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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299987

RESUMO

(1) Background: It has been identified that schools that adopt at least two hours a week of physical education and plan specific contents and activities can achieve development goals related to physical level, such as promoting health, well-being, and healthy lifestyles, on a personal level, including bodily awareness and confidence in physical skills, as well as a general sense of well-being, greater security and self-esteem, sense of responsibility, patience, courage, and mental balance. The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of physical education programs on the physical activity and emotional well-being of primary school children. (2) Methods: The experimental group comprised 45 girls and 44 boys aged 6-7 years (First Grade) and 48 girls and 46 boys aged 8-9 years (Second Grade), while the control group comprised 43 girls and 46 boys aged 6-7 years (First Grade) and 47 girls and 45 boys aged 8-9 years (Second Grade). All children attended the same school. The Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire was used, which is based on the Children's Leisure Activities Study Survey questionnaire, which includes activities specific to young children (e.g., "playing in a playhouse"). Emotional well-being status was explored by estimating three main dimensions: somatic anxiety, personality anxiety, and social anxiety. The Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS) was used. (3) Results: When analysing the pre-test results of physical activity of the 6-7- and 8-9-year-old children, it turned out that both the First Grade (92.15 MET, min/week) and Second Grade (97.50 MET, min/week) participants in the experimental group were physically active during physical education lessons. When exploring the results of somatic anxiety in EG (4.95 ± 1.10 points), both before and after the experiment, we established that somatic anxiety in EG was 4.55 ± 1.00 points after the intervention program, demonstrating lower levels of depression, seclusion, somatic complaints, aggression, and delinquent behaviours (F = 4.785, p < 0.05, P = 0.540). (4) Conclusions: We established that the properly constructed and purposefully applied eight-month physical education program had positive effects on the physical activity and emotional well-being of primary school children (6-7 and 8-9 years) in three main dimensions: somatic anxiety, personality anxiety, and social anxiety. Our findings suggest that the eight-month physical education program intervention was effective at increasing levels of physical activity. Changes in these activities may require more intensive behavioural interventions with children or upstream interventions at the family and societal levels, as well as at the school environment level. These findings have relevance for researchers, policy makers, public health practitioners, and doctors who are involved in health promotion, policy making, and commissioning services.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Educação Física e Treinamento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Instituições Acadêmicas
2.
Rev. psicol. deport ; 26(1): 157-166, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-159732

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between physical activity (PA) and health-related physical fitness (HRPF) of 17-year- old girls. The study was performed in 12 randomly selected secondary schools of Lithuania. The sample consisted of 233 17-year-old girls who were classified into three sub-groups according to their level of PA. PA level was assessed using the modified Short Form of IPAQ questionnaire. Body mass and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. HRPF was estimated by measuring speed and agility (10x5m shuttle test), explosive strength (standing broad jump test), trunk strength (sit-up test) and flexibility (sit-and-reach test). Body mass and BMI significantly differed among PA groups with the highest values in the Low PA group and the lowest in the High PA group. Girls experiencing higher PA levels scored better on explosive strength test. Flexibility, trunk strength scores, speed, and agility did not significantly differ among PA groups. The relationship between total volume of PA and explosive strength was low. No significant relationships were found between total volume of PA and other HRPF components. In addition, a significant association in explosive strength was identified. The 17-year-old girls experiencing a higher PA level have better explosive strength. However, no statistically significant relationships were found among 17-year-old girls’ total volume of PA and other HRPF components − flexibility, trunk strength, speed and agility (AU)


El objetivo del presente estudio consistió en investigar las relaciones entre la actividad física y los componentes de la salud y la condición física de mujeres jóvenes de 17 años. El estudio se realizó en 12 escuelas de enseñanza secundaria de Lituania aleatoriamente seleccionadas. La muestra se compuso de 233 alumnas de 17 años que se clasificaron en tres subgrupos en función de su nivel de actividad física. El nivel de actividad física se evaluó utilizando el cuestionario breve modificado del IPAQ. Los valores de talla y peso se registraron y se calculó el índice de masa corporal (IMC). Los valores de condición física y salud se estimaron midiendo la velocidad y la agilidad (10x5m test de desplazamiento), la fuerza explosiva (test de salto desde parado), fuerza de tronco (test de abdominales) y la flexibilidad (test de estiramiento desde sentado). Los resultados mostraron que el peso corporal y el IMC fueron significativamente diferentes entre los grupos con valores más elevados en el grupo de menor nivel de actividad física y los valores más elevados en el grupo de mayor nivel de actividad física. Las chicas que mostraron niveles más elevados de actividad física destacaron en el test de fuerza. Los valores de los test de flexibilidad, fuerza de tronco, velocidad y agilidad no diferían entre los grupos de nivel de actividad física. La relación entre el volumen total de actividad física y fuerza explosiva fue reducida. Asimismo, las alumnas del grupo de mayor nivel de actividad física mostraron mayores niveles de fuerza explosiva. Sin embargo, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el volumen total de actividad física y otros componentes de la condición física y la salud (flexibilidad, fuerza de tronco, velocidad y agilidad) (AU)


