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1.
Microbiol Res ; 223-225: 1-12, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178042

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient, but often limited in soils for plant uptake. A major economic constraint in the rice production is excessive use of chemical fertilizers to meet the P requirement. Bioaugmentation of phosphate solubilizing rhizobacteria (PSB) can be used as promising alternative. In the present study 11 mineral PSB were isolated from Basmati rice growing areas of Pakistan. In broth medium, PSB solubilized tricalcium phosphate (27-354 µg mL-1) with concomitant decrease in pH up to 3.6 due to the production of different organic acids, predominantly gluconic acid. Of these, 4 strains also have ability to mineralize phytate (245-412 µg mL-1). Principle component analysis showed that the gluconic acid producing PSB strains (Acinetobacter sp. MR5 and Pseudomonas sp. MR7) have pronounced effect on grain yield (up to 55%), plant P (up to 67%) and soil available P (up to 67%), with 20% reduced fertilization. For simultaneous validation of gluconic acid production by MR5 and MR7 through PCR, new specific primers were designed to amplify gcd, pqqE, pqqC genes responsible for glucose dehydrogenase (gcd) mediated phosphate solubilization. These findings for the first time demonstrated Acinetobacter soli as potent P solubilizer for rice and expands our knowledge about genus specific pqq and gcd primers. These two gcd containing PSB Acinetobacter sp. MR5 (DSM 106631) and Pseudomonas sp. MR7 (DSM 106634) submitted to German culture collection (DSMZ), serve as global valuable pool to significantly increase the P uptake, growth and yield of Basmati rice with decreased dependence on chemical fertilizer in P deficit agricultural soils.


Assuntos
Biofortificação , Glucose 1-Desidrogenase/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fósforo/metabolismo , Acinetobacter/genética , Agricultura , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Transporte Biológico , Meios de Cultura , Fertilizantes , Germinação , Gluconatos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Paquistão , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Solubilidade
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 470, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250261

RESUMO

Particulate and gaseous emissions from intensive poultry facilities are major public and environmental health concern. The present study was aimed at exploratively monitoring particulate matter (PM) and gaseous concentrations in controlled-environment facilities using low-cost sensors in Lahore, Pakistan. The indoors and outdoors of 18 broiler houses, grouped into three categories based on the age of birds: group I (1-20 days), group II (21-30 days) and group III (31-40 days), were examined. Low-cost sensors Dylos 1700 and Aeroqual 500 series with different gas sensor heads were used to monitor PM and different gases such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), respectively. Overall, the mean PM and gaseous concentrations increased with the age and activity of birds as compared with the non-activity time of birds. Statistically significant differences were observed in all measured parameters among the groups. The negative correlation between indoor and outdoor environments for PM and gas concentrations at some broiler houses demonstrates the contribution of additional sources to emissions in outdoor environments. The findings contribute to our knowledge of temporal characteristics of particulate and gaseous concentrations from poultry facilities particularly in Pakistan and generally to the capability of using low-cost sensors to evaluate emissions from such facilities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gases/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Galinhas , Poeira/análise , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Metano/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Paquistão , Aves Domésticas
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 631-632: 1059-1069, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727932

RESUMO

Air samples from four contrasting outdoor environments including a park, an arable farm, a waste water treatment plant and a composting facility were analysed during the summer and winter months. The aim of the research was to study the feasibility of differentiating microbial communities from urban, rural and industrial areas between seasons with chemical and molecular markers such as microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). Air samples (3l) were collected every 2h for a total of 6h in order to assess the temporal variations of MVOCs and PLFAs along the day. MVOCs and VOCs concentrations varied over the day, especially in the composting facility which was the site where more human activities were carried out. At this site, total VOC concentration varied between 80 and 170µgm-3 in summer and 20-250µgm-3 in winter. The composition of MVOCs varied between sites due to the different biological substrates including crops, waste water, green waste or grass. MVOCs composition also differed between seasons as in summer they are more likely to get modified by oxidation processes in the atmosphere and in winter by reduction processes. The composition of microbial communities identified by the analysis of PLFAs also varied among the different locations and between seasons. The location with higher concentrations of PLFAs in summer was the farm (7297ngm-3) and in winter the park (11,724ngm-3). A specific set of MVOCs and PLFAs that most represent each one of the locations was identified by principal component analyses (PCA) and canonical analyses. Further to this, concentrations of both total VOCs and PLFAs were at least three times higher in winter than in summer. The difference in concentrations between summer and winter suggest that seasonal variations should be considered when assessing the risk of exposure to these compounds.

