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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259844

RESUMO

AIMS : To obtain the normal range for 2D echocardiographic (2DE) measurements of left ventricular (LV) layer-specific strain from a large group of healthy volunteers of both genders over a wide range of ages. METHODS AND RESULTS : A total of 287 (109 men, mean age: 46 ± 14 years) healthy subjects were enrolled at 22 collaborating institutions of the EACVI Normal Reference Ranges for Echocardiography (NORRE) study. Layer-specific strain was analysed from the apical two-, three-, and four-chamber views using 2DE software. The lowest values of layer-specific strain calculated as ±1.96 standard deviations from the mean were -15.0% in men and -15.6% in women for epicardial strain, -16.8% and -17.7% for mid-myocardial strain, and -18.7% and -19.9% for endocardial strain, respectively. Basal-epicardial and mid-myocardial strain decreased with age in women (epicardial; P = 0.008, mid-myocardial; P = 0.003) and correlated with age (epicardial; r = -0.20, P = 0.007, mid-myocardial; r = -0.21, P = 0.006, endocardial; r = -0.23, P = 0.002), whereas apical-epicardial, mid-myocardial strain increased with the age in women (epicardial; P = 0.006, mid-myocardial; P = 0.03) and correlated with age (epicardial; r = 0.16, P = 0.04). End/Epi ratio at the apex was higher than at the middle and basal levels of LV in men (apex; 1.6 ± 0.2, middle; 1.2 ± 0.1, base 1.1 ± 0.1) and women (apex; 1.6 ± 0.1, middle; 1.1 ± 0.1, base 1.2 ± 0.1). CONCLUSION : The NORRE study provides useful 2DE reference ranges for novel indices of layer-specific strain.

3.
Echocardiography ; 37(4): 586-591, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212399

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Limited data are available regarding the evaluation of right ventricular (RV) performance in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of RV dysfunction in patients with severe AS undergoing TAVI and long-term changes. METHODS: Consecutive patients with severe AS undergoing TAVI from January 2016 to July 2017 were included. RV anatomical and functional parameters were analyzed: RV diameters, fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), S-wave tissue Doppler of the tricuspid annulus (RV-S'TDI), global longitudinal strain (RV-GLS), and free wall strain (RV-FWS). Preprocedure and 1-year echo were analyzed. RESULTS: Final population included 114 patients, mean age 83.63 ± 6.31 years, and 38.2% women. The prevalence of abnormal RV function was high, variable depending on the parameter that we analyzed, and it showed a significant reduction 1 year after TAVI implantation: 13.9% vs 6.8% (TAPSE < 17mm), P = .04; 26.3% vs 20% (fractional area change < 35%), P = .048; 41.2% vs 29.2% (RV-S'TDI < 9.5cm/s), P = .04; 48.7% vs 39.5% (RV-GLS > [20]), P = .049; and 48.7% vs 28.9% (RV-FWS > [20]), P = .03. Significant differences were noted between patients with low-flow (LF) vs normal-flow (NF) AS in RV dysfunction prevalence as well as in RV function recovery which is less evident in LF compared with NF patients. CONCLUSIONS: RV dysfunction is high among symptomatic AS patients undergoing TAVI, with variable prevalence depending on the echocardiographic parameter used.

5.
Eur Heart J ; 41(18): 1730-1732, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016397
7.
Eur Heart J ; 41(3): 347-356, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504434

RESUMO

AIMS: Over the last decades, the profile of chronic coronary syndrome has changed substantially. We aimed to determine characteristics and management of patients with chronic coronary syndrome in the contemporary era, as well as outcomes and their determinants. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 32 703 patients (45 countries) with chronic coronary syndrome enrolled in the prospective observational CLARIFY registry (November 2009 to June 2010) with a 5-year follow-up, were analysed. The primary outcome [cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI)] 5-year rate was 8.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.7-8.3] overall [male 8.1% (7.8-8.5); female 7.6% (7.0-8.3)]. A cox proportional hazards model showed that the main independent predictors of the primary outcome were prior hospitalization for heart failure, current smoking, atrial fibrillation, living in Central/South America, prior MI, prior stroke, diabetes, current angina, and peripheral artery disease. There was an interaction between angina and prior MI (P = 0.0016); among patients with prior MI, angina was associated with a higher primary event rate [11.8% (95% CI 10.9-12.9) vs. 8.2% (95% CI 7.8-8.7) in patients with no angina, P < 0.001], whereas among patients without prior MI, event rates were similar for patients with [6.3% (95% CI 5.4-7.3)] or without angina [6.4% (95% CI 5.9-7.0)], P > 0.99. Prescription rates of evidence-based secondary prevention therapies were high. CONCLUSION: This description of the spectrum of chronic coronary syndrome patients shows that, despite high rates of prescription of evidence-based therapies, patients with both angina and prior MI are an easily identifiable high-risk group who may deserve intensive treatment. CLINICAL REGISTRY: ISRCTN43070564.