O objetivo do estudo foi investigar as relações entre a atividade física (AF) e a aptidão física relacionada à saúde (AFRS) em raparigas de 17 anos. O estudo foi realizado em 12 escolas secundárias na Lituânia, selecionadas aleatoriamente. A amostra foi constituída por 233 meninas de 17 anos, que foram classificadas em três subgrupos de acordo com o seu nível de AF. O nível de AF foi avaliado usando a versão curta do questionário IPAQ. A massa corporal e a altura foram medidas, sendo calculado o índice de massa corporal (IMC). A AFRS foi estimada medindo velocidade e agilidade (10x5m shuttle test), força explosiva (standing broad jump test), resistência do tronco (sit-up test) e flexibilidade (sit-and-reach test). A massa corporal e o IMC diferiram significativamente entre os grupos com diferentes níveis de AF verificando-se valores mais altos no grupo com AF mais baixa e valores mais baixos no grupo com mais AF. Raparigas com níveis de AF mais altos obtiveram melhoresresultados no teste de força explosiva. A flexibilidade, a força do tronco, a velocidade e a agilidade não diferiram significativamente entre os grupos com diferentes níveis de AF. A relação entre o volume total de AF e a força explosiva foi baixa. Não foram encontradas relações significativas entre o volume total de AF e outras componentes da AFRS. Além disso, foi identificada uma associação significativa entre o nível de AF e a força explosiva, sendo que as raparigas com maior nível de AF apresentavam maior valor de força explosiva. No entanto, não foram encontradas relações estatisticamente significativas entre o volume total de AF e as outras componentes da AFRS nas raparigas de 17 anos de idade - flexibilidade, força do tronco, velocidade e agilidade (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Antropometria/instrumentação , Antropometria/métodos , Esportes/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise Estatística , Análise de Variância
3.
Percept Mot Skills ; 120(3): 787-803, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25938450

RESUMO

This study investigated the aerobic fitness and physiologic and energetic responses during competitive exercise in aerobic gymnasts. The gymnasts performed a graded treadmill test and competitive group exercises. Energetic response was calculated from oxygen uptake and blood lactate changes. Peak oxygen uptake was similar in International (M = 45.4 ml · kg(-1) · min.(-1), SD = 3.9) and National (M = 44.7 ml · kg(-1) · min.(-1), SD = 3.6) level groups. During their competitive routines, total energy and the fractions of aerobic, anaerobic alactic, and anaerobic lactic energy were 1,847.7 (SD = 293.9) and 1,747.3 (SD = 196.7) J · kg(-1), 53.5% (SD = 3.1) and 60.3% (SD = 6.1), 25.4% (SD = 5.9) and 21.4% (SD = 5.2), and 21.1% (SD = 5.8) and 18.3% (SD = 4.5) in international and national level athletes, respectively (p > .05). The contribution of anaerobic energy was higher in the international level group (p = .03). It is concluded that the aerobic fitness and absolute energetic and physiological responses of athletes during competitive activities were not different between the aerobic gymnasts groups with different levels of performance, but a higher relative contribution of anaerobic energy was observed in the group with a higher performance level.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Ginástica/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Strength Cond Res ; 29(9): 2404-11, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25774624

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to explore the changes in running kinematics and economy during running at different intensities 1 and 24 hours after a muscle-damaging bench-stepping exercise. Healthy, physically active adult women were recruited for this study. The subjects' running kinematics, heart rate, gas exchange, minute ventilation, and perceived exertion were continuously recorded during the increasing-intensity running test on a treadmill for different testing conditions: a control condition and 1 and 24 hours after the bench-stepping exercise test. Two muscle damage markers, muscle soreness and blood creatine kinase (CK) activity, were measured before and 24 hours after the stepping exercise. Muscle soreness and blood CK activity were significantly altered (exact p ≤ 0.05, Monte Carlo test) 24 hours after the bench-stepping exercise. The stride length, stride frequency, and support time at different running intensities did not change. Twenty-four hours after the previous step exercise, ankle dorsiflexion in the support phase was significantly higher during severe-intensity running, the range of knee flexion at the stance phase was significantly lower during moderate-intensity running, and knee flexion at the end of the amortization phase was significantly lower during heavy-intensity running compared with the control values (exact p ≤ 0.05, Monte Carlo test). The running economy at moderate and heavy intensities, maximum ventilation, and maximum heart rate did not change. We conclude that, given moderate soreness in the calf muscles 24 hours after eccentric exercise, the running kinematics are slightly but significantly changed without a detectable effect on running economy.


Assuntos
Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Mialgia/etiologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia
5.
Open Med (Wars) ; 10(1): 201-208, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28352696

RESUMO

Benefits of physical activity are undeniable. The aim of the present research was to determine the effects of physical activity and age on cholesterol and glucose levels in the blood, as well as changes in the functional parameters of the cardiovascular system, during stepwise increases in physical load for men employed in the same place, but with different levels of physical activity. The subjects were 95 military officers who were divided into groups according to the level of physical activity of their occupation, with veloergometry used as physical load. Cholesterol and glucose levels in the blood were taken as biochemical indices. The results showed that occupational physical activity had a positive effect on biochemical and cardiovascular functional parameters before, during, and after the physical load. Only the cardiovascular rate (systolic blood pressure) in older subjects was significantly higher than that of the younger persons; for all other parameters, age had no effect at all.

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