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2.
Materials (Basel) ; 10(7)2017 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28773103

RESUMO

Since lithium (Li⁺) plays roles in angiogenesis, the localized and controlled release of Li⁺ ions from bioactive glasses (BGs) represents a promising alternative therapy for the regeneration and repair of tissues with a high degree of vascularization. Here, microparticles from a base 45S5 BG composition containing (wt %) 45% SiO2, 24.5% Na2O, 24.5% CaO, and 6% P2O5, in which Na2O was partially substituted by 5% Li2O (45S5.5Li), were obtained. The results demonstrate that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) have greater migratory and proliferative response and ability to form tubules in vitro after stimulation with the ionic dissolution products (IDPs) of the 45S5.5Li BG. The results also show the activation of the canonical Wnt/ß-catenin pathway and the increase in expression of proangiogenic cytokines insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and transforming growth factor beta (TGFß). We conclude that the IDPs of 45S5.5Li BG would act as useful inorganic agents to improve tissue repair and regeneration, ultimately stimulating HUVECs behavior in the absence of exogenous growth factors.

3.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0178380, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28552984

RESUMO

The discovery of T cell epitopes is essential not only for gaining knowledge about host response to infectious disease but also for the development of immune-intervention strategies. In Chagas disease, given the size and complexity of the Trypanosoma cruzi proteome and its interaction with the host's immune system, the fine specificity of T cells has not been extensively studied yet, and this is particularly true for the CD4+ T cell compartment. The aim of the present work was to optimize a protocol for the generation of parasite-specific memory T cell lines, representative of their in vivo precursor populations and capable of responding to parasite antigens after long-term culture. Accordingly, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from both chronic asymptomatic and cardiac patients, and from non-infected individuals, underwent different in vitro culture and stimulation conditions. Subsequently, cells were tested for their capacity to respond against T. cruzi lysate by measuring [3H]-thymidine incorporation and interferon-γ and GM-CSF secretion. Results allowed us to adjust initial T. cruzi lysate incubation time as well as the number of expansions with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and irradiated allogeneic PBMC prior to specificity evaluation. Moreover, our data demonstrated that parasite specific T cells displayed a clear and strong activation by using T. cruzi lysate pulsed, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed human B lymphocytes (B-LCL), as autologous antigen presenting cells. Under these culture conditions, we generated a clone from an asymptomatic patient's memory CD4+ T cells which responded against epimastigote and trypomastigote protein lysate. Our results describe a culture method for isolating T. cruzi specific T cell clones from patients with Chagas disease, which enable the acquisition of information on functionality and specificity of individual T cells.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Animais , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Técnicas In Vitro
4.
Int J Proteomics ; 2016: 1384523, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27635260

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) protects the heart against ischemic injury; however, NO- and superoxide-dependent S-nitrosylation (S-NO) of cysteines can affect function of target proteins and play a role in disease outcome. We employed 2D-GE with thiol-labeling FL-maleimide dye and MALDI-TOF MS/MS to capture the quantitative changes in abundance and S-NO proteome of HF patients (versus healthy controls, n = 30/group). We identified 93 differentially abundant (59-increased/34-decreased) and 111 S-NO-modified (63-increased/48-decreased) protein spots, respectively, in HF subjects (versus controls, fold-change | ≥1.5|, p ≤ 0.05). Ingenuity pathway analysis of proteome datasets suggested that the pathways involved in phagocytes' migration, free radical production, and cell death were activated and fatty acid metabolism was decreased in HF subjects. Multivariate adaptive regression splines modeling of datasets identified a panel of proteins that will provide >90% prediction success in classifying HF subjects. Proteomic profiling identified ATP-synthase, thrombospondin-1 (THBS1), and vinculin (VCL) as top differentially abundant and S-NO-modified proteins, and these proteins were verified by Western blotting and ELISA in different set of HF subjects. We conclude that differential abundance and S-NO modification of proteins serve as a mechanism in regulating cell viability and free radical production, and THBS1 and VCL evaluation will potentially be useful in the prediction of heart failure.

