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1.
Inorg Chem ; 58(16): 11133-11145, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373487

RESUMO

Nickel(II) complexes with 15-membered (1-5) and 14-membered (6) octaazamacrocyclic ligands derived from 1,2- and 1,3-diketones and S-methylisothiocarbohydrazide were prepared by template synthesis. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, IR, UV-vis, 1H NMR spectroscopies, and X-ray diffraction. The complexes contain a low-spin nickel(II) ion in a square-planar coordination environment. The electrochemical behavior of 1-6 was investigated in detail, and the electronic structure of 1e-oxidized and 1e-reduced species was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance, UV-vis-near-IR spectroelectrochemistry, and density functional theory calculations indicating redox noninnocent behavior of the ligands. Compounds 1-6 were tested in the microwave-assisted solvent-free oxidation of cyclohexane by tert-butyl hydroperoxide to produce the industrially significant mixture of cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone (i.e., A/K oil). The results showed that the catalytic activity was affected by several factors, namely, reaction time and temperature or amount and type of catalyst. The best values for A/K oil yield (23%, turnover number of 1.1 × 102) were obtained with compound 6 after 2 h of microwave irradiation at 100 °C.

2.
Chemistry ; 25(38): 8982-8986, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070829

RESUMO

Tailor-made photoinitiators play an important role for efficient radical polymerisations in aqueous media, especially in hydrogel manufacturing. Bis(acyl)phosphane oxides (BAPOs) are among the most active initiators. Herein, we show that they display a remarkable photochemistry in aqueous and alcoholic media: Photolysis of BAPOs in the presence of water or alcohols provides a new delocalized π-radical, which does not participate in the polymerization. It either converts into a monoacylphosphane oxide acting as a secondary photoactive species or it works as a one-electron reducing agent. Upon the electron-transfer process, it again produces a dormant photoinitiator. We have established the structure and the chemistry of this π radical using steady-state and time-resolved (CIDEP) EPR together with ESI-MS, NMR spectroscopy, and DFT calculations. Our results show that bis(acyl)phosphane oxides act as bifunctional reagents when applied in aqueous and alcoholic media.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 571, 2019 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718550

RESUMO

Engineering intramolecular exchange interactions between magnetic metal atoms is a ubiquitous strategy for designing molecular magnets. For lanthanides, the localized nature of 4f electrons usually results in weak exchange coupling. Mediating magnetic interactions between lanthanide ions via radical bridges is a fruitful strategy towards stronger coupling. In this work we explore the limiting case when the role of a radical bridge is played by a single unpaired electron. We synthesize an array of air-stable Ln2@C80(CH2Ph) dimetallofullerenes (Ln2 = Y2, Gd2, Tb2, Dy2, Ho2, Er2, TbY, TbGd) featuring a covalent lanthanide-lanthanide bond. The lanthanide spins are glued together by very strong exchange interactions between 4f moments and a single electron residing on the metal-metal bonding orbital. Tb2@C80(CH2Ph) shows a gigantic coercivity of 8.2 Tesla at 5 K and a high 100-s blocking temperature of magnetization of 25.2 K. The Ln-Ln bonding orbital in Ln2@C80(CH2Ph) is redox active, enabling electrochemical tuning of the magnetism.

4.
Chempluschem ; 84(9): 1279-1287, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944059

RESUMO

Turning on and off associations between molecules by a reversible change in their redox states is a convenient way of controlling self-assembly and hence for advancing supramolecular chemistry. Here we present systematic studies on a selection of extended tetrathiafulvalenes with thienoacene spacers. By cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry and in situ EPR/UV-Vis-NIR spectroelectrochemistry, in combination with computations, we have elucidated how the number and orientations of thiophene rings in the spacer between the two dithiafulvene rings influence both the donor strength and association properties. The radical cations and their associates were found to cover a remarkable large region of the UV-Vis-NIR spectrum, but the appearance of the absorption spectrum of the radical cations as well as of the unassociated dications also depended strongly on the exact molecular structure.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(51): 18082-18092, 2018 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453734

RESUMO

By a combination of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, finite-temperature ab initio simulations, and electronic structure analyses, the activation of molecular dioxygen at the interface of gold nanoparticles and titania in Au/TiO2 catalysts is explained at the atomic scale by tracing processes down to the molecular orbital picture. Direct evidence is provided that excess electrons in TiO2, for example created by photoexcitation of the semiconductor, migrate to the gold particles and from there to oxygen molecules adsorbed at gold/titania perimeter sites. Superoxide species are formed more efficiently in this way than on the bare TiO2 surface. This catalytic effect of the gold nanoparticles is attributed to a weakening of the internal O-O bond, leading to a preferential splitting of the molecule at shorter bond lengths together with a 70% decrease of the dissociation free energy barrier compared to the non-catalyzed case on bare TiO2. The findings are an important step forward in the clarification of the role of gold in (photo)catalytic processes.

