). At this threshold, it had a positive likelihood ratio of 6.3 and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.16. The overall accuracy of the SMAHI algorithm was 85.8% as shown by the area under a receiver operator characteristic curve. The mean AHI with SM was 3.8/h (95% confidence interval 0.5-7.1) lower than that with PSG. CONCLUSIONS: The accuracy of the non-contact type IV screening device SM is good for clinically significant SDB in patients with systolic HF and could be considered as a simple first step in the diagnostic pathway.

7.
Physiol Meas ; 35(12): 2513-27, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25402668

RESUMO

Nocturnal respiration rate parameters were collected from 20 COPD subjects over an 8 week period, to determine if changes in respiration rate were associated with exacerbations of COPD. These subjects were primarily GOLD Class 2 to 4, and had been recently discharged from hospital following a recent exacerbation. The respiration rates were collected using a non-contact radio-frequency biomotion sensor which senses respiratory effort and body movement using a short-range radio-frequency sensor. An adaptive notch filter was applied to the measured signal to determine respiratory rate over rolling 15 s segments. The accuracy of the algorithm was initially verified using ten manually-scored 15 min segments of respiration extracted from overnight polysomnograms. The calculated respiration rates were within 1 breath min(-1) for >98% of the estimates. For the 20 subjects monitored, 11 experienced one or more subsequent exacerbation of COPD (ECOPD) events during the 8 week monitoring period (19 events total). Analysis of the data revealed a significant increase in nocturnal respiration rate (e.g. >2 breath min(-1)) prior to many ECOPD events. Using a simple classifier of a change of 1 breath min(-1) in the mode of the nocturnal respiration rate, a predictive rule showed a sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 85% for predicting an exacerbation within a 5 d window. We conclude that it is possible to collect respiration rates reliably in the home environment, and that the respiration rate may be a potential indicator of change in clinical status.


Assuntos
Habitação , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Movimento , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Taxa Respiratória , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Ondas de Rádio
8.
J Sleep Res ; 23(4): 475-84, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24495222

RESUMO

Ambulatory monitoring is of major clinical interest in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. We compared a novel non-contact biomotion sensor, which provides an estimate of both sleep time and sleep-disordered breathing, with wrist actigraphy in the assessment of total sleep time in adult humans suspected of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Both systems were simultaneously evaluated against polysomnography in 103 patients undergoing assessment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in a hospital-based sleep laboratory (84 male, aged 55 ± 14 years and apnoea-hypopnoea index 21 ± 23). The biomotion sensor demonstrated similar accuracy to wrist actigraphy for sleep/wake determination (77.3%: biomotion; 76.5%: actigraphy), and the biomotion sensor demonstrated higher specificity (52%: biomotion; 34%: actigraphy) and lower sensitivity (86%: biomotion; 94%: actigraphy). Notably, total sleep time estimation by the biomotion sensor was superior to actigraphy (average overestimate of 10 versus 57 min), especially at a higher apnoea-hypopnoea index. In post hoc analyses, we assessed the improved apnoea-hypopnoea index accuracy gained by combining respiratory measurements from polysomnography for total recording time (equivalent to respiratory polygraphy) with total sleep time derived from actigraphy or the biomotion sensor. Here, the number of misclassifications of obstructive sleep apnoea severity compared with full polysomnography was reduced from 10/103 (for total respiratory recording time alone) to 7/103 and 4/103 (for actigraphy and biomotion sensor total sleep time estimate, respectively). We conclude that the biomotion sensor provides a viable alternative to actigraphy for sleep estimation in the assessment of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. As a non-contact device, it is suited to longitudinal assessment of sleep, which could also be combined with polygraphy in ambulatory studies.


Assuntos
Actigrafia/instrumentação , Monitorização Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Polissonografia/instrumentação , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Punho , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2014: 3763-6, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25570810

RESUMO

This paper proposes a novel algorithm for automatic detection of snoring in sleep by combining non-contact bio-motion data with audio data. The audio data is captured using low end Android Smartphones in a non-clinical environment to mimic a possible user-friendly commercial product for sleep audio monitoring. However snore detection becomes a more challenging problem as the recorded signal has lower quality compared to those recorded in clinical environment. To have an accurate classification of snore/non-snore, we first compare a range of commonly used features extracted from the audio signal to find the best subject-independent features. Thereafter, bio-motion data is used to further improve the classification accuracy by identifying episodes which contain high amounts of body movements. High body movement indicates that the subject is turning, coughing or leaving the bed; during these instances snoring does not occur. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using the data recorded over 25 sessions from 7 healthy subjects who are suspected to be regular snorers. Our experimental results showed that the best subject-independent features for snore/non-snore classification are the energy of frequency band 3150-3650 Hz, zero crossing rate and 1st predictor coefficient of linear predictive coding. The proposed features yielded an average classification accuracy of 84.35%. The introduction of bio-motion data significantly improved the results by an average of 5.87% (p<;0.01). This work is the first study that successfully used bio-motion data to improve the accuracy of snore/non-snore classification.


