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1.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577269

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the prognostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) classification of traumatic brain lesion localization and levels in patients with a brain injury of various severity in a few days to three weeks after the injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The cohort of 278 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) of various severity aged 8-74 y.o. (average -31.4±13.8, median - 29 (21.3; 37.0) was included in the analysis. The severity of TBI at admission varied from 3 to 15 Glasgow coma scores (GCS) (average - 8±4, median - 7 (5; 12). The main indications and conditions for MRI were: inconsistency between computed tomography (CT) data and neurological status, the necessity to clarify the location and type of brain damage, the absence of metal implants, the stabilization of the patient's vital functions, etc. MRI was performed during the first three weeks after the injury using T1, T2, T2-FLAIR, DWI, T2*GRE, SWAN sequences. The damage to the brain was classified according to 8 grades depending on the lesion levels (cortical-subcortical level, corpus callosum, basal ganglia and/or thalamus, and/or internal, and/or external capsules, uni- or bilateral brain stem injury at a different level). Outcomes were assessed by the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) 6 months after injury. RESULTS: The significant correlations were found for the entire cohort between MRI grading and TBI severity (by GCS) and outcome (by GOS) of the injury (R=-0.66; p<0.0001; R=-0.69; p<0.0001, respectively). A high accuracy (77%), sensitivity (77%) and specificity (76%) of the proposed MRI classification in predicting injury outcomes (AUC=0.85) were confirmed using the logistic regression and ROC analysis. The assessment of MRI-classification prognostic value in subgroups of patients examined during the first, second, and third weeks after injury showed significant correlations between the GCS and the GOS as well as between MRI-grading and GCS, and GOS in all three subgroups. In the subgroup of patients examined during the first 14 days after the injury, the correlation coefficients were higher compared with those obtained in a subgroup examined 15-21 days after the injury. The highest correlations between MRI grading, TBI severity, and the outcome were found in the subgroup of patients who underwent MRI in the first three days after the injury (n=58). CONCLUSION: The proposed MRI classification of traumatic brain lesion levels and localization based on the use of different MR sequences reliably correlated with the clinical estimate of TBI severity by GCS and the outcomes by GOS in patients examined during the first three weeks after injury. The strongest correlation was observed for patients examined during the first three days after the injury.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Escala de Resultado de Glasgow , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
2.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339493

RESUMO

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is one of the most severe traumatic brain injuries. The availability of neuroimaging biomarkers for monitoring expansion of traumatic brain injury in vivo is a topical issue. PURPOSE: To evaluate novel neuroimaging biomarkers for monitoring brain injury using diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in patients with severe diffuse axonal injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: DKI data of 12 patients with severe DAI (11 patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of ≤ 8 and 1 patient with a GCS score of 9) and 8 healthy volunteers (control group) were compared. MRI examination was performed 5 to 19 days after injury; 7 of the 12 patients underwent repeated MRI examinations. We assessed the following parameters: mean, axial, and radial kurtosis (MK, AK, RK, respectively) and kurtosis anisotropy (KA) of the white and gray matter; fractional anisotropy (FA), axonal water fraction (AWF), axial and radial extra-axonal diffusion (AxEAD and RadEAD, respectively), and tortuosity (TORT) of the extra-axonal space) of the white matter. Regions of interest (ROIs) were set bilaterally in the centrum semiovale, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule, putamen, thalamus, midbrain, and pons. RESULTS: A significant reduction in KA (p<0.05) in most of ROIs set on the white matter was revealed. AK was increased (p<0.05) not only in the white matter but also in the putamen and thalamus. A significant reduction in MK with time was observed when the first and second DKI data were compared. AWF was reduced in the centrum semiovale and peduncles. The TORT parameter was decreased (p<0.05) in the majority of ROIs in the white matter, with the most pronounced changes occurring in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum. CONCLUSION: DKI provides novel data about microstructural injury in DAI and improves our knowledge of brain trauma pathophysiology. DKI parameters should be considered as potential biomarkers of brain injury and potential predictors of the outcome.