5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 10(2): e0004490, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26919708

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) infection causes chagasic cardiomyopathy; however, why 30-40% of the patients develop clinical disease is not known. To discover the pathomechanisms in disease progression, we obtained the proteome signature of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of normal healthy controls (N/H, n = 30) and subjects that were seropositive for Tc-specific antibodies, but were clinically asymptomatic (C/A, n = 25) or clinically symptomatic (C/S, n = 28) with cardiac involvement and left ventricular dysfunction. Protein samples were labeled with BODIPY FL-maleimide (dynamic range: > 4 orders of magnitude, detection limit: 5 f-mol) and resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE). After normalizing the gel images, protein spots that exhibited differential abundance in any of the two groups were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and searched against UniProt human database for protein identification. We found 213 and 199 protein spots (fold change: |≥ 1.5|, p< 0.05) were differentially abundant in C/A and C/S individuals, respectively, with respect to N/H controls. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of PBMCs proteome dataset identified an increase in disorganization of cytoskeletal assembly and recruitment/activation and migration of immune cells in all chagasic subjects, though the invasion capacity of cells was decreased in C/S individuals. IPA predicted with high probability a decline in cell survival and free radical scavenging capacity in C/S (but not C/A) subjects. The MYC/SP1 transcription factors that regulate hypoxia and oxidative/inflammatory stress were predicted to be key targets in the context of control of Chagas disease severity. Further, MARS-modeling identified a panel of proteins that had >93% prediction success in classifying infected individuals with no disease and those with cardiac involvement and LV dysfunction. In conclusion, we have identified molecular pathways and a panel of proteins that could aid in detecting seropositive individuals at risk of developing cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/química , Proteínas/química , Proteoma/química , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/parasitologia , Doença Crônica , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/parasitologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Trypanosoma cruzi/fisiologia
6.
J Mater Chem B ; 3(6): 1142-1148, 2015 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32261993

RESUMO

In regenerative medicine of vascularized tissues, there is a great interest in the use of biomaterials that are able to stimulate angiogenesis, a process necessary for rapid revascularization to allow the transport and exchange of oxygen, nutrients, growth factors and cells that take part in tissue repair and/or regeneration. An increasing number of publications have shown that bioactive glasses stimulate angiogenesis. Because it has been established that boron (B) may play a role in angiogenesis, the aim of this study was to assess the in vivo angiogenic effects of the ionic dissolution products that from a bioactive glass (BG) in the 45S5 system doped with 2 wt% B2O3 (45S5.2B). The pro-angiogenic capacity of 45S5.2B BG was assessed on the vasculature of the embryonic quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Ionic dissolution products from 45S5.2B BG increased angiogenesis. This is quantitatively evidenced by the greater expression of integrin αvß3 and higher vascular density in the embryonic quail CAM. The response observed at 2 and 5 days post-treatment was equivalent to that achieved by applying 10 µg mL-1 of basic fibroblast growth factor. These results show that the ionic dissolution products released from the bioactive glass 45S5.2B stimulate angiogenesis in vivo. The effects observed are attributed to the presence the ionic dissolution products, which contained 160 ± 10 µM borate.