6.
Inorg Chem ; 57(17): 10702-10717, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30106571

RESUMO

With the aim of enhancing the biological activity of ruthenium-nitrosyl complexes, new compounds with four equatorially bound indazole ligands, namely, trans-[RuCl(Hind)4(NO)]Cl2·H2O ([3]Cl2·H2O) and trans-[RuOH(Hind)4(NO)]Cl2·H2O ([4]Cl2·H2O), have been prepared from trans-[Ru(NO2)2(Hind)4] ([2]). When the pH-dependent solution behavior of [3]Cl2·H2O and [4]Cl2·H2O was studied, two new complexes with two deprotonated indazole ligands were isolated, namely [RuCl(ind)2(Hind)2(NO)] ([5]) and [RuOH(ind)2(Hind)2(NO)] ([6]). All prepared compounds were comprehensively characterized by spectroscopic (IR, UV-vis, 1H NMR) techniques. Compound [2], as well as [3]Cl2·2(CH3)2CO, [4]Cl2·2(CH3)2CO, and [5]·0.8CH2Cl2, the latter three obtained by recrystallization of the first isolated compounds (hydrates or anhydrous species) from acetone and dichloromethane, respectively, were studied by X-ray diffraction methods. The photoinduced release of NO in [3]Cl2 and [4]Cl2 was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and resulting paramagnetic NO species were detected by EPR spectroscopy. The quantum yields of NO release were calculated and found to be low (3-6%), which could be explained by NO dissociation and recombination dynamics, assessed by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The geometry and electronic parameters of Ru species formed upon NO release were identified by DFT calculations. The complexes [3]Cl2 and [4]Cl2 showed considerable antiproliferative activity in human cancer cell lines with IC50 values in low micromolar or submicromolar concentration range and are suitable for further development as potential anticancer drugs. p53-dependence of Ru-NO complexes [3]Cl2 and [4]Cl2 was studied and p53-independent mode of action was confirmed. The effects of NO release on the cytotoxicity of the complexes with or without light irradiation were investigated using NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO.


Assuntos
Indazóis/química , Óxido Nítrico/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio , Compostos Organometálicos , Rutênio , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Western Blotting , Sobrevivência Celular , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Eletroquímica , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Compostos Organometálicos/síntese química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Teoria Quântica , Rutênio/química , Rutênio/farmacologia , Água/química , Difração de Raios X
7.
Chemistry ; 24(51): 13616-13623, 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094881

RESUMO

6,6-Dicyanopentafulvene derivatives and metallocenes with redox potentials appropriate for forming their radical anions form highly persistent donor-acceptor salts. The charge-transfer salts of 2,3,4,5-tetraphenyl-6,6-dicyanofulvene with cobaltocene (1⋅Cp2 Co) and 2,3,4,5-tetrakis(triisopropylsilyl)-6,6-dicyanofulvene with decamethylferrocene (2⋅Fc*) have been prepared. The X-ray structures of the two salts, formed as black plates, were obtained and are discussed herein. Compared with neutral dicyanopentafulvenes, the chromophores in the metallocene salts show substantial changes in bond lengths and torsional angles in the solid state. EPR, NMR, and optical spectroscopy, as well as superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements, reveal that charge-separation in the crystalline states and in frozen and fluid solutions depends on subtle differences of redox potentials, geometry, and on ion pairing. Whereas 1⋅Cp2 Co reveals paramagnetic character in the crystalline state and in solution, compound 2⋅Fc* shows a delicate balance between para- and diamagnetism, depending on the temperature and solvent characteristics.

8.
Chemistry ; 24(6): 1431-1440, 2018 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29251363

RESUMO

Semiquinones (SQ) are generated in photosynthetic organisms upon photoinduced electron transfer to quinones (Q). They are stabilized by hydrogen bonding (HB) with the neighboring residues, which alters the properties of the reaction center. We designed, synthesized, and investigated resorcin[4]arene cavitands inspired by this function of SQ in natural photosynthesis. Cavitands were equipped with alternating quinone and quinoxaline walls bearing hydrogen bond donor groups (HBD). Different HBD were analyzed that mimic natural amino acids, such as imidazole and indole, along with their analogues, pyrrole and pyrazole. Pyrroles were identified as the most promising candidates that enabled the cavitands to remain open in the Q state until strengthening of HB upon reduction to the paramagnetic SQ radical anion provided stabilization of the closed form. The SQ state was generated electrochemically and photochemically, whereas properties were studied by UV/Vis spectroelectrochemistry, transient absorption, and EPR spectroscopy. This study demonstrates a photoredox-controlled conformational switch towards a new generation of molecular grippers.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(1): 277-281, 2018 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29119650