Assuntos
Lesão Axonal Difusa , Substância Branca , Anisotropia , Lesão Axonal Difusa/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Humanos , Neuroimagem
3.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166312

RESUMO

Evaluation of brain metabolism is an important part in examination of brain lesions. Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy opens up great opportunities for studying the energy metabolism and allows noninvasive examination of metabolic processes occurring both in healthy and in pathologic brain tissue by obtaining a spectrum of phosphorus-containing metabolites involved in the turnover of cell membrane phospholipids. The technique presented in this paper was used to conduct 31P MR spectroscopy and to estimate the ratio between the peaks of the main metabolites and intracellular pH of the healthy brain tissue of 23 volunteers in the age group under 30 years old in clinical settings. Based on the recorded stable phosphorus spectra of metabolites of the healthy brain tissue, the value of intracellular pH (6.963±0.044) and the ratio of the main PME/PDE peaks (1.17±0.20) were calculated. The database was created to subsequently analyze the metabolic changes in brain tissue spectra in norm and in pathology, as well as the intracellular pH variations that have diagnostic and prognostic value.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Fósforo , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Química Encefálica , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Voluntários
4.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900685

RESUMO

The development of post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) after severe traumatic brain injury can cause, in some cases, severe impairment of consciousness and prevent rehabilitation of patients. The influence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation disorders on processes of consciousness recovery is a fundamental problem that requires in-depth research. The issues of differential diagnosis, results of surgical treatment of PTH, and its complications in patients in the vegetative status (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) remain poorly covered. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the long-term outcomes of surgical treatment in 82 PTH patients in the VS (38 cases) and MCS (44 cases). RESULTS: A significant clinical improvement occurred in 60.6% of VS patients and in 65.9% of MCS patients. The rate of shunt infection was high and amounted to 21.05% in the group of VS patients and 20.4% in the group of MCS patients. The rate of shunt system dysfunction was 26.05% in the first group and 20.4% in the second group. Postoperative mortality (associated directly with treatment complications) was 3.6%. Total mortality was 10.9%. DISCUSSION: The positive effect of shunting surgery in patients with gross impairment of consciousness was associated with transition to higher levels of consciousness. The high rate of complications, especially infections, was due to a serious condition of patients and comorbidities, in particular chronic infection foci. Shunt system dysfunction was not a factor of the adverse outcome of surgical treatment because rarely led to irreversible consequences, but required repeated surgery. Mortality after shunting surgery was significantly higher in patients with gross impairment of consciousness than in other groups of patients. We found a correlation between deaths in VS patients and shunt infection in the postoperative period. CONCLUSION: CSF shunting surgery is an important step in surgical rehabilitation of PTH patients. To assess the contribution of various risk factors to the development of shunt infection and to develop measures reducing its rate, further prospective studies are needed.


Assuntos
Hidrocefalia , Estado Vegetativo Persistente , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031165

RESUMO

5-ALA intraoperative fluorescence is widely used in surgery of brain tumors for intraoperative demarcation of boundaries and more total resection because 5-ALA metabolites are not accumulated in the intact brain and vascular tissues. Given this fact, it was hypothesized that fluorescence of vessels in the immediate vicinity of a brain tumor may indicate their infiltration by tumor cells as a potential pathway for their dissemination and as a factor for continued tumor growth after surgery and adjuvant therapy. PURPOSE: Identification of fluorescent vessels located near cerebral gliomas, with a histological description of their structure, relationships with the tumor, and potential invasion of the walls by tumor cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study included 14 patients with malignant supratentorial gliomas, aged 20 to 78 years. Five patients were operated on due to continued tumor growth. Two hours before surgery, all patients received 5-ALA orally. During surgery, a microscope (Carl Zeiss OPMI Pentero, Germany) with a fluorescent module (BLUE-400) was used. In all cases, molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical examinations of the tumor material were performed. During surgery, fluorescent vessels, after evaluating their functional significance, were also resected for histological examination. RESULTS: Glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma were verified in 10 and 4 patients, respectively. In 4 out of 10 glioblastoma cases, vessels with homogeneous or fragmentary fluorescent walls were detected in the tumor bed after resection of most of the tumor; in patients with anaplastic astrocytomas, vascular fluorescence was not observed. In the four vascular samples with intraoperatively detected wall fluorescence, tumor invasion into the vascular layers was revealed in all cases. These patients underwent an immunohistochemical examination with monoclonal antibodies to the glial GFAP marker, which clearly identified areas of ingrowth of tumor cells into the vascular wall. CONCLUSION: 5-ALA intraoperative fluorescence is a fundamentally new approach in the rapid diagnosis of tumor-infiltrated blood vessels. Invasion of tumor cells to intact vessels may be a mechanism of tumor progression and dissemination. Additional resection of fluorescent vessels may affect the radicalness of surgical treatment, but requires a mandatory assessment of their functional significance.