7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 7(1): e2018, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23350012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic in Latin America and an emerging infectious disease in the US and Europe. We have shown TcG1, TcG2, and TcG4 antigens elicit protective immunity to T. cruzi in mice and dogs. Herein, we investigated antigenicity of the recombinant proteins in humans to determine their potential utility for the development of next generation diagnostics for screening of T. cruzi infection and Chagas disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sera samples from inhabitants of the endemic areas of Argentina-Bolivia and Mexico-Guatemala were analyzed in 1(st)-phase for anti-T. cruzi antibody response by traditional serology tests; and in 2(nd)-phase for antibody response to the recombinant antigens (individually or mixed) by an ELISA. We noted similar antibody response to candidate antigens in sera samples from inhabitants of Argentina and Mexico (n=175). The IgG antibodies to TcG1, TcG2, and TcG4 (individually) and TcG(mix) were present in 62-71%, 65-78% and 72-82%, and 89-93% of the subjects, respectively, identified to be seropositive by traditional serology. Recombinant TcG1- (93.6%), TcG2- (96%), TcG4- (94.6%) and TcG(mix)- (98%) based ELISA exhibited significantly higher specificity compared to that noted for T. cruzi trypomastigote-based ELISA (77.8%) in diagnosing T. cruzi-infection and avoiding cross-reactivity to Leishmania spp. No significant correlation was noted in the sera levels of antibody response and clinical severity of Chagas disease in seropositive subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Three candidate antigens were recognized by antibody response in chagasic patients from two distinct study sites and expressed in diverse strains of the circulating parasites. A multiplex ELISA detecting antibody response to three antigens was highly sensitive and specific in diagnosing T. cruzi infection in humans, suggesting that a diagnostic kit based on TcG1, TcG2 and TcG4 recombinant proteins will be useful in diverse situations.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Protozoárias/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , América Central , Doença de Chagas/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , América do Sul , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 1(6): e003855, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23316324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction is a key determinant in chagasic cardiomyopathy development in mice; however, its relevance in human Chagas disease is not known. We determined if defects in mitochondrial biogenesis and dysregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) coactivator-1 (PGC-1)-regulated transcriptional pathways constitute a mechanism or mechanisms underlying mitochondrial oxidative-phosphorylation (OXPHOS) deficiency in human Chagas disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We utilized human cardiomyocytes and left-ventricular tissue from chagasic and other cardiomyopathy patients and healthy donors (n>6/group). We noted no change in citrate synthase activity, yet mRNA and/or protein levels of subunits of the respiratory complexes were significantly decreased in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected cardiomyocytes (0 to 24 hours) and chagasic hearts. We observed increased mRNA and decreased nuclear localization of PGC-1-coactivated transcription factors, yet the expression of genes for PPARγ-regulated fatty acid oxidation and nuclear respiratory factor (NRF1/2)-regulated mtDNA replication and transcription machinery was enhanced in infected cardiomyocytes and chagasic hearts. The D-loop formation was normal or higher, but mtDNA replication and mtDNA content were decreased by 83% and 40% to 65%, respectively. Subsequently, we noted that reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress, and mtDNA oxidation were significantly increased, yet NRF1/2-regulated antioxidant gene expression remained compromised in infected cardiomyocytes and chagasic hearts. CONCLUSIONS: The replication of mtDNA was severely compromised, resulting in a significant loss of mtDNA and expression of OXPHOS genes in T cruzi-infected cardiomyocytes and chagasic hearts. Our data suggest increased ROS generation and selective functional incapacity of NRF2-mediated antioxidant gene expression played a role in the defects in mtDNA replication and unfitness of mtDNA for replication and gene expression in Chagas disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/fisiopatologia , Replicação do DNA/fisiologia , DNA Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Renovação Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Trypanosoma cruzi , Western Blotting , Células Cultivadas , Doença de Chagas/genética , Doença de Chagas/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/fisiopatologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/ultraestrutura , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/fisiologia , Fator 1 Nuclear Respiratório/genética , Fator 1 Nuclear Respiratório/metabolismo , Fator 1 Nuclear Respiratório/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia
9.
Neurotox Res ; 17(1): 1-14, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19784710

RESUMO

Although a requirement of zinc (Zn) for normal brain development is well documented, the extent to which Zn can modulate neuronal proliferation and apoptosis is not clear. Thus, we investigated the role of Zn in the regulation of these two critical events. A low Zn availability leads to decreased cell viability in human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells and primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. This occurs in part as a consequence of decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptotic cell death. In IMR-32 cells, Zn deficiency led to the inhibition of cell proliferation through the arrest of the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. Zn deficiency induced apoptosis in both proliferating and quiescent neuronal cells via the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Reductions in cellular Zn triggered a translocation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad to the mitochondria, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation. Apoptosis is the resultant of the inhibition of the prosurvival extracellular-signal-regulated kinase, the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B, and associated decreased expression of antiapoptotic proteins, and to a direct activation of caspase-3. A deficit of Zn during critical developmental periods can have persistent effects on brain function secondary to a deregulation of neuronal proliferation and apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/farmacologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética/métodos , Embrião de Mamíferos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas/métodos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/metabolismo , Gravidez , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Serina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Tióctico/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Zinco/metabolismo
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