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1.
Front Oncol ; 12: 880008, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35692798

RESUMO

Background: Endometrial cancer (EC) therapeutic and diagnostic approaches have been changed by the development of a new prognostic molecular classification, the introduction of dostarlimab in microsatellite instability (MSI) high pre-treated advanced EC patients with further expected innovation deriving from lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab regardless MSI status. How this is and will be translated and embedded in the clinical setting in Italy is not known; this is why we developed Multicentre Italian Trials in Ovarian cancer and gynaecologic malignancies (MITO) survey on the current practice and expected future changes in EC. Methods: We designed a self-administered, multiple-choice online questionnaire available only for MITO members for one month, starting in April 2021. Results: 75.6% of the respondents were oncologists with a specific focus on gynaecologic malignancies and 73.3% of the respondents declared the availability of clinical trials in second line treatment for advanced EC. The therapeutic algorithm in second line was heterogeneous, being the most frequent choice administering anthracyclines followed by endocrine therapy or enrolling in clinical trials. While more than half of the clinicians declared that they performed the molecular classification, only six/45 respondents (13.3%) ran all the tests needed for it. On the other hand, 80% of them declared regular assessment of MSI status with IHC as recommended. The therapeutic approach in MSI high advanced EC patients has changed since dostarlimab approval. Indeed the most frequent choice in second line has been chemotherapy (53.3%) before its availability, while dostarlimab has been preferred in more than three-fourths of the cases (75.6%) after its approval. As for MSS patients, 77.8% of clinicians would choose lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab for them in second line once approved. Conclusions: Despite the selected sample of respondents from Italian MITO centres showing good knowledge of diagnostic and therapeutic innovations in EC, these are not fully implemented in everyday clinics, except for MSI status assessment.

2.
Support Care Cancer ; 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672478

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neoplastic wounds may develop as a result of primary tumor growth in the skin, due to metastasis, or due to skin invasion by tumors emerging from deeper levels. Malignant wounds may present as a crater-like ulcer, or as raised nodules with a cauliflower-like appearance. They are associated with malodor, necrosis, pain, bleeding, and secondary infection. The aim of our study is to better characterize fungating wounds and their management. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the database of the Wound Care Unit of the University of Bologna in order to identify individuals affected by neoplastic wound, between January 2019 and February 2021. RESULTS: We identified 9 females and 2 males with a mean age of 63 years; all were referred by the Oncology Unit. Management differed depending on the characteristics of the patients and the ulcers. Complete healing of the wound, following the parallel complete remission of the lymphoproliferative neoplasia, was observed in one individual. Among the others, one died because of breast cancer, while cutaneous lesions in 2 individuals deteriorated after 1 year of follow-up. Remission/relapse of the ulcer following the treatment course administered for the lymphoma were observed in one patient. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of malignant fungating wounds is challenging. Considering the neoplastic nature of the wounds, complete healing or improvement cannot be expected with the application of classically prescribed dressing for wounds. A mostly palliative treatment, focusing on maintaining the patient's quality of life, is a reasonable choice.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(8)2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35454806

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. During the past three decades, several improvements in the adjuvant treatment of hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer have been achieved with the introduction of optimized adjuvant chemotherapy and endocrine treatment. However, estimating the risk of relapse of breast cancer on an individual basis is still challenging. The IRIDE (hIGh Risk DEfinition in breast cancer) working group was established with the aim of reviewing evidence from the literature to synthesize the current relevant features that predict hormone-positive/HER2-negative early breast cancer relapse. A panel of experts in breast cancer was involved in identifying clinical, pathological, morphological, and genetic factors. A RAND consensus method was used to define the relevance of each risk factor. Among the 21 features included, 12 were considered relevant risk factors for relapse. For each of these, we provided a consensus statement and relevant comments on the supporting scientific evidence. This work may guide clinicians in the practical management of hormone-positive/HER2-negative early breast cancers.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(6)2022 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35326578