RESUMO

The endohedral fullerene Y3 N@C80 exhibits luminescence with reasonable quantum yield and extraordinary long lifetime. By variable-temperature steady-state and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that above 60 K the Y3 N@C80 exhibits thermally activated delayed fluorescence with maximum emission at 120 K and a negligible prompt fluorescence. Below 60 K, a phosphorescence with a lifetime of 192±1 ms is observed. Spin distribution and dynamics in the triplet excited state is investigated with X- and W-band EPR and ENDOR spectroscopies and DFT computations. Finally, electroluminescence of the Y3 N@C80 /PFO film is demonstrated opening the possibility for red-emitting fullerene-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs).

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(45): 14306-14309, 2017 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28857401

RESUMO

Star-shaped polymers represent highly desired materials in nanotechnology and life sciences, including biomedical applications (e.g., diagnostic imaging, tissue engineering, and targeted drug delivery). Herein, we report a straightforward synthesis of wavelength-selective multifunctional photoinitiators (PIs) that contain a bisacylphosphane oxide (BAPO) group and an α-hydroxy ketone moiety within one molecule. By using three different wavelengths, these photoactive groups can be selectively addressed and activated, thereby allowing the synthesis of ABC-type miktoarm star polymers through a simple, highly selective, and robust free-radical polymerization method. The photochemistry of these new initiators and the feasibility of this concept were investigated in unprecedented detail by using various spectroscopic techniques.

11.
Dalton Trans ; 46(35): 11925-11941, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28850133

RESUMO

The relationship between cis-trans isomerism and anticancer activity has been mainly addressed for square-planar metal complexes, in particular, for platinum(ii), e.g., cis- and trans-[PtCl2(NH3)2], and a number of related compounds, of which, however, only cis-counterparts are in clinical use today. For octahedral metal complexes, this effect of geometrical isomerism on anticancer activity has not been investigated systematically, mainly because the relevant isomers are still unavailable. An example of such an octahedral complex is trans-[RuCl4(Hind)2]-, which is in clinical trials now as its indazolium (KP1019) or sodium salt (NKP1339), but the corresponding cis-isomers remain inaccessible. We report the synthesis of Na[cis-OsIIICl4(κN2-1H-ind)2]·(Na[1]) suggesting a route to the cis-isomer of NKP1339. The procedure involves heating (H2ind)[OsIVCl5(κN1-2H-ind)] in a high boiling point organic solvent resulting in an Anderson rearrangement with the formation of cis-[OsIVCl4(κN2-1H-ind)2] ([1]) in high yield. The transformation is accompanied by an indazole coordination mode switch from κN1 to κN2 and stabilization of the 1H-indazole tautomer. Fully reversible spectroelectrochemical reduction of [1] in acetonitrile at 0.46 V vs. NHE is accompanied by a change in electronic absorption bands indicating the formation of cis-[OsIIICl4(κN2-1H-ind)2]- ([1]-). Chemical reduction of [1] in methanol with NaBH4 followed by addition of nBu4NCl afforded the osmium(iii) complex nBu4N[cis-OsIIICl4(κN2-1H-ind)2] (nBu4N[1]). A metathesis reaction of nBu4N[1] with an ion exchange resin led to the isolation of the water-soluble salt Na[1]. The X-ray diffraction crystal structure of [1]·Me2CO was determined and compared with that of trans-[OsIVCl4(κN2-1H-ind)2]·2Me2SO (2·2Me2SO), also prepared in this work. EPR spectroscopy was performed on the OsIII complexes and the results were analyzed by ligand-field and quantum chemical theories. We furthermore assayed effects of [1] and Na[1] on cell viability and proliferation in comparison with trans-[OsIVCl4(κN1-2H-ind)2] [3] and cisplatin and found a strong reduction of cell viability at concentrations between 30 and 300 µM in different cancer cell lines (HT29, H446, 4T1 and HEK293). HT-29 cells are less sensitive to cisplatin than 4T1 cells, but more sensitive to [1] and Na[1], as shown by decreased proliferation and viability as well as an increased late apoptotic/necrotic cell population.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Indazóis/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Osmio/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Células HEK293 , Células HT29 , Humanos , Indazóis/farmacologia , Isomerismo , Conformação Molecular , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Teoria Quântica , Rutênio/química , Compostos de Rutênio
12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(36): 25120-25135, 2016 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27711532