6.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412152

RESUMO

Surgery of intracerebral tumors involving long association fibers is a challenge. In this study, we analyze the results of intraoperative mapping of the superior longitudinal, arcuate, and frontal aslant tracts in surgery of brain gliomas. PURPOSE: The study purpose was to compare the results of intraoperative mapping and the postoperative speech function in patients with gliomas of the premotor area of the speech-dominant frontal lobe, which involved the superior longitudinal, arcuate, and frontal aslant tracts, who were operated on using awake craniotomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve patients with left frontal lobe gliomas were operated on: 11 patients were right-handed, and one patient was a left-hander retrained at an early age. Histological types of tumors were represented by Grade II diffuse astrocytomas (6 patients), Grade III anaplastic astrocytomas (1 patient), Grade IV glioblastoma (1 patient), Grade II oligodendroglioma (1 patient), and Grade III anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (3 patients). The mean age of patients was 45 (29-67) years; there were 6 males and 6 females. All patients underwent preoperative and postoperative MRI with reconstruction of the long association fibers and determination of the topographic anatomical relationships between the fibers and the tumor. Surgery was performed using the asleep-awake-asleep protocol with intraoperative awakening of patients. All patients underwent cortical and subcortical electrophysiological stimulation to control the localization of eloquent structures and to clarify the safe limits of resection. For intraoperative speech monitoring, a computerized naming test was used with naming of nouns or verbs, and automatic speech was evaluated (counting from 1 to 10, enumeration of months and days of the week), which was complemented by a talk with the patient. Speech disorders before, during, and after surgery were evaluated by a neuropsychologist. The mean current strength during direct electrical stimulation was 3 (1.9-6.5) mA. RESULTS: The association fibers were intraoperatively identified in all patients (SLF/AF in 11 patients; FAT in one patient). In 4 patients, the cortical motor speech area was intraoperatively mapped; in three cases, tumor resection was accompanied by speech disturbances outside the stimulation. During direct electrical stimulation, speech disturbances developed in 7 of 12 cases. All patients underwent control MRI within the first 48-72 h: total resection (more than 90% of the tumor) was performed in 7 cases; subtotal resection was achieved in two patients; partial resection was performed in two cases. According to postoperative MR tractography, the resected tumor bed was adjacent to the SLF/AF complex in 7 cases, located near the SLF/AF complex in three cases, and adjacent to the FAT in two cases. Postoperatively, 11 out of 12 patients had worsening of neurological symptoms in the form of various speech disturbances. In one patient, speech disturbances developed 2 days after surgery, which was associated with an increase in edema. On examination 3 months after surgery, severe speech disturbances remained in 1 patient. CONCLUSION: Resection of frontal lobe tumors in the speech-dominant hemisphere using early postoperative awakening is associated with a high rate of complex speech disorders due to injury to the SLF/AF complex and FAT. In these cases, intraoperative speech mapping with allowance for the course of long association fibers is an essential procedure. Preoperative tractography in combination with intraoperative speech mapping enables identification of association fibers of the SLF/AF complex and FAT, which may help to avoid severe conduction aphasia with poor speech recovery after tumor resection.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioma , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Lobo Frontal , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioma/cirurgia , Humanos , Linguagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Intraoperatória
7.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412153