RESUMO

The preservation of fertility in cancer patients is a crucial aspect of modern reproductive medicine. Amenorrhea and infertility often occur after cancer therapy, worsening the quality of life. Cryopreservation of oocytes in young cancer patients is a therapeutic option for preserving fertility. A prospective study was conducted on 508 cancer patients who underwent oocyte cryopreservation to preserve fertility between 1996 and 2021 including the COVID-19 pandemic period. Patients underwent ovarian stimulation, followed by egg retrieval, and oocytes were cryopreserved by slow freezing or vitrification. Sixty-four thawing/warming cycles were performed. Survival, fertilization, pregnancy, and birth rate over the thawing/warming cycles were obtained. The data were compared with those from a group of 1042 nononcological patients who cryopreserved supernumerary oocytes. An average of 8.8 ± 6.9 oocytes were retrieved per cycle, and 6.1 ± 4.2 oocytes were cryopreserved. With their own stored oocytes, 44 patients returned to attempt pregnancy. From a total of 194 thawed/warmed oocytes, 157 survived (80%). In total, 100 embryos were transferred in 57 transfer/cycles, and 18 pregnancies were achieved. The pregnancy rate per transfer and pregnancy rate per patient were 31% and 41%, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between oncological patients and nononcological patients. A total of 15 babies were born from oncological patients. Children born showed normal growth and development. One minor malformation was detected.

5.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(3)2022 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35328145

RESUMO

Since the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project identified four distinct groups based on molecular alterations, mutation analyses have been integrated into the characterization of endometrial carcinomas (ECs). ARID1A seems to be the subunit more involved in the loss of function of the SWI/SNF complex in ECs. The aim of this study is to define the relevance of ARID1A alterations in a cohort of EC, studying the possible associations between DNA mutation (genomic level), RNA expression (transcriptomic level), and protein expression (proteomic level). A total of 50 endometrial carcinomas were characterized for ARID1A mutations (using targeted DNA next-generation sequencing-NGS), ARID1A gene expression (using RNAseq and qRT-PCR), and ARID1A protein expression (using immunohistochemistry-IHC). Moreover, we have investigated if ARID1A mutations may alter the protein structure, using the Protein Data Bank sequence. We found a good correlation between ARID1A mutations and protein immunostaining, even if we did not find statistically significant differences in the ARID1A expression levels. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that the molecular characterization of ARID1A should be associated with IHC analysis, mainly in those cases harboring "novel" ARID1A mutations or in those alterations with "uncertain" pathogenic significance.

7.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 193(1): 95-103, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35212906

RESUMO

PURPOSE: CompLEEment-1 (NCT02941926) is a single-arm, open-label, multicentre phase IIIb study investigating the safety and efficacy of ribociclib plus letrozole (RIB + LET) in a large, diverse cohort who have not received prior endocrine therapy (ET) for advanced disease. We present an exploratory analysis of male patients. METHODS: Eligible patients with hormone receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer (ABC), who had no prior ET and ≤ 1 line of prior chemotherapy for advanced disease, received RIB + LET. Male patients also received goserelin or leuprolide. Primary endpoint was safety and tolerability; efficacy was a secondary endpoint. RESULTS: In total, 39/3246 patients were male. Baseline characteristics were similar to the overall population. Male patients experienced fewer treatment-related adverse events (AEs) and treatment-related serious AEs compared with the overall population; fewer male patients had treatment-related AEs leading to discontinuation, adjustment/interruption, or additional therapy. One male patient died as a result of a serious AE that was not considered to be treatment-related. The most common AE was neutropenia; the incidence of grade ≥ 3 neutropenia in males (41.0%) was lower than in the overall population (57.2%). Median follow-up was 25.4 months; median time to progression was not reached in males versus 27.1 months for the overall population. CONCLUSION: The clinical benefit and overall response rates in males were consistent with the overall population. This analysis demonstrates the safety and efficacy of ribociclib in a close-to-real-world setting, supporting the use of RIB + LET in male patients with HR+, HER2- ABC. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02941926 (Registered 2016).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina , Aminopiridinas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Letrozol/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Neutropenia/tratamento farmacológico , Neutropenia/etiologia , Purinas , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
8.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 8(1): 1, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013314

RESUMO

The crosstalk between estrogen and HER2 receptors and cell-cycle regulation sustains resistance to endocrine therapy of HER2- and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. We earlier reported that women with HER2 and ER-positive breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant dual HER2-block and palbociclib in the NA-PHER2 trial had Ki67 decrease and 27% pathological complete responses (pCR). We extended NA-PHER2 to Cohort B using dual HER2-block and palbociclib without fulvestrant and report here Ki67 drops at week-2 (mean change -25.7), at surgery (after 16 weeks, mean change -9.5), high objective response (88.5%) and pCR (19.2%). In Cohort C [Ki67 > 20% and HER2low (IHC 1+/2+ without gene amplification)], women also received fulvestrant, had dramatic Ki67 drop at week 2 (-29.5) persisting at surgery (-19.3), and objective responses in 78.3%. In view of the favorable tolerability and of the efficacy-predictive value of Ki67 drop at week-2, the chemotherapy-free approach of NA-PHER2 deserves further investigation in HER2 and ER-positive breast cancer. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02530424.