RESUMO

The four Mn(ii) complexes Mn-DOTA, Mn-TAHA, Mn-PyMTA, and Mn-NO3Py were characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), and relaxation measurements, to predict their relative performance in the EPR pulse dipolar spectroscopy (PDS) experiments. High spin density localization on the metal ions was proven by ENDOR on 1H, D, 14N, and 55Mn nuclei. The transverse relaxation of the Mn(ii) complexes appears to be slow enough for PDS-based spin-spin distance determination. Rather advantageous ratios of T1/Tm were measured allowing for good relaxation induced dipolar modulation enhancement (RIDME) performance and, in general, fast shot repetitions in any PDS experiment. Relaxation properties of the Mn(ii) complexes correlate with the strengths of their zero field splitting (ZFS). Further, a comparison of Mn(ii)-DOTA and Gd(iii)-DOTA based spin labels is presented. The RIDME technique to measure nanometer-range Mn(ii)-Mn(ii) distances in biomolecules is discussed as an alternative to the well-known DEER technique that often appears challenging in cases of metal-metal distance measurements. The use of a modified kernel function that includes dipolar harmonic overtones allows model-free computation of the Mn(ii)-Mn(ii) distance distributions. Mn(ii)-Mn(ii) distances are computed from RIDME data of Mn-rulers consisting of two Mn-PyMTA complexes connected by a rodlike spacer of defined length. Level crossing effects seem to have only a weak influence on the distance distributions computed from this set of Mn(ii)-Mn(ii) RIDME data.

13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 52(64): 9917-20, 2016 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27431207

RESUMO

Bis(mesitoyl)phosphinic acid and its sodium salt display a unique photo-induced reactivity: both derivatives stepwise release two mesitoyl radicals and, remarkably, metaphosphorous acid (previously postulated as transient species in the gas phase), providing a new phosphorus-based reagent.

14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(13): 2470-7, 2016 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27300355

RESUMO

The development of semiquinone-based resorcin[4]arene cavitands expands the toolbox of switchable molecular grippers by introducing the first paramagnetic representatives. The semiquinone (SQ) states were generated electrochemically, chemically, and photochemically. We analyzed their electronic, conformational, and binding properties by cyclic voltammetry, ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis) spectroelectrochemistry, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and transient absorption spectroscopy, in conjunction with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The utility of UV/vis spectroelectrochemistry and EPR spectroscopy in evaluating the conformational features of resorcin[4]arene cavitands is demonstrated. Guest binding properties were found to be enhanced in the SQ state as compared to the quinone (Q) or the hydroquinone (HQ) states of the cavitands. Thus, these paramagnetic SQ intermediates open the way to six-state redox switches provided by two conformations (open and closed) in three redox states (Q, SQ, and HQ) possessing distinct binding ability. The switchable magnetic properties of these molecular grippers and their responsiveness to electrical stimuli has the potential for development of efficient molecular devices.

15.
Analyst ; 140(21): 7209-16, 2015 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26359514

RESUMO

The most abundant isomer of C70(CF3)10 (70-10-1) is a rare example of a perfluoroalkylated fullerene exhibiting electrochemically irreversible reduction. We show that electrochemical reversibility at the first reduction step is achieved at scan rates higher than 500 V s(-1). Applying ESR-, vis-NIR-, and (19)F NMR-spectroelectrochemistry, as well as mass spectrometry and DFT calculations, we show that the (70-10-1)(-) radical monoanion is in equilibrium with a singly-bonded diamagnetic dimeric dianion. This study is the first example of (19)F NMR spectroelectrochemistry, which promises to be an important method for the elucidation of redox mechanisms of fluoroorganic compounds. Additionally, we demonstrate the importance of combining different spectroelectrochemical methods and quantitative analysis of the transferred charge and spin numbers in the determination of the redox mechanism.

16.
Chemistry ; 21(16): 6215-25, 2015 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25765373

RESUMO

A variety of asymmetrically donor-acceptor-substituted [3]cumulenes (buta-1,2,3-trienes) were synthesized by developed procedures. The activation barriers to rotation ΔG(≠) were measured by variable temperature NMR spectroscopy and found to be as low as 11.8 kcal mol(-1) , in the range of the barriers for rotation around sterically hindered single bonds. The central C=C bond of the push-pull-substituted [3]cumulene moiety is shortened down to 1.22 Šas measured by X-ray crystallography, leading to a substantial bond length alternation (BLA) of up to 0.17 Å. All the experimental results are supported by DFT calculations. Zwitterionic transition states (TS) of bond rotation confirm the postulated proacetylenic character of donor-acceptor [3]cumulenes. Additional support for the proacetylenic character of these chromophores is provided by their reaction with tetracyanoethene (TCNE) in a cycloaddition-retroelectrocyclization (CA-RE) cascade characteristic of donor-polarized acetylenes.