RESUMO

The sensitivity of fMRI in identification of eloquent cortical centers in the case of large infiltrative growing tumors and pronounced peritumoral edema may be reduced or significantly limited in some cases. The main cause is an attenuated Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent response (BOLD) caused by pathological vascular reactivity and subsequent neurovascular uncoupling of fMRI. In our study, we attempted to overcome these limitations and increase the sensitivity of this technique in identification of eloquent cortical areas adjacent to brain tumors by using vasoreactivity features of a breath-holding test and including these data in the BOLD analysis. Local vasoreactivity using a breath-holding paradigm with the same block design of both motor and speech tests was determined in 5 healthy volunteers and 3 patients in the preoperative period (two patients with high grade gliomas and one patient with single metastasis). A coherence-based model was developed for analysis of BOLD fMRI, which took into account altered hemodynamics in peritumoral zones. Obtained coherence maps demonstrated clinically more significant activation zones that were not seen with standard methods of fMRI processing. Thus, neurovascular uncoupling that is known to affect the accuracy of the BOLD fMRI response adjacent to brain tumors may be partially overcome by including an independent measurement of vasoreactivity using a breath-holding test in the BOLD analysis.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Encéfalo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Oxigênio
8.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137042

RESUMO

Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous hereditary syndrome with predominantly oncological manifestations, which is associated with mutations in the TP53, MDM2, and CHEK2 genes. The most common variant is a TP53 mutation. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the literature and present a clinical case of a patient with Li-Fraumeni syndrome and multiple anaplastic oligodendrogliomas of the brain. CLINICAL CASE: A 42-year-old male patient presented with complaints of headaches, word finding difficulty, memory loss, right hemianopsia, and generalized convulsive attacks. For 10 years, he underwent multiple interventions and chemotherapy courses for colon adenocarcinoma and recurrent B-cell lymphoma. MRI revealed multiple space-occupying lesions of the cerebraln hemispheres, which were located in the left temporo-occipital and right frontal regions. RESULTS: The patient underwent resection of multiple space-occupying lesions of the left temporo-occipital and right frontal regions. The postoperative period proceeded without complications. The histological diagnosis was WHO grade III anaplastic oligodendroglioma. The patient and one of his sons were detected with a R248W missense mutation in the TP53 gene. The patient underwent six courses of temozolomide chemotherapy. At a follow-up examination 20 months after surgery and chemotherapy, the patient's condition was satisfactory; he returned to work. Control MRI of the brain revealed no signs of continued tumor growth. CONCLUSION: An analysis of the literature and the clinical case indicate the success of multiple surgical interventions and chemotherapy courses performed for a long time in the patient with Li-Fraumeni syndrome manifested by colon adenocarcinoma, recurrent B-cell lymphoma, and multiple anaplastic oligodendroglioma of the brain. The patient had a good quality of life and returned to professional activity.


Assuntos
Genes p53/genética , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/diagnóstico por imagem , Oligodendroglioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Humanos , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/cirurgia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Oligodendroglioma/genética , Oligodendroglioma/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29927420

RESUMO

Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow (ACBF) is a system of mechanisms for maintaining stable adequate perfusion of the brain despite changes in systemic arterial pressure. In recent years, new data on the numerous metabolic and systemic mechanisms of cerebral blood flow regulation have been obtained, but the role of neurogenic regulation has not yet been fully understood and, therefore, not considered in clinical practice. AIM: The study aim was to assess the effect of anatomical injuries to deep brain structures on the extent and duration of ACBF abnormalities in a model of severe diffuse axonal injury (DAI). RESULTS: The study demonstrated that brain injury in the projection of a dopaminergic structure (substantia nigra) and a cholinergic structure (nucleus basalis of Meynert region) was more common in patients with impaired ACBF and was associated with a longer duration of the impairment. CONCLUSION: The obtained data may indicate the presence of central (neurogenic) pathways of cerebral vessel tone regulation; traumatic injury of the pathways leads to a more severe and prolonged period of impaired ACBF. Probably, injury to these regulatory structures in some patients has an indirect effect on the course of intracranial hypertension. Further experimental and clinical studies in this direction are needed to elucidate all elements of neurogenic regulation of cerebral vessel tone and ACBF mechanisms.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Lesão Axonal Difusa , Pressão Sanguínea , Encéfalo , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Homeostase , Humanos , Pressão Intracraniana
10.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29927429