4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 102(1): 485-497, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29110071

RESUMO

In the present study, the relative distribution of endophytic rhizobia in field-collected root nodules of the promiscuous host mung bean was investigated by sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and nifH genes, amplified directly from the nodule DNA. Co-dominance of the genera Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer was indicated by 32.05 and 35.84% of the total retrieved 16S rRNA sequences, respectively, and the sequences of genera Mesorhizobium and Rhizobium comprised only 0.06 and 2.06% of the recovered sequences, respectively. Sequences amplified from rhizosphere soil DNA indicated that only a minor fraction originated from Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer strains, comprising about 0.46 and 0.67% of the total retrieved sequences, respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequencing has also identified the presence of several non-rhizobial endophytes from phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroides, and Firmicutes. The nifH sequences obtained from nodules also confirmed the co-dominance of Bradyrhizobium (39.21%) and Ensifer (59.23%) strains. The nifH sequences of the genus Rhizobium were absent, and those of genus Mesorhizobium comprised only a minor fraction of the sequences recovered from the nodules and rhizosphere soil samples. Two bacterial isolates, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Bradyrhizobium strain Vr51 and Ensifer strain Vr38, successfully nodulated the original host (mung bean) plants. Co-dominance of Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer strains in the nodules of mung bean indicates the potential role of the host plant in selecting specific endophytic rhizobial populations. Furthermore, successful nodulation of mung bean by the isolates showed that strains of both the genera Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer can be used for production of inoculum.


Assuntos
Bradyrhizobium/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/microbiologia , Sinorhizobium/genética , Vigna/microbiologia , Bradyrhizobium/fisiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Endófitos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sinorhizobium/fisiologia , Simbiose , Vigna/anatomia & histologia
5.
Front Public Health ; 5: 32, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28326304

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the chief contributor to global burden of disease. In 2010, HIV was the fifth leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in people of all ages and leading cause for people aged 30-44 years. It is classified as a member of the family Retroviridae and genus Lentivirus based on the biological, morphological, and genetic properties. It infects different cells of the immune system, such as CD4+ T cells (T-helper cells), dendritic cells, and macrophages. HIV has two subtypes: HIV-1 and HIV-2. Among these strains, HIV-1 is the most virulent and pathogenic. Advanced diagnostic methods are exploring new ways of treatment and contributing in the reduction of HIV cases. The diagnostic techniques like PCR, rapid test, EIA, p24 antigen, and western blot have markedly upgraded the diagnosis of HIV. Antiretroviral therapy and vaccines are promising candidates in providing therapeutic and preventive regimes, respectively. Invention of CRISPR/Cas9 is a breakthrough in the field of HIV disease management.

6.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0171561, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28178330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a group of heterogeneous abnormalities affecting the function and structure of the kidney and mostly further proceeds to cardiovascular damage prior to end stage renal disease (ESRD). The oxidative insult and inflammatory mediators have some undefined role in CKD and cardiovascular complications. It is therefore, aimed at to pin point the predictive factors in the development of cardiovascular disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease. METHODS: Fifty patients of CKD experiencing cardiovascular distress and twenty normal individuals having same age and sex acted as control during these observations. Blood samples (Each 5 ml) were drawn and subjected to centrifugation for 10-15 minutes to separate the serum at 4000-5000rpm. The levels of MDA, GSH, SOD, CAT, VIT C, VIT E, IL-1, TNF-alpha, nitric oxide (NO) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) were estimated and analyzed. RESULTS: The nitric oxide levels in the CKD patients decreased significantly (13.26±1.25 ng/ml) compared to controls (42.15±5.26 ng/ml). The serum vitamin E and C levels in these patients recorded 2.15±0.25 µg/ml and 0.97±0.09 µg/ml respectively as against their assigned controls which read 6.35±1.22 µg/ml and 3.29±0.25 µg/ml. Furthermore, a significantly higher level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) as1.25±0.07 nmol/ml was observed in CKD patients viz-a-viz relevant control. However, the serum SOD, catalase (CAT) and GSH levels in the same patients registered a significant decline as evident from respective figures 0.07±0.002 µg/dl, 1.22±0.012 µmol/mol, and 3.25±1.05 µg/dl. The control for these was observed as0.99±0.06 µg/dl, 3.19±0.05 µmol/mol, and 8.64±0.03 µg/dL. On the other hand, the IL-1 levels in the CKD patients found quite higher (402.5±18.26 pg/ml). This clearly points to substantial increase in oxidative insult and reduced NO levels leading to the renal and cardiovascular damage. CONCLUSION: Observations support the fact that the decrease in anti-oxidative capacity accompanied by higher inflammatory mediators in CKD is indicative of oxidative stress, consequently leading to CKD progression, in all probability to cardiovascular insult. The outcome reiterates that strategies be designed afresh to contain CKD progression to cardiovascular complications and ESRD. One way could be to focus on early detection of stress related to the disease. It requires analyzing the factors related to stress, such as the one reported here. Linking these factors with the symptoms could be a crucial step forward. And further, the disease could be monitored in a more disciplined manner.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Produtos da Oxidação Avançada de Proteínas/sangue , Ácido Ascórbico/sangue , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Vitamina E/sangue
7.
PLoS One ; 11(11): e0167149, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27902750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the 5th most common cause of deaths in the women among gynecological tumors. There are many growing evidences that stress and other behavioral factors may affect cancer progression and patient survival. The purpose of this study is to determine the key role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and cytokines in the aggregation and progression of ovarian cancer. METHODOLOGY: Stress variables (MDA, AGEs, AOPPs, NO), profile of antioxidants (SOD, Catalase, Vitamin E & A, GSH, GRx, GPx) and inflammatory biomarkers (MMP-9, MMP-2, MMP-11, IL-1α and TNF-α) were biochemically assessed from venous blood of fifty ovarian cancer patients and twenty healthy control subjects. The results of all parameters were analyzed statistically by independent sample t-test. RESULTS: The results of the study demonstrated that the levels of stress variables like MDA (3.38±1.12nmol/ml), AGEs (2.72±0.22 ng/ml), AOPPs (128.48±27.23 ng/ml) and NO (58.71±8.67 ng/ml) were increased in the patients of ovarian cancer as compared to control individuals whereas the profile of antioxidants like SOD, Catalase, Vitamin E, Vitamin A, GSH and GRx were decreased in ovarian cancer patients (0.11±0.08 µg/ml, 2.41±1.01µmol/mol of protein, 0.22±0.04 µg/ml, 45.84±9.07µg/ml, 4.88±1.18µg/ml, 5.33±1.26 µmol/ml respectively). But the level of GPx antioxidant was increased in ovarian cancer patients (6.58±0.21µmol/ml). Moreover the levels of MMP-9 (64.87±5.35 ng/ml), MMP-2 (75.87±18.82 ng/ml) and MMP-11 (63.58±8.48 ng/ml) were elevated in the patients. Similarly, the levels of various cytokines TNF-α and IL-1α were also increased in the patients of ovarian cancer (32.17±3.52 pg/ml and 7.04±0.85 pg/ml respectively). CONCLUSION: MMPs are commonly expressed in ovarian cancer which are potential extrapolative biomarkers and have a major role in metastasis. Due to oxidative stress, different cytokines are released by tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) that result in the cancer progression. Consequently, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are the valuable therapeutic approaches to complement conservative anticancer strategies.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Adulto , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(3): 542-550, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-788956

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The main objective of the present study was to isolate phytohormone-producing, phosphate-solubilizing strains of Azospirillum from wheat to be used as inoculants for plant growth promotion. Five Azospirillum strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of field-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and it was confirmed by BOX-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that the isolates were different and not re-isolates of the same strain. Sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene indicated that four isolates showed maximum similarity to Azospirillum brasilense and one isolate showed maximum similarity to Azospirillum zeae. This is the first report indicating the presence of an A. zeae like isolate in the wheat rhizosphere in Pakistan. The bacterial isolates were characterized for their plant growth-promoting traits, phosphate solubilization, and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. None of the isolates showed phosphate solubilization activity in the commonly used Pikovskaya medium. However, all strains (except AzoK4) exhibited ability to solubilize tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in modified Pikovskaya medium in which sucrose was replaced by Na-malate, as well as in TCP-supplemented Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. Organic acids, such as acetic, citric, lactic, malic, and succinic acids, were detected in culture supernatants of the tested Azospirillum strains. All strains exhibited ability to produce IAA in the growth medium, except Azospirillum sp. AzoK1. Among the strains tested, the maximum IAA production (30.49 ± 1.04 mg L-1) and phosphate solubilization (105.50 ± 4.93 mg L-1) were shown by a pure culture of Azospirillum sp. AzoK2. In pot experiments, single-strain inocula of Azospirillum sp. AzoK1 and AzoK2 improved wheat plant growth.

