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1.
Molecules ; 24(11)2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151138

RESUMO

Feruloylated arabinoxylans obtained from nixtamalized maize bran were evaluated in terms of physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant capacity when incorporated in frankfurter sausages. Concentrations of 0.15% and 0.30% of feruloylated arabinoxylans were incorporated in frankfurter sausages formulations and a control without feruloylated arabinoxylans was also prepared. Shear force, hardness, color measurement, proximate analysis, pH, titratable acidity, water-holding capacity, total phenols, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in all treatments, sausages containing feruloylated arabinoxylans compared to the control. The results showed that there was a significant difference (P < 0.0001) in total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity with all feruloylated arabinoxylans sausages treatments higher than control. Additionally, significant differences (P < 0.0001) were obtained in the physicochemical parameters.

3.
Poult Sci ; 98(7): 3050-3058, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839090

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 Mexican oregano essential oils (MOO), from Poliomintha longiflora Gray (PLG) and Lippia berlandieri Schauer (LBS), in drinking water (DWt) on the performance, slaughter variables, and meat quality of broilers over a 40 D period of growth. A total of 180 non-sexed Ross-308 broilers (1-day-old) were randomly assigned to 3 treatments with 6 replications each (10 birds per replicate): CON = DWt control (without MOO); PLG = DWt + 400 mg/L of PLG; and LBS = DWt + 400 mg/L of LBS. The CON, PLG, and LBS broilers body weights were similar (P > 0.05) at all times. Feed intake (FI) was different by treatment (P < 0.05) at 7 and 28 D, and water intake (WI) was different (P < 0.05) at day 28. The CON treatment was highest (P < 0.05) at 28 D for FI and WI, whereas LBS was lowest (P < 0.05). Weight gain (WG) for CON, PLG, and LBS broilers was similar (P > 0.05), although WG for CON was slightly higher. In CON broilers, slaughter weight was highest (P < 0.05), but thigh yield was lowest (P < 0.05). The CON and PLG treatments were lower (P < 0.05) in thigh and leg cooking losses. The PLG treatment presented the highest values (P < 0.05) for breast-meat redness, saturation index, shear force, odor, taste, and overall sensory acceptability. The LBS was higher (P < 0.05) for breast-meat shear force, cohesiveness and resilience, but lower (P < 0.05) for sensory attributes. Mexican oregano essential oils at 400 mg/L can serve as natural alternative additives in DWt to improve broiler production and meat quality.


Assuntos
Lamiaceae , Lippia , Carne/análise , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Culinária , Água Potável/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Odorantes , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Paladar , Ganho de Peso
4.
Food Sci Nutr ; 6(5): 1254-1260, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30065826

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oregano essential oil (MOO) from Mexican oregano, Lippia berlandieri Schauer, as substitute for Mexican oregano powder (MOP) on pork chorizo physicochemical characteristics, texture, antioxidant capacity, aerobic bacteria colony counts, and sensory evaluation under storage conditions over 7 d. The treatments were T1 = chorizo + 0.1% MOP and T2 = chorizo + 0.1% MOO. The pH, redness (a*), yellowness (b*), Chroma, and browning index (BI) were affected by treatments and storage time. T2 presented lower pH (5.27) at d 1 than at d 7 (5.34), as well as a* (23.13 vs. 25.27), b* (14.85 vs. 17.45), Chroma (28.60 vs. 30.79), and BI (103.42 vs. 109.82) were higher at d 7. At d 1, hardness (1392.75 vs. 872.29 g), springiness (0.3675 vs. 0.3351 mm), gumminess (491.45 vs. 284.38 g), and chewiness (180.25 vs. 95.43 g mm) were higher in T1 than T2. Aerobic bacteria counts (T1-4.19 vs. 4.73 log CFU/g and T2-4.37 vs. 4.50 log CFU/g, respectively) increased within each treatment at d 7. Antioxidant capacity was not affected (26.48 and 27.42%). Oregano odor was different at 7 d with T2 having a stronger odor (5.70) than T1 with oregano powder (4.63). Mexican oregano essential oil in the pork chorizo formulation improved pH, color parameters, textural profile, and sensory characteristics.

5.
Glob Health Action ; 11(sup1): 1463657, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808773

RESUMO

The objective of this article is to present specific resources developed by the World Health Organization on equity, gender and human rights in order to support Member States in operationalizing their commitment to leave no one behind in the health Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and other health-related goals and targets. The resources cover: (i) health inequality monitoring; (ii) barrier analysis using mixed methods; (iii) human rights monitoring; (iv) leaving no one behind in national and subnational health sector planning; and (v) equity, gender and human rights in national health programme reviews. Examples of the application of the tools in a range of country contexts are provided for each resource.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Saúde Global/normas , Planejamento em Saúde/normas , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Direitos Humanos/normas , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
7.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0186897, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29073186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc.) contexts. AIM: The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and "map" the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise. METHODS: A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O'Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications. RESULTS: The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented. DISCUSSION: The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this field. More importantly, these ethical issues cannot be managed without a careful consideration for the complexity of contexts in which nutrition-related interventions are expected to be implemented. These interventions engage a variety of actors with diverse perspectives and interests. We discuss these challenges and also comment on the importance of considering ethical impacts in the monitoring and evaluation of such interventions. CONCLUSION: General ethical frameworks or recommendations-although useful-cannot be expected to provide policy makers, implementators and other public health personnel with sufficient practical ethical guidance as they cannot consider and anticipate the particularities of all specific nutrition-related public health interventions and the complexity of the contexts in which they are implemented. Further research is needed in order to develop more targeted ethical frameworks.