RESUMO

One of the frequent consequences of severe traumatic brain injury is posttraumatic hydrocephalus that not only hampers the processes of consciousness recovery, rehabilitation, and social adaptation of patients but also is the cause of disability. Pathological processes underlying the clinical picture of posttraumatic hydrocephalus and the relationship between CSF circulation disorders and structural changes in the brain substance have not been adequately studied. Of particular importance are patients in the chronic vegetative or minimally conscious state, recovery from which is blocked by posttraumatic hydrocephalus. The question of reversibility of impaired consciousness depending on the disease duration has remained open. High risks of purulent-inflammatory complications of shunting surgery are especially important in patients with chronic infection foci (tracheostomy, gastrostomy, epicystostomy, prolonged bladder catheterization, pressure ulcers, etc.), but their actual effect on the shunting outcomes has not been revealed. Posttraumatic hydrocephalus remains a topical neurosurgical problem requiring clarification of its diagnostic criteria, differentiation from atrophy-related ventriculomegaly, and comprehensive development of pathogenetic and therapeutic aspects.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Hidrocefalia , Derivações do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano , Estado de Consciência , Humanos , Estado Vegetativo Persistente
11.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795083

RESUMO

Fluorescence diagnostics has been extensively applied in surgery of malignant brain gliomas. However, the use of this technique in surgery of intracranial meningiomas has remained controversial. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to assess the sensitivity of 5-aminolevulinic acid-based (5-ALA) fluorescence diagnostics in surgery of brain meningiomas and to clarify the clinical and biological factors that may influence the fluorescent effect. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study consistently included 101 patients with intracranial meningiomas of various locations who were operated on using 5-ALA. There were 28 (27.72%) males and 73 (72.27%) females (median age, 54 years). In all patients, surgery was performed using an operating microscope equipped with a fluorescent module; in 24 of these, laser spectroscopy was used. For comparison of chances to observe the fluorescent effect of 5-ALA in patients having meningiomas with different WHO histological grades (Grade I vs Grade II-III), we performed a meta-analysis that included 10 studies (the largest series) on outcomes of surgical treatment of meningiomas using intraoperative fluorescence diagnostics. RESULTS: Of 101 patients included in this series, observable fluorescence was detected in 95 (94.1%) patients: weak fluorescence in 12 (11.9%), moderate fluorescence in 23 (22.8%) cases, and strong fluorescence in 60 (59.4%) patients. There was no statistically significant relationship (p>0.05) between the rate and intensity of observable fluorescence and the tumor growth pattern (primary/continued), location, WHO grade of malignancy, and histological subtype. In the absence of intraoperative bleeding, tumor fluorescence was statistically significantly brighter (p=0.02). Of 26 patients with hyperostosis, bone fluorescence was observed in 11 (42.3%) cases. There was no statistically significant relationship between administration of dexamethasone, its dose, administration of anticonvulsants, gastrointestinal tract diseases, as well as diabetes mellitus and the fluorescence intensity. There was also no significant relationship between the extent of tumor resection (Simpson scale) and the presence of fluorescence as well as its intensity. Comparison of the observable fluorescence intensity and the laser spectroscopy indicators revealed a significant correlation (r=0.75; p=0.005). CONCLUSION: Meningioma is a well fluorescent tumor, with the technique sensitivity being 94.1%. In some cases, the use of fluorescence diagnostics in surgery of meningiomas improves identification of residual tumor fragments and enables correction of a surgical approach. To assess the effect of fluorescence diagnostics on the recurrence rate and disease-free duration, further research is required.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Meníngeas , Meningioma , Ácido Aminolevulínico , Feminino , Fluorescência , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
12.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29543210

RESUMO

The study purpose was to develop a technique for intravital visualization of the brainstem reticular formation fibers in healthy volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 21 subjects (13 males and 8 females) aged 21 to 62 years. The study was performed on a magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a magnetic field strength of 3 T in T1, T2, T2-FLAIR, DWI, and SWI modes. A CSD-HARDI algorithm was used to identify thin intersecting fibers of the reticular formatio. RESULTS: We developed a technique for reconstructing the reticular formation pathways, tested it in healthy volunteers, and obtained standard quantitative indicators (fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ACD), fiber length and density, and axial and radial diffusion). We performed a comparative analysis of these indicators in males and females. There was no difference between these groups and between indicators for the right and left brainstem. Our findings will enable comparative analysis of examination results in patients with brain pathology accompanied by brainstem injury, which may help predict the outcome. This work was supported by a grant of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (#16-04-01472).