9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 23(15): 15757-66, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27318484

RESUMO

Exposure to airborne biological hazards in an ever expanding urban transport infrastructure and highly diverse mobile population is of growing concern, in terms of both public health and biosecurity. The existing policies and practices on design, construction and operation of these infrastructures may have severe implications for airborne disease transmission, particularly, in the event of a pandemic or intentional release of biological of agents. This paper reviews existing knowledge on airborne disease transmission in different modes of transport, highlights the factors enhancing the vulnerability of transport infrastructures to airborne disease transmission, discusses the potential protection measures and identifies the research gaps in order to build a bioresilient transport infrastructure. The unification of security and public health research, inclusion of public health security concepts at the design and planning phase, and a holistic system approach involving all the stakeholders over the life cycle of transport infrastructure hold the key to mitigate the challenges posed by biological hazards in the twenty-first century transport infrastructure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Saúde Pública , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Humanos , Transportes , Saúde da População Urbana
10.
Braz J Microbiol ; 47(3): 542-50, 2016 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27133558

RESUMO

The main objective of the present study was to isolate phytohormone-producing, phosphate-solubilizing strains of Azospirillum from wheat to be used as inoculants for plant growth promotion. Five Azospirillum strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of field-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and it was confirmed by BOX-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that the isolates were different and not re-isolates of the same strain. Sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene indicated that four isolates showed maximum similarity to Azospirillum brasilense and one isolate showed maximum similarity to Azospirillum zeae. This is the first report indicating the presence of an A. zeae like isolate in the wheat rhizosphere in Pakistan. The bacterial isolates were characterized for their plant growth-promoting traits, phosphate solubilization, and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. None of the isolates showed phosphate solubilization activity in the commonly used Pikovskaya medium. However, all strains (except AzoK4) exhibited ability to solubilize tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in modified Pikovskaya medium in which sucrose was replaced by Na-malate, as well as in TCP-supplemented Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. Organic acids, such as acetic, citric, lactic, malic, and succinic acids, were detected in culture supernatants of the tested Azospirillum strains. All strains exhibited ability to produce IAA in the growth medium, except Azospirillum sp. AzoK1. Among the strains tested, the maximum IAA production (30.49±1.04mgL(-1)) and phosphate solubilization (105.50±4.93mgL(-1)) were shown by a pure culture of Azospirillum sp. AzoK2. In pot experiments, single-strain inocula of Azospirillum sp. AzoK1 and AzoK2 improved wheat plant growth.


Assuntos
Azospirillum/classificação , Azospirillum/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/biossíntese , Rizosfera , Triticum/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Paquistão , Ácidos de Fósforo/metabolismo , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Res Microbiol ; 167(6): 510-20, 2016 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27117242

RESUMO

Serratia species-affiliated DNA sequences have recently been discovered in the root nodules of two chickpea cultivars; however, little is known about their potential influence on chickpea plant growth. All Serratia-affiliated sequences (1136) could be grouped into two clusters at 98% DNA similarity. The major cluster, represented by 96% of sequences, was closely associated with Serratia marcescens sequences from GenBank. In the current study, we isolated two Serratia strains, 5D and RTL100, from root nodules of a field-grown Desi cultivar from Faisalabad and Thal areas, respectively. In vitro, strain 5D showed significantly higher phosphate (P) solubilization and lactic acid production than RTL100, whereas a comparable concentration of phytohormone was produced by both isolates. The application of Serratia strain 5D as an inoculum resulted in 25.55% and 30.85% increases in the grain yield of crops grown on fertile soil in irrigated areas and nutrient-deficient soil in rainfed areas, respectively, compared to the non-inoculated control. Results of plant inoculations indicated that Serratia sp. 5D and RTL100 can serve as effective microbial inoculants, particularly in nutrient-deficient soils in rainfed areas, where chickpea is the only major crop grown during the entire year.