Assuntos
Ronco/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica , Movimento , Sono
10.
J Sleep Res ; 22(2): 231-6, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23176607

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnoea is a highly prevalent but under-diagnosed disorder. The gold standard for diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea is inpatient polysomnography. This is resource intensive and inconvenient for the patient, and the development of ambulatory diagnostic modalities has been identified as a key research priority. SleepMinder (BiancaMed, NovaUCD, Ireland) is a novel, non-contact, bedside sensor, which uses radio-waves to measure respiration and movement. Previous studies have shown it to be effective in measuring sleep and respiration. We sought to assess its utility in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea. SleepMinder and polysomnographic assessment of sleep-disordered breathing were performed simultaneously on consecutive subjects recruited prospectively from our sleep clinic. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of SleepMinder in identifying obstructive sleep apnoea, and how SleepMinder assessment of the apnoea-hypopnoea index correlated with polysomnography. Seventy-four subjects were recruited. The apnoea-hypopnoea index as measured by SleepMinder correlated strongly with polysomnographic measurement (r = 0.90; P ≤ 0.0001). When a diagnostic threshold of moderate-severe (apnoea-hypopnoea index ≥15 events h(-1) ) obstructive sleep apnoea was used, SleepMinder displayed a sensitivity of 90%, a specificity of 92% and an accuracy of 91% in the diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing. The area under the curve for the receiver operator characteristic was 0.97. SleepMinder correctly classified obstructive sleep apnoea severity in the majority of cases, with only one case different from equivalent polysomnography by more than one diagnostic class. We conclude that in an unselected clinical population undergoing investigation for suspected obstructive sleep apnoea, SleepMinder measurement of sleep-disordered breathing correlates significantly with polysomnography.


Assuntos
Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Movimento , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Movimento/fisiologia , Polissonografia , Respiração , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia
11.
J Sleep Res ; 20(2): 356-66, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20704645

RESUMO

We studied a novel non-contact biomotion sensor, which has been developed for identifying sleep/wake patterns in adult humans. The biomotion sensor uses ultra low-power reflected radiofrequency waves to determine the movement of a subject during sleep. An automated classification algorithm has been developed to recognize sleep/wake states on a 30-s epoch basis based on the measured movement signal. The sensor and software were evaluated against gold-standard polysomnography on a database of 113 subjects [94 male, 19 female, age 53±13years, apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) 22±24] being assessed for sleep-disordered breathing at a hospital-based sleep laboratory. The overall per-subject accuracy was 78%, with a Cohen's kappa of 0.38. Lower accuracy was seen in a high AHI group (AHI >15, 63 subjects) than in a low AHI group (74.8% versus 81.3%); however, most of the change in accuracy can be explained by the lower sleep efficiency of the high AHI group. Averaged across subjects, the overall sleep sensitivity was 87.3% and the wake sensitivity was 50.1%. The automated algorithm slightly overestimated sleep efficiency (bias of +4.8%) and total sleep time (TST; bias of +19min on an average TST of 288min). We conclude that the non-contact biomotion sensor can provide a valid means of measuring sleep-wake patterns in this patient population, and also allows direct visualization of respiratory movement signals.


Assuntos
Actigrafia/instrumentação , Algoritmos , Diagnóstico por Computador/instrumentação , Monitorização Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Polissonografia/instrumentação , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador/instrumentação , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Sono , Vigília , Adulto , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Software
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21096541

RESUMO

An automated real time method for detecting human breathing rate from a non contact biosensor is considered in this paper. The method has low computational and RAM requirements making it well-suited to real-time, low power implementation on a microcontroller. Time and frequency domain methods are used to separate a 15s block of data into movement, breathing or absent states; a breathing rate estimate is then calculated. On a 1s basis, 96% of breaths were scored within 1 breath per minute of expert scored respiratory inductance plethysmography, while 99% of breaths were scored within 2 breaths per minute. When averaged over 30s, as is used in this respiration monitoring system, over 99% of breaths are within 1 breath per minute of the expert score.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Diagnóstico por Computador/instrumentação , Polissonografia/instrumentação , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador/instrumentação , Transdutores , Adulto , Algoritmos , Sistemas de Computação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2009: 7091-4, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19963942

RESUMO

We describe an innovative sensor technology (SleepMinder) for contact-less and convenient measurement of sleep and breathing in the home. The system is based on a novel non-contact biomotion sensor and proprietary automated analysis software. The biomotion sensor uses an ultra low-power radio-frequency transceiver to sense the movement and respiration of a subject. Proprietary software performs a variety of signal analysis tasks including respiration analysis, sleep quality measurement and sleep apnea assessment. This paper measures the performance of SleepMinder as a device for the monitoring of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and the provision of an estimate of the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI). The SleepMinder was tested against expert manually scored PSG data of patients gathered in an accredited sleep laboratory. The comparison of SleepMinder to this gold standard was performed across overnight recordings of 129 subjects with suspected SDB. The dataset had a wide demographic profile with the age ranging between 20 and 81 years. Body weight included subjects with normal weight through to the very obese (Body Mass Index: 21-44 kg/m(2)). SDB severity ranged from subjects free of SDB to those with severe SDB (AHI: 0.8-96 events/hours). SleepMinder's AHI estimation has a correlation of 91% and can detect clinically significant SDB (AHI>15) with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 92%.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Telemetria/instrumentação , Actigrafia/instrumentação , Actigrafia/estatística & dados numéricos , Algoritmos , Engenharia Biomédica , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Polissonografia , Ondas de Rádio , Telemetria/estatística & dados numéricos
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