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Lesões Encefálicas , Tronco Encefálico , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Reticulina , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Tronco Encefálico/lesões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Formação Reticular , Federação Russa , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721213

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling perfusion (pCASL) in assessing the degree of malignancy of brain gliomas at the preoperative stage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 126 patients aged 12-75 years with supratentorial gliomas of different malignancy (35 low-grade gliomas and 91 high-grade gliomas). The maximum tumor blood flow (TBF) was measured, and the normalized tumor blood flow (nTBF) was calculated relative to the intact semiovale white matter of the contralateral hemisphere. The TBF and nTBF indicators differed significantly between low-grade and high-grade glioma groups (p<0.001). When using TBF and nTBF in the differential diagnosis of low-grade and high-grade gliomas, the area under the ROC curve was 0.96 in both cases. Our findings suggest that 3D pCASL perfusion is an effective technique for preoperative differential diagnosis of low-grade and high-grade gliomas. The study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant #18-315-00384).


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioma , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Criança , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Federação Russa , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721214

RESUMO

One of the important problems of modern diagnostics of brain diseases is detection of early lesions, which determines the choice of patient management and the disease outcome. The introduction of magnetic resonance imaging in practice has significantly improved the quality of diagnosis. Multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is an additional and clarifying technique enabling non-invasive examination of changes in brain metabolism in tumors as well as simultaneous acquisition of information on metabolism in surrounding tissues and in the intact brain matter. Along with single voxel MR spectroscopy (SV MRS) and 2D MRS (CSI Chemical Shift Imaging), 3D proton MRS (MRSI) has been increasingly used in clinical practice, which enables single-run acquisition of data on the metabolite composition for the entire volume of interest. OBJECTIVE: To assess the possibility of using multivoxel 3D proton MRS in healthy volunteers without organic brain pathology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, 15 volunteers without organic brain pathology were examined using the 3D 1H-MRS. CONCLUSION: 3D proton MRS has proven to be an effective technique in studying the brain metabolism. One short-term series of examinations provided information on intact brain metabolism at different anatomical levels, which enabled their comparison both in spectral data and in parametric maps of the major metabolite distribution.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta , Substância Branca , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Voluntários
15.
Artigo em Inglês, Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28291210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anatomy of the conduction tracts of the cerebral cortex has been studied for a long time. Invention of diffusion tensor tractography renewed interest in this subject. The objectives of this work were to develop and improve protocols for dissection of the long association tracts of the human brain with studying the features of their segmentation, topography, and variability, compare the obtained data with the MR tractography data, and prepare for further clinical and anatomical studies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used 18 cerebral hemispheres (from 10 males and 8 females; 9 left and 9 right hemispheres). The mean age of cadavers was 68 years. Specimen were fixated in accordance with the Klingler technique. Immediately after collection, specimens were placed in a 10% formalin solution for at least 4 weeks. After that, the pia was removed; specimens were frozen at -20 °C for a week and then unfrozen in a 96% ethanol solution for a day. We performed 10 lateral dissections, 2 lateral dissections with isolation of the frontal aslant tract, 2 basal dissections, 1 combined basolateral dissection, 2 frontal dissections, and 1 medial dissection. At the time of dissection and after it, specimens were stored in a 96% ethanol solution. Modified, disposable, therapeutic wooden spatulas were used for manipulations. A microscope (magnification of 6-40x) was used in 2 lateral and 2 basal dissections. MR tractography (HARDI-CSD) was carried out in 5 healthy volunteers using a GE Signa HDxt MRI scanner a field strength of 3.0 T. RESULTS: We clearly identified the following fascicles: the arcuate fascicle (AF) and superior longitudinal fascicle (SLF) in 6/6 hemispheres on the right and in 5/6 hemispheres on the left, the inferior longitudinal fascicle (ILF) in 3/6 hemispheres on the left and in 4/6 hemispheres on the right, the uncinate fascicle (UF) in 4/4 hemispheres on the left and in 4/4 hemispheres on the right, and the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle (IFOF) in 4/4 hemispheres on the left and in 3/4 hemispheres on the right. Identification was less successful in the case of the frontal aslant tract (FAT) in 1/2 hemispheres on the left and in 0/2 hemispheres on the right. The used technique failed to identify the vertical occipital fascicle (VOF) of Wernicke, a segment of the superior longitudinal fascicle SLF I, and the middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF). The MR tractography HARDI-CSD data were compared with the dissection data. We described in detail segmentation of the superior longitudinal, arcuate, and inferior fronto-occipital fascicles. Contradictory data were obtained for the superior longitudinal fascicle: a two-segment structure (SLFh and SLFv) was found in most (10/12) specimens, while a three-segment structure was revealed in the other (2/12) specimens (identified SLF II and SLF III). In the arcuate fascicle, the ventral and dorsal segments were successfully identified in 2/12 cases (1 left and 1 right), whereas identification failed in the other cases. During dissection of the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, we could identify its surface layer in 1 of 8 cases (left) and its deep layer in one more case (left). CONCLUSION: Examination of the long association tracts using the Klingler technique has significant limitations in the fiber intersection areas (sagittal striatum). The frontal aslant tract was least studied; we proposed a special anterior dissection technique for its isolation. The superior longitudinal fascicle can have both the two-segment (10/12) and three-segment (2/12) structure. Investigation of the segmental anatomy of the long association tracts will be continued in further dissections. When planning neurosurgical interventions in the projection areas of the long association tracts, both preoperative HARDI-tractography and anatomical dissections ex vivo, based on the proposed protocols, can be recommended for the operating surgeon to master a three-dimensional picture of the tract topography.