Assuntos
Cicer/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cicer/microbiologia , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/microbiologia , Serratia/isolamento & purificação , Serratia/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Serratia/classificação , Serratia/genética
12.
Noncoding RNA Res ; 1(1): 69-76, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30159413

RESUMO

Cancer invasion involves a series of fundamental heterogeneous steps, with each step being distinct in its type regarding its dependence on various oncogenic pathways. Over the past few years, researchers have been focusing on targeted therapies to treat malignancies relying not only on a single oncogenic pathway, but on multiple pathways. Scientists have recently identified potential targets in the human genome considered earlier as non-functional but the discovery of their potential role in gene regulation has put new insights to cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutics. Non coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been identified as the key gene expression regulators. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNAs) reveal diverse gene expression profiles in benign and metastatic tumours. Improved clinical research may lead to better knowledge of their biogenesis and mechanism and eventually be used as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic agents. Small non coding RNAs or micro RNA (miRNA) are capable of reprogramming multiple oncogenic cascades and, thus, can be used as target agents. This review is aimed to give a perspective of non coding transcription in cancer metastasis with an eye on rising clinical relevance of non coding RNAs and their mechanism of action focusing on potential therapeutics for cancer pathogenesis.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 445-446: 165-76, 2013 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23333512

RESUMO

To investigate the levels of particulate pollution in residential built environments measurements of PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1) and concentrations were made between 2004 and 2008 in various residencies in a UK suburban location. Measurements were carried out in three different residential settings (Types I, II and III). In type I non-smoking living rooms, the highest 24-hour mean concentrations were found in summer. When smoking took place in type I residences, the concentrations of PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1), during the winter were almost double those in summer. In type II houses the concentrations were higher in the houses with open plan kitchens than in those with separate kitchens. In type III houses, mean concentrations were significantly higher in wood heated living rooms than those using central heating. In kitchens, cooking resulted in substantially higher concentrations of particulate matter with levels above those in smoking living rooms in winter. The hourly maximum values of number concentration were considerably higher in smoking rooms than non-smoking ones. Cooking resulted in increased number concentrations, with the average hourly maximum concentration of 179,110 #/cm(3). Particle mass and number emission rates were determined for a number of activities. In kitchens grilling had the highest average number emission rate, followed by boiling and frying. The results clearly highlight the impact of different forms of dwelling and their use and management by occupants on the levels of particulate matter in naturally ventilated residential built environments.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Habitação , Material Particulado/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Reino Unido , Ventilação
14.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 13(10): 5257-61, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23244146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High incidence of breast cancer and its fatal effect has reached an alarming stage across the globe, including the third world countries. Many factors have been reported to be associated with the development of breast cancer but detailed structural and functional information is missing. CA 15-3 is one of the known potential tumor marker of breast cancer; however little is known about structure and functional site of this protein. Present study aims to investigate the functional role of CA 15-3 in breast cancer, especially in development and metastasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hundred female breast cancer patients confirmed by histopathological reports were included in the study. Their physiological characters were recorded in a performa. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was used to estimate serum CA 15-3 level. Immunohistochemistry was done for estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and Her2/neu receptors expression. RESULTS: The study revealed the details of physiological characteristics of female breast cancer. Mean age was 37.72 ± 5.99 and 55.05 ± 7.28 years and serum CA 15-3 (MUC1) level was 60.47 ± 8.59 and 63.17 ± 4.58 U/ml in pre and post-menopause respectively, and both groups of women had sedentary life style. Their receptor status especially of progesterone, estrogen and HER-2/neu were positive in 50% of premenopausal women and 65% of postmenopausal women. CONCLUSION: There are multiple physiological factors promoting breast cancer. High serum CA 15-3 level and hormonal imbalance of ER, PR and Her2/neu appears to be the main cause of breast cancer. It may be possible that the functional sites of these proteins may be altered which may increase the chances of metastasis in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma Lobular/metabolismo , Mucina-1/metabolismo , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Metástase Linfática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Paquistão , Pós-Menopausa , Pré-Menopausa , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
15.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 22(8): 529-30, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22868022

RESUMO

Air in the spinal canal (Pneumorrhachis) is a rare complication of traumatic spinal injuries reported at various levels of the spinal canal. Pneumorrhachis resolves spontaneously most of the times. Rarely, it may cause cord compression. It is important to rule out potentially serious causes like basilar skull fracture, injury to lungs, mediastinum, mastoid air cells, frontal sinuses or intestine. We present a case of pneumorrhachis in a young soldier who sustained gunshot wound in neck, resulting in spinal cord injury, He was managed conservatively and pneumorrhachis resolved spontaneously without complications. Pathogenesis along with review of relevant literature is presented.