9.
Am J Clin Dermatol ; 23(2): 247-255, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-4/6 inhibitors have been associated with dermatologic reactions, especially alopecia, in pivotal trials. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to comprehensively describe skin toxicities with CDK4/6 inhibitors reported in the real world through the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). METHODS: Cutaneous adverse events (AEs) were characterized in terms of spectrum and clinical features, including seriousness (with fatality proportion), latency, and discontinuation. Disproportionality analyses were performed through the reporting odds ratio (ROR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by comparing CDK4/6 inhibitors with other anticancer drugs used in breast cancer. RESULTS: As of December 2020, a total of 7986 cutaneous events were reported with CDK4/6 inhibitors (15% of total AEs with CDK4/6 inhibitors), mainly by consumers (39.6%), with 43.5% classified as serious and 25% requiring discontinuation. In 49% of the cases, five or more noncutaneous events were co-reported. The most frequently reported cutaneous events were alopecia (N = 3528), rash (N = 1493), and pruritus (N = 1211): rashes were recorded in the first month (median onset 28 days), whereas alopecia and nail alterations were recorded after a median of 67 and 112 days, respectively. Several cutaneous AEs were associated with increased reporting, including vitiligo (N = 6; ROR 8.88; 95% CI 2.95-22.46) and bullous dermatitis with ribociclib (N = 7; ROR 2.90; 95% CI 1.13-6.27); erythema multiforme with abemaciclib (N = 9; ROR 5.80; 95% CI 2.57-11.48); onychoclasis (N = 142, ROR 2.27; 95% CI 1.83-2.79) and trichorrhexis (N = 22; ROR 3.27; 95% CI 1.78-5.93) with palbociclib. CONCLUSIONS: Although causality cannot be demonstrated, a diverse reporting pattern of cutaneous AEs emerged from FAERS, including dermal/epidermal conditions, hair/nail disorders, and serious bullous conditions, with variable onsets and a remarkable proportion of discontinuations. The potential differential reporting among CDK4/6 inhibitors deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Farmacovigilância , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration
12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 28(1): 106-115, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615719

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This phase II study determined the efficacy of lacnotuzumab added to gemcitabine plus carboplatin (gem-carbo) in patients with advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Female patients with advanced TNBC, with high levels of tumor-associated macrophages not amenable to curative treatment by surgery or radiotherapy were enrolled. Lacnotuzumab was dosed at 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks, ± a dose on cycle 1, day 8. Gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m2) and carboplatin (dose in mg calculated by area under the curve [mg/mL/min] × (glomerular filtration rate [mL/min] + 25 [mL/min]) were dosed every 3 weeks. Treatment continued until unacceptable toxicity, disease progression, or discontinuation by physician/patient. RESULTS: Patients received lacnotuzumab + gem-carbo (n = 34) or gem-carbo (n = 15). Enrollment was halted due to recruitment challenges owing to rapid evolution of the therapeutic landscape; formal hypothesis testing of the primary endpoint was therefore not performed. Median progression-free survival was 5.6 months [90% confidence interval (CI), 4.47-8.64] in the lacnotuzumab + gem-carbo arm and 5.5 months (90% CI, 3.45-7.46) in the gem-carbo arm. Hematologic adverse events were common in both treatment arms; however, patients treated with lacnotuzumab experienced more frequent aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and creatine kinase elevations. Pharmacokinetic results showed that free lacnotuzumab at 10 mg/kg exhibited a typical IgG pharmacokinetic profile and target engagement of circulating colony-stimulating factor 1 ligand. CONCLUSIONS: Despite successful target engagement and anticipated pharmacokinetic profile, lacnotuzumab + gem-carbo showed comparable antitumor activity to gem-carbo alone, with slightly poorer tolerability. However, the data presented in this article would be informative for future studies testing agents targeting the CSF1-CSF1 receptor pathway in TNBC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carboplatina , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Macrófagos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
13.
Front Oncol ; 11: 705927, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804915

RESUMO

The role of a healthy diet in cancer prevention is well recognized. Recent data indicate that following the same advices can also improve cancer survivors' quality of life. Breast cancer (BC) patients are commonly concerned about diet and nutrition and frequently express the need to obtain health-related information and the will to change their diet and lifestyle. Hence, be aware of survivors' dietary changes and information needs is crucial for healthcare professionals to guide them toward optimal lifestyle choices. In order to investigate eating habits changes in a BC survivors' population, we conceived the cross-sectional multicentric study ECHO (Eating habits CHanges in Oncologic patients) Survey. Data were collected from 684 patients, diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, in order to investigate their changes in food consumption, use of supplements, or the beginning of a specific diet, after BC diagnosis. We also examined the sources of information used and if any modification in their diets was reported to the oncologist. We primarily observed that patients increased their consumption of vegetables, pulses, nuts, fruits, wholemeal bread/pasta, grains and fish; while decreasing red and processed meat, refined bread/pasta, baked good and animal fat consumption. Survivors also reported the use of dietary supplements, mainly vitamins, aimed at counteracting therapies' side effects. Changes in nutritional habits were often adopted without asking or informing the oncologist. Despite BC survivors made some positive changes in their nutritional habits, those modifications were mostly pursued by less than half of them, while the majority of patients consumed nutritional supplements after diagnosis. These results, as well as the failure to communicate with the physicians, reinforce the need to both improve the patient-healthcare professional relationship and to develop tailored nutrition counselling and intervention programs for cancer survivors.

14.
Oncologist ; 26(12): e2254-e2264, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bevacizumab has been studied in numerous clinical trials in multiple types of cancer; however, patients may receive bevacizumab over an extended period of time. This study assessed the long-term safety and tolerability of bevacizumab among patients with solid tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients enrolled in a Roche/Genentech-sponsored trial who had derived benefit from bevacizumab therapy as monotherapy or in combination with anticancer drugs were eligible for continuation of bevacizumab in this long-term extension (LTE) study. The primary endpoints were the incidence of adverse events (AEs) of Common Terminology Criteria for AEs (CTCAE) grade ≥3 related to bevacizumab treatment, serious AEs (SAEs), and deaths. RESULTS: Ninety-five patients with the following cancer types were enrolled in the LTE: ovarian cancer or peritoneal carcinoma (n = 41), non-small cell lung cancer (n = 16), glioblastoma multiforme (n = 14), breast cancer (n = 11), colorectal cancer (n = 7), or renal cell carcinoma (n = 6). The median (range) duration of bevacizumab treatment was 15.6 (0.0-81.0) months during the LTE and 57.5 (16.4-134.9) months overall (parent trial + LTE), with three patients receiving bevacizumab for >10 years. Overall, 17 patients (17.9%) experienced SAEs, and 21 (22.1%) had a bevacizumab-related AE of CTCAE grade ≥3 (proteinuria and hypertension were the most common). Four patients died: three from disease progression and one from an AE considered unrelated to bevacizumab. CONCLUSION: The safety outcomes observed support the tolerability of long-term bevacizumab in patients with various solid tumors, with a median extended treatment duration of almost 5 years overall and >10 years in some individual patients. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01588184. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: In this long-term extension study of patients with solid tumors, the median duration of bevacizumab treatment (including parent trials) was just under 5 years, with a long-term exposure in some patients of 7 to >10 years. Grade ≥3 adverse events related to bevacizumab were consistent with the established safety profile, with proteinuria and hypertension being the most common. Patients received bevacizumab over an extended period of time (beyond the length of most clinical trials), and the overall safety outcomes observed support the tolerability of long-term bevacizumab treatment in patients with solid tumors, with clinical benefit achieved over an extended period.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Renais , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos
15.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 189(3): 689-699, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414532

RESUMO

PURPOSE: CompLEEment-1 is a phase 3b trial in an expanded patient population with hormone receptor-positive (HR +), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer (ABC), the largest current trial of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 inhibitors in ABC. METHODS: Patients treated with ≤ 1 line of prior chemotherapy and no prior endocrine therapy for ABC received ribociclib 600 mg/day (3-weeks-on/1-week-off) plus letrozole 2.5 mg/day and additionally monthly goserelin/leuprolide in men and pre-/perimenopausal women. Eligibility criteria allowed inclusion of patients with stable CNS metastases and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2. Primary objectives were safety and tolerability, and secondary objectives were efficacy and quality of life (QoL). RESULTS: Overall, 3,246 patients were evaluated (median follow-up 25.4 months). Rates of all-grade and grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were 95.2% and 67.5%, respectively. Treatment-related discontinuations due to all grade and grade ≥ 3 AEs occurred in 12.9% and 7.3% of patients, respectively. Rates of all-grade AEs of special interest (AESI) were as follows: neutropenia (74.5%), increased alanine aminotransferase (16.2%), increased aspartate aminotransferase (14.1%), and QTcF prolongation (6.7%); corresponding values for grade ≥ 3 AESI were 57.2%, 7.7%, 5.7%, and 1.0%, respectively. Median time to progression was 27.1 months (95% confidence interval, 25.7 to not reached). Patient QoL was maintained during treatment. CONCLUSION: Safety and efficacy data in this expanded population were consistent with the MONALEESA-2 and MONALEESA-7 trials and support the use of ribociclib plus letrozole in the first-line setting for patients with HR + , HER2- ABC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: linicalTrials.gov NCT02941926.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Qualidade de Vida , Aminopiridinas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Letrozol/uso terapêutico , Purinas , Receptor ErbB-2 , Receptores de Estrogênio , Receptores de Progesterona
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13770, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215766

RESUMO

In metastatic breast cancer (mBC), the change of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status between primary and metastatic lesions is widely recognized, however clinical implications are unknown. Our study address the question if relevant differences exist between subjects who preserve the HER2 status and those who gain the HER2 positivity when relapsed. Data of patients affected by HER2-positive mBC, treated with pertuzumab and/or trastuzumab-emtansine (T-DM1) in a real-world setting at 45 Italian cancer centers were retrospectively collected and analyzed. From 2003 to 2017, 491 HER2-positive mBC patients were included. Of these, 102 (20.7%) had been initially diagnosed as HER2-negative early BC. Estrogen and/or progesterone receptor were more expressed in patients with HER2-discordance compared to patients with HER2-concordant status (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.006, respectively). HER2-discordant tumors were characterized also by a lower rate of brain metastases (p = 0.01) and a longer disease free interval (p < 0.0001). Median overall survival was longer, although not statistically significant, in the subgroup of patients with HER2-discordant cancer with respect to patients with HER2-concordant status (140 vs 78 months, p = 0.07). Our findings suggest that patients with HER2-positive mBC with discordant HER2 status in early BC may have different clinical, biological and prognostic behavior compared to HER2-concordant patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Receptores de Progesterona/genética
17.
Eur J Cancer ; 154: 21-29, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite endocrine therapy being the mainstay of treatment for hormone receptor positive (HR+)/HER2- metastatic breast cancer, patients at risk of visceral crisis or doubt for endocrine sensitivity are still offered first-line chemotherapy. Maintenance hormonal therapy is generally offered at the discontinuation of chemotherapy. The MAINtenance Afinitor study is a randomised, phase III trial comparing maintenance everolimus combined with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) versus AI monotherapy in patients with disease control after first-line chemotherapy. METHODS: Patients with stable disease, partial response or complete response after first-line chemotherapy were randomised to everolimus plus AIs (exemestane or letrozole or anastrozole) or to AIs alone. Primary aim was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary aims included response rate, safety and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: In total, 110 patients were randomised to everolimus + AIs (n = 52) or to AIs (n = 58). Median PFS was 11.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.1-13.8) in the everolimus + AI arm and 7.2 months (95% CI 4.7-10.9) in the AI monotherapy arm (hazard ratio [HR] 0.71, 95% CI 0.47-1.06). Objective response rate was 22.4% in everolimus + AI arm and 19.2% in AI monotherapy arm. A higher proportion of disease progression as best response was reported in the AI monotherapy arm (28.8% versus 14.3%). Median OS was 35.7 months (95% CI 26.0-47.8) in the combination arm versus 33.5 (95% CI 26.4-42.7) in the AI alone arm (HR 1.0, 95% CI 0.61-1.62). CONCLUSIONS: EVE + AIs did not significantly impact on the outcome of metastatic breast cancer patients deemed suitable for first-line chemotherapy. Also taking into account treatment tolerability, maintenance endocrine therapy remains the standard. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT: 2013-004153-24.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Everolimo/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(9)2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919139