Assuntos
Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/cirurgia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28291211

RESUMO

AIM: To study the peri-insular association tract anatomy and define the permissible anatomical boundaries for resection of glial insular tumors with allowance for the surgical anatomy of the peri-insular association tracts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In an anatomic study of the superior longitudinal fascicle system (SLF I, SLF II, SLF III, arcuate fascicle), we used 12 anatomical specimens (6 left and 6 right hemispheres) prepared according to the Klingler's fiber dissection technique. To confirm the dissection data, we used MR tractography (HARDI-CSD-tractography) of the conduction tracts, which was performed in two healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Except the SLF I (identified in 7 hemispheres by fiber dissection), all fascicles of the SLF system were found in all investigated hemispheres by both fiber dissection and MR tractography. The transcortical approach to the insula through the frontal and (or) parietal operculum is associated with a significant risk of transverse transection of the SLF III fibers passing in the frontal and parietal opercula. The most optimal area for the transcortical approach to the insula is the anterior third of the superior temporal gyrus that lacks important association tracts and, consequently, a risk of their injury. The superior peri-insular sulcus is an intraoperative landmark for the transsylvian approach, which enables identification of the SLF II and arcuate fascicle in the surgical wound. CONCLUSION: Detailed knowledge of the peri-insular association tract anatomy is the prerequisite for neurosurgery in the insular region. Our findings facilitate correct identification of both the site for cerebral operculum dissection upon the transcortical approach and the intraoperative landmarks for locating the association tracts in the surgical wound upon the transsylvian approach to the insula.


Assuntos
Prosencéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Prosencéfalo/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Artigo em Inglês, Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27029336

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major causes of death and disability in young and middle-aged people. The most problematic group is comprised of patients with severe TBI who are in a coma. The adequate diagnosis of primary brain injuries and timely prevention and treatment of the secondary injury mechanisms largely define the possibility of reducing mortality and severe disabling consequences. When developing these guidelines, we used our experience in the development of international and national recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of mild traumatic brain injury, penetrating gunshot wounds to the skull and brain, severe traumatic brain injury, and severe consequences of brain injuries, including a vegetative state. In addition, we used international and national guidelines for the diagnosis, intensive care, and surgical treatment of severe traumatic brain injury, which had been published in recent years. The proposed guidelines concern intensive care of severe TBI in adults and are particularly intended for neurosurgeons, neurologists, neuroradiologists, anesthesiologists, and intensivists who are routinely involved in the treatment of these patients.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
18.
Artigo em Inglês, Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27070263