Assuntos
Enfisema/etiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Vértebras Torácicas/lesões , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/complicações , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Enfisema/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Canal Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Environ Pollut ; 168: 15-22, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22584111

RESUMO

Our knowledge of the concentrations of bioaerosols in residential micro-environments in low income countries is scanty. The present investigation was conducted to assess the culturable concentration and size distribution of bacteria, gram negative bacteria and fungi in two rural and an urban site in Pakistan. The highest indoor culturable bacteria concentration was found at Rural Site II (14,650 CFU/m3) while the outdoor maximum occurred at the urban site (16,416 CFU/m3). With reference to fungi, both indoor and outdoor concentrations were considerably higher at Rural Site I than the other sites. The size distribution of culturable bacteria at all sites showed greater variability than that of culturable fungi. At all sites more than the half (55-93%) of the culturable bacterial and fungal counts were observed in the respirable fraction (<4.7 µm) and so had the potential to penetrate into lower respiratory system.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Microbiologia do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Bactérias , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fungos , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Paquistão , Pobreza , População Rural
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 409(2): 357-63, 2010 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21075427

RESUMO

More than half the world's population use biomass fuels as a household energy source and, hence, face significant exposure to a number of air pollutants. In Pakistan about 90% of rural households and 22% of urban households use biomass fuels. In order to assess the levels of NO(2) in the residential micro-environment, two sampling campaigns were carried out at different times of the year (summer and winter) at an urban and two rural sites during 2005 and 2007. Rural site I used biomass fuels while natural gas was utilized at rural site II and the urban site. In winter NO(2) concentrations at all three sites were higher in the kitchens than living rooms and outdoors. ANOVA showed that, although, there was a significant difference among NO(2) concentrations in the kitchens, living rooms and courtyards, at all the three sites, there was no significant different between kitchens using biomass fuels and natural gas. During the summer NO(2) levels fell sharply at both rural sites (from 256 µg/m(3) and 242 µg/m(3) to 51 µg/m(3) and 81 µg/m(3)). However at the urban site the mean levels were slightly higher in summer (234 µg/m(3)) than in winter (218 µg/m(3)). The considerable seasonal variation at the rural sites was due to a shift of indoor kitchens to open outdoor kitchens at rural site I and more ventilation at rural site II during summer. There was no significant difference between kitchens using biomass (site I) or natural gas (site II), however the kitchens at rural site II and urban site showed a significant difference. Overall fuel selection showed no significant effect on NO(2) levels. However the NO(2) concentrations may pose a significant threat to the health of people, especially women and children.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Biocombustíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Paquistão , Estações do Ano
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 17(6): 1187-96, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20162371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In Pakistan, almost 70% of the population lives in rural areas. Ninety-four percent of households in rural areas and 58% in urban areas depend on biomass fuels (wood, dung, and agricultural waste). These solid fuels have poor combustion efficiency. Due to incomplete combustion of the biomass fuels, the resulting smoke contains a range of health-deteriorating substances that, at varying concentrations, can pose a serious threat to human health. Indoor air pollution accounts for 28,000 deaths a year and 40 million cases of acute respiratory illness. It places a significant economic burden on Pakistan with an annual cost of 1% of GDP. Despite the mounting evidence of an association between indoor air pollution and ill health, policy makers have paid little attention to it. This review analyzes the existing information on levels of indoor air pollution in Pakistan and suggests suitable intervention methods. METHODS: This review is focused on studies of indoor air pollution, due to biomass fuels, in Pakistan published in both scientific journals and by the Government and international organizations. In addition, the importance of environmental tobacco smoke as an indoor pollutant is highlighted. RESULTS: Unlike many other developing countries, there are no long-term studies on the levels of indoor air pollution. The limited studies that have been undertaken indicate that indoor air pollution should be a public health concern. High levels of particulate matter and carbon monoxide have been reported, and generally, women and children are subject to the maximum exposure. There have been a few interventions, with improved stoves, in some areas since 1990. However, the effectiveness of these interventions has not been fully evaluated. CONCLUSION: Indoor air pollution has a significant impact on the health of the population in Pakistan. The use of biomass fuel as an energy source is the biggest contributor to poor indoor air quality followed by smoking. In order to arrest the increasing levels of indoor pollution, there is a dire need to recognize it as a major health hazard and formulate a national policy to combat it. An integrated effort, with involvement of all stakeholders, could yield promising results. A countrywide public awareness campaign, on the association of indoor air pollution with ill health, followed by practical intervention would be an appropriate approach. Due to the current socioeconomic conditions in the country, development and adoption of improved cooking stoves for the population at large would be the most suitable choice. However, the potential of biogas as a fuel should be explored further, and modern fuels (natural gas and LPG) need to be accessible and economical. Smoking in closed public spaces should be banned, and knowledge of the effect of smoking on indoor air quality needs to be quantified.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Biocombustíveis/análise , Fumaça/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Paquistão , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 17(1): 49-63, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19575252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pakistan, during the last decade, has seen an extensive escalation in population growth, urbanization, and industrialization, together with a great increase in motorization and energy use. As a result, a substantial rise has taken place in the types and number of emission sources of various air pollutants. However, due to the lack of air quality management capabilities, the country is suffering from deterioration of air quality. Evidence from various governmental organizations and international bodies has indicated that air pollution is a significant risk to the environment, quality of life, and health of the population. The Government has taken positive steps toward air quality management in the form of the Pakistan Clean Air Program and has recently established a small number of continuous monitoring stations. However, ambient air quality standards have not yet been established. This paper reviews the data being available on the criteria air pollutants: particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and lead. METHODS: Air pollution studies in Pakistan published in both scientific journals and by the Government have been reviewed and the reported concentrations of PM, SO(2), O(3), CO, NO(2), and Pb collated. A comparison of the levels of these air pollutants with the World Health Organization air quality guidelines was carried out. RESULTS: Particulate matter was the most serious air pollutant in the country. NO(2) has emerged as the second high-risk pollutant. The reported levels of PM, SO(2), CO, NO(2), and Pb were many times higher than the World Health Organization air quality guidelines. Only O(3) concentrations were below the guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: The current state of air quality calls for immediate action to tackle the poor air quality. The establishment of ambient air quality standards, an extension of the continuous monitoring sites, and the development of emission control strategies are essential.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Ar/análise , Ar/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Paquistão , Material Particulado/química , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Environ Monit ; 11(6): 1140-6, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19513444