Assuntos
Ética , Política de Saúde , Estado Nutricional , Saúde Pública , Bromo/química , Humanos , Estados Unidos
8.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 67(1): 68-73, mar. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887665

RESUMO

La composición química, minerales, azúcares neutros, compuestos fenólicos y capacidad antioxidante fueron analizados en la cascarilla de garbanzo. La cascarilla de garbanzo presentó 72% de fibra dietaria, del cual el 24.4% fue celulosa. Los compuestos fenólicos y actividad antioxidante de la cascarilla de garbanzo fueron evidentes, predominando los taninos condensados totales con 13.28 mgEC/g, donde la fracción soluble fue mayor respecto a la fracción ligada. El contenido de proteína y grasa fue de 4.5 y 0.4%. En conclusión, la cascarilla de garbanzo tiene propiedades nutricionales y funcionales que pueden ser consideradas en el diseño de nuevos productos alimenticios para mejorar la salud de los consumidores.


Nutritional composition, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) husk. The chemical composition, minerals, neutral sugars, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were analyzed in the chickpea husk. Chickpea husk presented 72% of dietary fiber of which 24.4% was cellulose. The content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of chickpea husk was evident, predominating condensed tannins with a total content of 13.28 mgECat/g, of which soluble fraction was the higher than bound fraction. The content of protein and fat was 4.5 and 0.4 %, respectively. In conclusion, chick pea husk has nutritional and functional properties that can be considered in the design of new food products to improve the health of consumers.

9.
Int J Equity Health ; 15(1): 205, 2016 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28007023

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diet is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and is also strongly patterned by socioeconomic factors. Whether interventions promoting healthy eating reduce social inequalities in diet in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains uncertain. This paper aims to summarize current evidence on interventions promoting healthy eating in LMICs, and to establish whether they reduce social inequalities in diet. METHODS: Systematic review of cross-sectional or quasi-experimental studies (pre- and post-assessment of interventions) in Pubmed, Scielo and Google Scholar databases, including adults in LMICs, assessing at least one outcome of healthy eating and showing results stratified by socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Seven intervention studies including healthy eating promotion, conducted in seven LMICs (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Iran, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, and Tunisia), met our inclusion criteria. To promote healthy eating, all interventions used nutrition education and three of them combined nutrition education with improved acces to foods or social support. Interventions targeted mostly women and varied widely regarding communication tools and duration of the nutrition education sessions. Most interventions used printed material, media use or face-to-face training and lasted from 6 weeks to 5 years. Four interventions targeted disadvantaged populations, and three targeted the entire population. In three out of four interventions targeting disadvantaged populations, healthy eating outcomes were improved suggesting they were likely to reduce social inequalities in diet. All interventions directed to the entire population showed improved healthy eating outcomes in all social strata, and were considered as having no impact on social inequalities in diet. CONCLUSION: In LMICs, agentic interventions promoting healthy eating reduced social inequalities in diet when specifically targeting disadvantaged populations. Further research should assess the impact on social inequalities in diet of a combination of agentic and structural approaches in interventions promoting healthy eating.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Educação em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Dieta Saudável , Classe Social , África , Américas , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Pobreza
10.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1379(1): 17-27, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27525672

RESUMO

Fortification of staple foods with vitamins and minerals is an effective approach to increase micronutrient intake and improve nutritional status. The specific use of condiments and seasonings as vehicles in large-scale fortification programs is a relatively new public health strategy. This paper underscores equity considerations for the implementation of large-scale fortification of condiments and seasonings as a public health strategy by examining nonexhaustive examples of programmatic experiences and pilot projects in various settings. An overview of conceptual elements in implementation research and equity is presented, followed by an examination of equity considerations for five implementation strategies: (1) enhancing the capabilities of the public sector, (2) improving the performance of implementing agencies, (3) strengthening the capabilities and performance of frontline workers, (3) empowering communities and individuals, and (4) supporting multiple stakeholders engaged in improving health. Finally, specific considerations related to intersectoral action are considered. Large-scale fortification of condiments and seasonings cannot be a standalone strategy and needs to be implemented with concurrent and coordinated public health strategies, which should be informed by a health equity lens.