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the main causes of mortality and severe disability in young and middle age patients. Patients with severe TBI, who are in coma, are of particular concern. Adequate diagnosis of primary brain injuries and timely prevention and treatment of secondary injury mechanisms markedly affect the possibility of reducing mortality and severe disability. The present guidelines are based on the authors' experience in developing international and national recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of mild TBI, penetrating gunshot wounds of the skull and brain, severe TBI, and severe consequences of brain injury, including a vegetative state. In addition, we used the materials of international and national guidelines for the diagnosis, intensive care, and surgical treatment of severe TBI, which were published in recent years. The proposed recommendations for surgical treatment of severe TBI in adults are addressed primarily to neurosurgeons, neurologists, neuroradiologists, anesthesiologists, and intensivists who are routinely involved in treating these patients.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/cirurgia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
19.
Artigo em Inglês, Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28139572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meningiomas of the foramen magnum (FMR) region account for 1.8 to 3.2% of all meningiomas. The international literature has insufficient data describing the state of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation in these patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 38 patients with FM meningiomas, aged from 35 to 79 years (mean age, 56.7 years). The mean meningioma size was 30 mm (10-60 mm). Meningiomas had the anterolateral localization in 29 patients, ventral localization in 5 patients, and dorsal localization in 4 patients. Twenty nine patients underwent surgery. All operated patients were examined before and after surgery. The CSF circulation was studied using phase contrast MRI (PC-MRI). RESULTS: The size and localization of FM meningiomas do not significantly affect the CFS circulation parameters. Pyramidal symptoms, sensory disorders, and XIth cranial nerve dysfunction are correlated with the CFS circulation parameters. According to the preoperative PC-MRI data, the CFS circulation parameters in all FM meningioma patients were significantly higher than their normal values. Surgery was followed by a reduction in the peak positive velocity, negative peak velocity, and range of the maximum linear velocity amplitude. Positive and negative volumes and the stroke volume did not change. Recovery dynamics of the CFS circulation parameters was similar, regardless of surgery completeness. According to the PC-MRI data, the CFS circulation parameters did not reach normal values in all groups of operated patients. CONCLUSION: The results of investigation of the CFS circulation in patients with FM meningiomas support the use of palliative surgery (partial resection, dural plasty, craniovertebral junction decompression) in the case of inoperable meningiomas.


Assuntos
Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/diagnóstico por imagem , Forame Magno/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Meníngeas/cirurgia , Meningioma/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pressão do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neoplasias Meníngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Meningioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Artigo em Inglês, Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26529529

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Despite the obvious progress in modern neurosurgery, surgery for glial tumors of the insular lobe is often associated with a high risk of postoperative neurological deficit, which is primarily caused by damage to perforating arteries of the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery. OBJECTIVE: The work is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of high resolution time-of-flight (3D-TOF) MR angiography in imaging of medial and lateral lenticulostriate arteries and determining their relationship to tumor edge in patients with gliomas of the insula. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 3D-TOF MR angiography data were analyzed in 20 patients with primarily diagnosed cerebral gliomas involving the insula. All patients underwent non-contrast enhanced 3D-TOF MR angiography. In 6 cases, 3D-TOF MRA was performed before and after contrast enhancement. RESULTS: 3D-TOF angiography before intravenous contrast injection was capable of visualizing the medial lenticulostriate arteries in 19 patients (95% of all cases) and lateral lenticulostriate arteries in 18 patients (90% of all cases). Contrast-enhanced 3D-TOF angiography allows for better visualization of both the proximal and distal segments of lenticulostriate arteries. Three variants of relationship between the tumor and lenticulostriate arteries were identified. Variant I: the tumor grew over the arteries without their displacement in 2 cases (10% of the total number of observations); variant II: the tumor caused medial displacement of arteries without growing over them in 11 cases (55% of the total number of observations); variant III: the tumor partially grew over and displaced arteries in 2 cases (10%). In 25% of cases (5 patients), tumor was poorly visualized on 3D-TOF MR angiograms because their signal characteristics did not differ from those of the medulla (tumor tissue was T1 isointense). As a result, it was impossible to determine the relationship between the tumor and lenticulostriate arteries. CONCLUSION: High spatial resolution time-of-flight MR angiography can be recommended for preoperative imaging of lenticulostriate arteries to plan the extent of neurosurgical resection in patients with glial tumors of the insular lobe.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Glioma/diagnóstico , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Córtex Cerebral/irrigação sanguínea , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Feminino , Glioma/cirurgia , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Masculino , Período Pré-Operatório , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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