RESUMO

To understand the dynamics of particulate matter inside train coaches and public cars, an investigation was carried out during 2004-2006. For air-conditioned rail coaches, during peak journey times, the mean concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 were 44 microg m(-3), 14 microg m(-3) and 12 microg m(-3), respectively. The levels fell by more than half (21 microg m(-3), 6 microg m(-3), and 4 microg m(-3)) for the same size fractions, on the same route, during the off-peak journeys. On the other hand, in non-air-conditioned coaches, the PM10 concentrations of up to 95 microg m(-3) were observed during both peak and off-peak journeys. However the concentrations of PM2.5 and PM1 were 30 microg m(-3) and 12 microg m(-3) in peak journeys in comparison to 14 microg m(-3) and 6 microg m(-3) during off-peak journeys. Over a period of four months the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in car journeys were generally similar during both morning and evening journeys with average values of 21 microg m(-3) for PM10, 9 microg m(-3) for PM2.5 and 6 microg m(-3) for PM1. However during October the average concentration of PM10 was 31 microg m(-3). An analysis of nearby fixed monitoring sites for both PM10 and PM2.5 revealed an episode of high particulate pollution over southern England during one week of October. There was no statistically significant difference between particulate matter levels for morning and evening car journeys. A statistically significant correlation was found between morning and evening PM10 (0.45), PM2.5 (0.39) and PM1 (0.46). In train journeys, a statistically significant difference was observed for peak and off-peak levels of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in air-conditioned coaches. On the other hand, in non air-conditioned coaches a significant difference was documented only for PM2.5 and PM1.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Inglaterra , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde , Tamanho da Partícula , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo , Ventilação
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