Assuntos
Condimentos , Alimentos Fortificados , Equidade em Saúde , Prática de Saúde Pública , Especiarias , Humanos , Política Nutricional/tendências , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/tendências
11.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1379(1): 38-47, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27508517

RESUMO

Fortification of condiments or seasonings may be useful for delivering micronutrients if they are consumed consistently by most of the population, as occurs in many countries. The World Health Organization, in collaboration with the Micronutrient Initiative and the Sackler Institute for Nutrition Science at the New York Academy of Sciences, convened a technical consultation on "Fortification of Condiments and Seasonings with Vitamins and Minerals in Public Health: from Proof of Concept to Scaling Up" to review the role of condiments and seasonings in improving micronutrient status, as constituents of regular diets and patterns of production and consumption worldwide. The consultation covered aspects related to implementation, monitoring, evaluation, and legal frameworks of fortification programs, as well as food safety and policy coherence for condiment fortification in the context of other public health strategies. This paper introduces the background and rationale of the technical consultation, synopsizes the presentations, and provides a summary of the main considerations proposed by the working groups.


Assuntos
Condimentos , Alimentos Fortificados , Micronutrientes , Política Nutricional , Saúde Pública/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Política Nutricional/tendências , Saúde Pública/tendências
13.
Arch Latinoam Nutr ; 65(1): 1-11, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26320300

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) follows a complex and rigorous process to develop global guidelines. With regard to nutrition-related guidelines, the joint participation of national authorities from Member States and their partners, including those of the social economy, is key to strengthening the process of evidence-informed guideline development and the subsequent implementation as part of national public health strategies. WHO puts forward a series of tools that can assist national authorities on health and social development in the elaboration of evidence-informed policies, considering their pertinence, relevance and implementability. This adoption and adaptation process must consider equity in order to avoid widening existing inequities. WHO global nutrition guidelines contribute to the effective implementation of nutrition interventions in Member States. Two experiences of implementation, one in Panama and one in Peru, exemplify this process. The paper ends by suggesting a deeper understanding and utilization of implementation research during programmes to identify what factors ensure effective interventions, appropriate scale up strategies and greater health equity.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Política Nutricional , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Análise de Alimentos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos
15.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 65(1): 1-11, mar. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-752709

RESUMO

La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) sigue un proceso complejo y riguroso para la elaboración de directrices mundiales. En el caso de las directrices relacionadas con nutrición, la participación conjunta de las autoridades de los Estados Miembros de la OMS y sus aliados, incluidos aquellos de la economía social y solidaria, es clave para fortalecer el proceso de elaboración de directrices informadas por las pruebas científicas y su posterior implementación, como parte de las estrategias nacionales de salud pública. Para las autoridades en materia de salud y desarrollo social, la OMS desarrolla una serie de herramientas para la formulación de políticas informadas por las pruebas científicas, considerando su pertinencia, relevancia e implementabilidad. Este proceso de adopción y adaptación debe considerar aspectos de equidad, para evitar la ampliación de brechas en salud. Las directrices mundiales de la OMS contribuyen a que las intervenciones en nutrición en sus Estados Miembros sean implementadas de manera adecuada. Dos experiencias de implementación de intervenciones en nutrición, una en Panamá y otra en Perú, ejemplifican este proceso. El artículo concluye sugiriendo profundizar en el conocimiento y aplicación de la investigación de la implementación de programas para identificar los factores que permiten a una intervención ser efectiva, tener una mejor estrategia de escalabilidad y contribuir a la equidad en salud.


The World Health Organization (WHO) follows a complex and rigorous process to develop global guidelines. With regard to nutrition-related guidelines, the joint participation of national authorities from Member States and their partners, including those of the social economy, is key to strengthening the process of evidence-informed guideline development and the subsequent implementation as part of national public health strategies. WHO puts forward a series of tools that can assist national authorities on health and social development in the elaboration of evidenceinformed policies, considering their pertinence, relevance and implementability. This adoption and adaptation process must consider equity in order to avoid widening existing inequities. WHO global nutrition guidelines contribute to the effective implementation of nutrition interventions in Member States. Two experiences of implementation, one in Panama and one in Peru, exemplify this process. The paper ends by suggesting a deeper understanding and utilization of implementation research during programmes to identify what factors ensure effective interventions, appropriate scale up strategies and greater health equity.


Assuntos
Humanos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Política Nutricional , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Análise de Alimentos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração
17.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1312: 40-53, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24329609

RESUMO

Mass fortification of maize flour and corn meal with a single or multiple micronutrients is a public health intervention that aims to improve vitamin and mineral intake, micronutrient nutritional status, health, and development of the general population. Micronutrient malnutrition is unevenly distributed among population groups and is importantly determined by social factors, such as living conditions, socioeconomic position, gender, cultural norms, health systems, and the socioeconomic and political context in which people access food. Efforts trying to make fortified foods accessible to the population groups that most need them require acknowledgment of the role of these determinants. Using a perspective of social determinants of health, this article presents a conceptual framework to approach equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal, and provides nonexhaustive examples that illustrate the different levels included in the framework. Key monitoring areas and issues to consider in order to expand and guarantee a more equitable access to maize flour and corn meal are described.


Assuntos
Farinha/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Alimentos Fortificados/economia , Micronutrientes/economia , Zea mays/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Estado Nutricional , Vigilância da População/métodos , Saúde Pública/economia , Saúde Pública/métodos
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