17.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 36(6): 553-7, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25651079

RESUMO

The sodium salt of the new bis(mesitoyl)phosphinic acid (BAPO-OH) can be prepared in a very efficient one-pot synthesis. It is well soluble in water and hydrolytically stable for at least several weeks. Remarkably, it acts as an initiating agent for the surfactant-free emulsion polymerization (SFEP) of styrene to yield monodisperse, spherical nanoparticles. Time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TR-EPR) and chemically induced electron polarisation (CIDEP) indicate preliminary mechanistic insights.


Assuntos
Óxidos/química , Fosfinas/química , Polímeros/síntese química , Tensoativos/química , Emulsões/química , Polimerização , Polímeros/química
18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(37): 13045-52, 2014 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25154039

RESUMO

We present the synthesis and characterization of enantiomerically pure [6]helicene o-quinones (P)-(+)-1 and (M)-(-)-1 and their application to chiroptical switching and chiral recognition. (P)-(+)-1 and (M)-(-)-1 each show a reversible one-electron reduction process in their cyclic voltammogram, which leads to the formation of the semiquinone radical anions (P)-(+)-1(•-) and (M)-(-)-1(•-), respectively. Spectroelectrochemical ECD measurements give evidence of the reversible switching between the two redox states, which is associated with large differences of the Cotton effects [Δ(Δε)] in the UV and visible regions. The reduction of (±)-1 by lithium metal provides [Li(+){(±)-1(•-)}], which was studied by EPR and ENDOR spectroscopy to reveal substantial delocalization of the spin density over the helicene backbone. DFT calculations demonstrate that the lithium hyperfine coupling A((7)Li) in [Li(+){(±)-1(•-)}] is very sensitive to the position of the lithium cation. On the basis of this observation, chiral recognition by ENDOR spectroscopy was achieved by complexation of [Li(+){(P)-(+)-1(•-)}] and [Li(+){(M)-(-)-1(•-)}] with an enantiomerically pure phosphine oxide ligand.

19.
Chemistry ; 20(5): 1279-86, 2014 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24458911

RESUMO

Series of homoconjugated push-pull chromophores and donor-acceptor (D-A)-functionalized spiro compounds were synthesized, in which the electron-donating strength of the anilino donor groups was systematically varied. The structural and optoelectronic properties of the compounds were investigated by X-ray analysis, UV/Vis spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and computational analysis. The homoconjugated push-pull chromophores with a central bicyclo[4.2.0]octane scaffold were obtained in high yield by [2+2] cycloaddition of 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone (DDQ) to N,N-dialkylanilino- or N,N-diarylanilino-substituted activated alkynes. The spirocyclic compounds were formed by thermal rearrangement of the homoconjugated adducts. They also can be prepared in a one-pot reaction starting from DDQ and anilino-substituted alkynes. Spiro products with N,N-diphenylanilino and N,N-diisopropylanilino groups were isolated in high yields whereas compounds with pyrrolidino, didodecylamino, and dimethylamino substituents gave poor yields, with formation of insoluble side products. It was shown by in situ trapping experiments with TCNE that cycloreversion is possible during the thermal rearrangement, thereby liberating DDQ. In the low-yielding transformations, DDQ oxidizes the anilino species present, presumably via an intermediate iminium ion pathway. Such a pathway is not available for the N,N-diphenylanilino derivative and, in the case of the N,N-diisopropylanilino derivative, would generate a strained iminium ion (A1,3 strain). The mechanism of the thermal rearrangement was investigated by EPR spectroscopy, which provides good evidence for a proposed biradical pathway starting with the homolytic cleavage of the most strained (CN)C-C(CN) bond between the fused four- and six-membered rings in the homoconjugated adducts.

20.
Org Lett ; 15(18): 4627-9, 2013 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24007536

RESUMO

The reaction of benzopinacol with the non-ionic bases butyllithium and phosphazene P4 leads to the formation of the corresponding ketyl radical anions, which have been characterized by EPR/ENDOR spectroscopy. This conversion has a high efficiency. Such a reversed pinacol reaction can be used for a controlled release of ketyl radicals. Moreover, the nature of the base has a marked effect on the association of the ketyl radical anion and the counterions. This illustrates the importance of ion pairing for reductive coupling.

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