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Dig Dis Sci ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166622


BACKGROUND: Several routes of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) administration are available for treating recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI), the most recent of which are capsules. AIM: To assess the efficacy of colonoscopy, capsule, enema, and nasogastric tube (NGT) FMT for the treatment of recurrent CDI. METHODS: We reported clinical outcomes of colonoscopy, capsule, enema, and NGT FMT for the treatment of recurrent CDI according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. During January 2000 to January 2018, three databases were searched: PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL. Primary outcome was overall cure rate which was assessed using a random effects model; secondary outcomes included adverse effects as well as subgroup analyses comparing donor relationship, sample preparation, and study design. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies (1309 patients) were included in the study. FMT was administered using colonoscopy in 16 studies (483 patients), NGT in five studies (149 patients), enema in four studies (360 patients), and capsules in four studies (301 patients). The random effects of pooled FMT cure rates were colonoscopy 94.8% (CI 92.4-96.8%; I2 15.6%), capsule 92.1% (CI 88.6-95.0%; I2 7.1%), enema 87.2% (CI 83.4-90.5%; I2 0%), and NGT/NDT 78.1% (CI 71.6-84.1%; I2 0%). On subgroup analysis of colonoscopy FMT, sample preparation methods had comparable cure rates: fresh 94.9% compared to 94.5%. Similarly, cure rates were unaffected by donor relationship: mixed 94.5% compared to unrelated donor 95.7%. CONCLUSION: CDI cure rates with FMT performed with colonoscopy are superior to enema and NGT FMT, while those with FMT with colonoscopy and capsule are comparable.

Ann Gastroenterol ; 32(1): 30-38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598589


Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has evolved into a robust and efficient means for treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Our narrative review looks at the donor selection, preparation, delivery techniques and cost-effectiveness of FMT. We searched electronic databases, including PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Databases, for studies that compared the biological effects of donor selection, fresh or frozen fecal preparation, and various delivery techniques. We also evaluated the cost-effectiveness and manually searched references to identify additional relevant studies. Overall, there is a paucity of studies that directly compare outcomes associated with related and non-related stool donors. However, inferences from prior studies indicate that the success of FMT does not depend on the donor-patient relationship. Over time, the use of unrelated donors has increased because of the formation of stool banks and the need to save processing time and capital. However, longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the optimal freezing time before microbial function declines. Several FMT techniques have been developed, such as colonoscopy, enema, nasogastric or nasojejunal tubes, and capsules. The comparable and high efficacy of FMT capsules, combined with their convenience, safety and aesthetically tolerable mode of delivery, makes it an attractive option for many patients. Cost-effective models comparing these various approaches support the use of FMT via colonoscopy as being the best strategy for the treatment of recurrent CDI.

J Med Biogr ; : 967772018778028, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29998747


The widespread use of liver biopsies underscores its utility and significance within the field of medicine. Dr. Gerald Klatskin's pioneering work on liver biopsy techniques, as well as his study of liver histopathology, paved the way for its diagnostic and therapeutic applications around the world. His attention to detail as well as meticulous account of hilar cholangiocarcinoma has had a lasting impact on the medical community. Eponymously, the tumor was named after him-Klatskin's tumor. Klatskin was also well known and respected for his commitment and devotion to his fellows who themselves went on to hold prestigious academic positions and make significant contributions of their own. The life and work of Klatskin documents a pioneering hepatologist and devoted teacher.

J Med Biogr ; 26(2): 137-141, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405817


The widespread use of endoscopy in today's clinical arena underscores its utility and growing significance within the field of medicine. Primitive forms of endoscopy have existed for hundreds of years, but it was not until the early 19th century that Dr Philipp Bozzini invented an endoscope that would form the basis of modern endoscopy. Born into an influential Italian family, Bozzini practiced medicine in a time and place of conflict and political unrest. His passion, ingenuity, and important social connections allowed him to create and introduce to the medical profession the Lichtleiter (light-conductor), which overcame two key issues plaguing endoscopy: inadequate lighting and poor penetration. A combination of professional rivalry and his premature passing stifled enthusiasm and further work on the Lichtleiter, but its value would not be lost forever. The advancements in the field of endoscopy that have come since the time of the Lichtleiter all build upon the principles of Bozzini, who became widely acknowledged as the father of modern endoscopy.

Endoscópios/história , Endoscopia/história , Endoscopia/instrumentação , Alemanha , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX