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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808918

RESUMO

Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic has triggered the need to develop rapidly effective and safe vaccines to prevent infection, particularly in those at-risk populations such as medical personnel. This study's objective was to assess the perception of COVID-19 vaccination amongst Colombian physicians featuring two different scenarios of COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out through an online survey directed at medical staff in several cities in Colombia. The percentage of physicians who have a positive perception to be vaccinated and the associated factors that determine that decision were determined. A binomial regression analysis adjusted for age and sex was carried out, taking as a dependent variable the acceptance of free vaccination with an effectiveness of 60 and 80%. The most significant factors were determined in the non-acceptance of vaccination. Results: Between 77.0% and 90.7% of physicians in Colombia accept COVID-19 vaccination, according to the scenario evaluated where the vaccine's effectiveness was 60 or 80%, respectively. Medical specialty, having never paid for a vaccine, recommending the administration of the vaccine to their parents or people over 70 years, and dispensing the vaccine to their children, were the factors to consider to be vaccinated for free with an effectiveness of 60% and 80%. Conclusions: There is a high perception of the intention to vaccinate physicians in Colombia against COVID-19, and this is very similar to that of the general population.

5.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247611

RESUMO

After more than half of 2020, the pandemic due to the Coronavirus Diseases 2019 (COVID-19) is causing a devastating impact around the world (1). The first line of workers against COVID-19 is the health sector, which undoubtedly is the fundamental piece in this emergency. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Hum Pathol ; 105: 74-83, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750378

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, has been declared by the World Health Organization as an emerging public health problem of global importance and classified as a pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 infection can result in diverse, multiorgan pathology, the most significant being in the lungs (diffuse alveolar damage in its different phases, microthrombi, bronchopneumonia, necrotizing bronchiolitis, viral pneumonia), heart (lymphocytic myocarditis), kidney (acute tubular injury), central nervous system (microthrombi, ischemic necrosis, acute hemorrhagic infarction, congestion, and vascular edema), lymph nodes (hemophagocytosis and histiocytosis), bone marrow (hemophagocytosis), and vasculature (deep vein thrombosis). An understanding of the spectrum and frequency of histologic findings in COVID-19 is essential for gaining a better understanding of disease pathophysiology and its ongoing impact on public health. To this end, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis of histopathologic observations to date and review the reported findings.

9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 87-96, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829048

RESUMO

Bats have populated earth for approximately 52 million years, serving as natural reservoirs for a variety of viruses through the course of evolution. Transmission of highly pathogenic viruses from bats has been suspected or linked to a spectrum of potential emerging infectious diseases in humans and animals worldwide. Examples of such viruses include Marburg, Ebolavirus, Nipah, Hendra, Influenza A, Dengue, Equine Encephalitis viruses, Lyssaviruses, Madariaga and Coronaviruses, involving the now pandemic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Herein, we provide a narrative review focused in selected emerging viral infectious diseases that have been reported from bats.

10.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(9): 1099-1103, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671537

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Background cross-reactivity with other coronaviruses may reduce the specificity of COVID-19 rapid serologic tests. The vast majority of women attend prenatal care, which is a unique source of population-based blood samples appropriate for validation studies. We used stored 2018 serum samples from an existing pregnancy cohort study to evaluate the specificity of COVID-19 serologic rapid diagnostic tests. METHODS: We randomly selected 120 stored serum samples from pregnant women enrolled in a cohort in 2018 in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, at least 1 year before the COVID-19 pandemic. We used stored serum to evaluate four lateral flow rapid diagnostic tests, following manufacturers' instructions. Pictures were taken for all tests and read by two blinded trained evaluators. RESULTS: We evaluated 120, 80, 90, and 90 samples, respectively. Specificity for both IgM and IgG was 100% for the first two tests (95% confidence intervals [CI] 97.0-100 and 95.5-100, respectively). The third test had a specificity of 98.9% (95% CI 94.0-100) for IgM and 94.4% (95% CI 87.5-98.2) for IgG. The fourth test had a specificity of 88.9% (95% CI 80.5-94.5) for IgM and 100% (95% CI 96.0-100) for IgG. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 serologic rapid tests are of variable specificity. Blood specimens from sentinel prenatal clinics provide an opportunity to validate serologic tests with population-based samples.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 71-83, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532942

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses that include human epidemic pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome virus (MERS-CoV), and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus (SARS-CoV), among others (e.g., COVID-19, the recently emerging coronavirus disease). The role of animals as potential reservoirs for such pathogens remains an unanswered question. No systematic reviews have been published on this topic to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV infection in animals and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: 6,493articles were retrieved (1960-2019). After screening by abstract/title, 50 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of them, 42 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From a total of 34 studies (n=20,896 animals), the pool prevalence by RT-PCR for MERS-CoV was 7.2% (95%CI 5.6-8.7%), with 97.3% occurring in camels, in which pool prevalence was 10.3% (95%CI 8.3-12.3). Qatar was the country with the highest MERS-CoV RT-PCR pool prevalence: 32.6% (95%CI 4.8-60.4%). From 5 studies and 2,618 animals, for SARS-CoV, the RT-PCR pool prevalence was 2.3% (95%CI 1.3-3.3). Of those, 38.35% were reported on bats, in which the pool prevalence was 14.1% (95%CI0.0-44.6%). DISCUSSION: A considerable proportion of infected animals tested positive, particularly by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). This essential condition highlights the relevance of individual animals as reservoirs of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In this meta-analysis, camels and bats were found to be positive by RT-PCR in over 10% of the cases for both; thus, suggesting their relevance in the maintenance of wild zoonotic transmission.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Camelus/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Reservatórios de Doenças , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Prevalência , Doenças dos Primatas/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , Primatas/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Roedores/virologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Zoonoses
14.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(11)2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165386

RESUMO

A complete genome sequence was obtained for a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strain isolated from an oropharyngeal swab specimen of a Nepalese patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), who had returned to Nepal after traveling to Wuhan, China.

15.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 34: 101623, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179124

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 in China leading to a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features have been partially characterized in some observational studies. No systematic reviews on COVID-19 have been published to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess clinical, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes of COVID-19 confirmed cases. Observational studies and also case reports, were included, and analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate pooled prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: 660 articles were retrieved for the time frame (1/1/2020-2/23/2020). After screening, 27 articles were selected for full-text assessment, 19 being finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Additionally, 39 case report articles were included and analyzed separately. For 656 patients, fever (88.7%, 95%CI 84.5-92.9%), cough (57.6%, 95%CI 40.8-74.4%) and dyspnea (45.6%, 95%CI 10.9-80.4%) were the most prevalent manifestations. Among the patients, 20.3% (95%CI 10.0-30.6%) required intensive care unit (ICU), 32.8% presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95%CI 13.7-51.8), 6.2% (95%CI 3.1-9.3) with shock. Some 13.9% (95%CI 6.2-21.5%) of hospitalized patients had fatal outcomes (case fatality rate, CFR). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 brings a huge burden to healthcare facilities, especially in patients with comorbidities. ICU was required for approximately 20% of polymorbid, COVID-19 infected patients and hospitalization was associated with a CFR of >13%. As this virus spreads globally, countries need to urgently prepare human resources, infrastructure and facilities to treat severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Tosse/virologia , Febre/virologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , /virologia
17.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; : 101517, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After serious epidemics of chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) in the Americas, dengue (DENV) have reemerged in most countries. We analyzed the incidence, incidence rates, and evolution of DENV cases in Honduras from 2015 to 2018 and the ongoing 2019 epidemic. METHODS: Using epidemiological weeks (EW) surveillance data on the DENV in Honduras, we estimated incidence rates (cases/100,000 population), and developed maps at national, departmental, and municipal levels. RESULTS: From January 1, 2016 to July 21, 2019, a total of 109,557 cases of DENV were reported, 28,603 in 2019, with an incidence rate of 312.32 cases/100,000 population this year; 0.13% laboratory-confirmed. The highest peak was reached on the EW 28°, 2019 (5299 cases; 57.89 cases/100,000 population). The department with the highest number of cases and incidence rate was Cortes (8404 cases, 479.68 cases/100,000 population in 2019). DISCUSSION: The pattern and evolution of DENV epidemic in 2019 in Honduras has been similar to that which occurred for in 2015. As previously reported, this epidemic involved the north and central areas of the country predominantly, reaching municipality incidences there >1000 cases/100,000 population (or 1%). Studies using geographical information systems linked with clinical disease characteristics are necessary to obtain accurate epidemiological data for public health systems. Such information is also useful for assessment of risk for travelers who visit specific areas in a destination country.

19.
Physiol Rep ; 7(14): e14183, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325242

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the effects of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibition by NO synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) treatment on the sympathetic vasomotor nerve activity (SNA) on two sympathetic vasomotor nerves, the renal and splanchnic. NO plasma level and systemic oxidative stress were assessed. Hypertension was induced by L-NAME (20 mg/kg per day, by gavage, for seven consecutive days) in male Wistar rats. At the end of the treatment, blood pressure, heart rate, arterial baroreflex sensitivity, renal SNA (rSNA), and splanchnic SNA (sSNA) were assessed in urethane anesthetized rats. L-NAME-treated rats presented increased blood pressure (152 ± 2 mmHg, n = 17) compared to the control group (101 ± 2 mmHg, n = 15). Both rSNA (147 ± 10, n = 15 vs. 114 ± 5 Spikes/s, n = 9) and sSNA (137 ± 13, n = 14 vs. 74 ± 13 spikes/s, n = 9) were significantly increased in the L-NAME-treated compared to the control group. A differential response on baroreflex sensitivity was found, with a significant reduction for rSNA but not for sSNA arterial baroreceptor sensitivity in L-NAME-treated rats. The adjusted regression model revealed that the reduction of systemic NO levels partially explains the variation in sSNA and blood pressure, but not rSNA. Taken together, our data show that hypertension induced by NO synthase blockade is characterized by increased SNA to the rSNA and sSNA. In addition, we found that the rats that had the greatest reduction in NO levels in plasma by L-NAME were those that developed higher blood pressure levels. The reduction in the NO level partially explains the variations in sSNA but not in rSNA.


Assuntos
Barorreflexo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Vasoconstrição , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Inibidores Enzimáticos/toxicidade , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/toxicidade , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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