RESUMO

Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is an emerging treatment for solid tumors and an attractive research field due to its clinical results. This therapy represents an alternative local treatment to the standard ones and is based on the tumor-directed delivery of non-ablative electrical pulses to maximize the action of specific cytotoxic drugs such as cisplatin (CSP) and bleomycin (BLM) and to promote cancer cell death. Nowadays, ECT is mainly recommended as palliative treatment. However, it can be applied to a wide range of superficial cancers, having an impact in preventing or delaying tumor progression and therefore in improving quality of life. In addition, during the natural history of the tumor, early ECT may improve patient outcomes. Our group has extensive clinical and research experience on ECT in vulvar tumors in the palliative setting, with 70% overall response rate. So far, in most studies, ECT was based on BLM. However, the potential of CSP in this setting seems interesting due to some theoretical advantages. The purpose of this report is to: (i) compare the efficacy of CSP and BLM-based ECT through a systematic literature review; (ii) report the results of our studies on CSP-resistant squamous cell tumors cell lines and the possibility to overcome chemoresistance using ECT; (iii) discuss the future ECT role in gynecological tumors and in particular in vulvar carcinoma.

19.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919741

RESUMO

Ovarian carcinomas represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasms consisting of separate entities with distinct risk factors, precursor lesions, pathogenesis, patterns of spread, molecular profiles, clinical course, response to chemotherapy, and outcomes. The histologic subtype and the related molecular features are essential for individualized clinical decision-making. The fifth edition of the World Health Organization classification of tumors of the female genital tract divides ovarian carcinomas into at least five main and distinct types of ovarian carcinomas: high-grade serous carcinoma, low-grade serous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma. Molecular pathology has improved the knowledge of genomic landscape of ovarian carcinomas identifying peculiar alterations for every histologic subtype. It is well-known that high-grade and low-grade serous carcinomas are separate entities with entirely different morphologic and molecular characteristics. TP53 and BRCA mutations are typical of high-grade serous carcinoma, whereas BRAF and KRAS mutations frequently occur in low-grade serous carcinoma. Endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas are frequently associated with endometriosis. Endometrioid tumors are characterized by ß-catenin alterations, microsatellite instability, and PTEN and POLE mutations, while ARID1A mutations occur in both endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas. Mucinous carcinomas are uncommon tumors associated with copy-number loss of CDKN2A and KRAS alterations and metastasis from other sites should always be considered in the differential diagnosis.

20.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668727

RESUMO

The collaborative Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project identified four distinct prognostic groups of endometrial carcinoma (EC) based on molecular alterations: (i) the ultramutated subtype that encompasses POLE mutated (POLE) cases; (ii) the hypermutated subtype, characterized by MisMatch Repair deficiency (MMRd); (iii) the copy-number high subtype, with p53 abnormal/mutated features (p53abn); (iv) the copy-number low subtype, known as No Specific Molecular Profile (NSMP). Although the prognostic value of TCGA molecular classification, NSMP carcinomas present a wide variability in molecular alterations and biological aggressiveness. This study aims to investigate the impact of ARID1A and CTNNB1/ß-catenin alterations by targeted Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a consecutive series of 125 molecularly classified ECs. NGS and IHC were used to assign surrogate TCGA groups and to identify molecular alterations of multiple target genes including POLE, PTEN, ARID1A, CTNNB1, TP53. Associations with clinicopathologic parameters, molecular subtypes, and outcomes identified NSMP category as the most heterogeneous group in terms of clinicopathologic features and outcome. Integration of surrogate TCGA molecular classification with ARID1A and ß-catenin analysis showed NSMP cases with ARID1A mutation characterized by the worst outcome with early recurrence, while NSMP tumors with ARID1A wild-type and ß-catenin alteration had indolent clinicopathologic features and no recurrence. This study indicates how the identification of ARID1A and ß-catenin alterations in EC represents a simple and effective way to characterize NSMP tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential.

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