9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(2): 181-195, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815347

RESUMO

Acute heart failure is one of the main diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in clinical practice due to a non-specific clinical manifestation and the urgent need for timely and tailored management at the same time. In this position statement, the Heart Failure Association aims to systematize the use of various imaging methods in accordance with the timeline of acute heart failure care proposed in the recent guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology. During the first hours of admission the point-of-care focused cardiac and lung ultrasound examination is an invaluable tool for rapid differential diagnosis of acute dyspnoea, which is highly feasible and relatively easy to learn. Several portable and stationary imaging modalities are being increasingly used for the evaluation of cardiac structure and function, haemodynamic and volume status, precipitating myocardial ischaemia or valvular abnormalities, and systemic and pulmonary congestion. This paper emphasizes the central role of the full echocardiographic examination in the identification of heart failure aetiology, severity of cardiac dysfunction, indications for specific heart failure therapy, and risk stratification. Correct evaluation of cardiac filling pressures and accurate prognostication may help to prevent unscheduled short-term readmission. Alternative advanced imaging modalities should be considered to assist patient management in the pre- and post-discharge phase, including cardiac magnetic resonance, computed tomography, nuclear studies, and coronary angiography. The Heart Failure Association addresses this paper to the wide spectrum of acute care and heart failure specialists, highlighting the value of all available imaging techniques at specific stages and in common clinical scenarios of acute heart failure.

10.
Cardiol J ; 27(1): 62-71, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30155868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute heart failure patients could benefit from heart rate reduction, as myocardial consumption and oxidative stress are related to tachycardia. Ivabradine could have a clinical role attenuating catecholamine-induced tachycardia. The aim of this study was to evaluate hemodynamic effects of ivabradine in a swine model of acute heart failure. METHODS: Myocardial infarction was induced by 45 min left anterior descending artery balloon occlusion in 18 anesthetized pigs. An infusion of dobutamine and noradrenaline was maintained aiming to preserve adequate hemodynamic support, accompanied by fluid administration to obtain a pulmonary wedged pressure ≥ 18 mmHg. After reperfusion, rhythm and hemodynamic stabilization, the animals were randomized to 0.3 mg/kg ivabradine intravenously (n = 9) or placebo (n = 9). Hemodynamic parameters were observed over a 60 min period. RESULTS: Ivabradine was associated with a significant reduction in heart rate (88.4 ± 12.0 bpm vs. 122.7 ± 17.3 bpm after 15 min of ivabradine/placebo infusion, p < 0.01) and an increase in stroke volume (68.8 ± 13.7 mL vs. 52.4 ± 11.5 mL after 15 min, p = 0.01). There were no significant differences in systemic or pulmonary arterial pressure, or significant changes in pulmonary capillary pressure. However, after 15 min, cardiac output was significantly reduced with ivabradine (-5.2% vs. +15.0% variation in ivabradine/placebo group, p = 0.03), and central venous pressure increased (+4.2% vs. -19.7% variation, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Ivabradine reduces heart rate and increases stroke volume without modifying systemic or left filling pressures in a swine model of acute heart failure. However, an excessive heart rate reduction could lead to a decrease in cardiac output and an increase in right filling pressures. Future studies with specific heart rate targets are needed.

12.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 17(1): 28, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The search for reliable cardiac functional parameters is crucial in patients with mitral regurgitation (MR). In the Italian arm of the European Registry of MR, we compared the ability of global longitudinal strain (GLS) and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF) to detect cardiac damage in MR. METHODS: Five hundred four consecutive patients with MR underwent a complete echo-Doppler exam. A total of 431, 53 and 20 patients had degenerative, secondary and mixed MR, respectively. The main echocardiographic parameters, including LV and left atrial (LA) size measurements, pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and GLS were compared between patients with mild MR (n = 392) vs. moderate to severe MR (n = 112). RESULTS: LVEF and GLS were related one another in the pooled population, and separately in patients with mild and moderate/severe MR (all p < 0.0001). However, a certain number of patients were above the upper or below the lower limits of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the normal relation in the pooled population and in patients with mild MR. Only 2 patients were below the 95% CI in moderate to severe MR. After adjusting for confounders by separate multivariate models, LVEF and GLS were independently associated with LV and left atrial size in the pooled population and in mild and moderate/severe MR. GLS, but not LVEF, was also independently associated with PASP in patients with mild and moderate to severe MR. CONCLUSIONS: Both LVEF and GLS are independently associated with LV and LA size, but only GLS is related to pulmonary arterial pressure. GLS is a powerful hallmark of cardiac damage in MR.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408147

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study sought to evaluate the correlation between indices of non-invasive myocardial work (MW) and left ventricle (LV) size, traditional and advanced parameters of LV systolic and diastolic function by 2D echocardiography (2DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 226 (85 men, mean age: 45 ± 13 years) healthy subjects were enrolled at 22 collaborating institutions of the Normal Reference Ranges for Echocardiography (NORRE) study. Global work index (GWI), global constructive work (GCW), global work waste (GWW), and global work efficiency (GWE) were estimated from LV pressure-strain loops using custom software. Peak LV pressure was estimated non-invasively from brachial artery cuff pressure. LV size, parameters of systolic and diastolic function and ventricular-arterial coupling were measured by echocardiography. As advanced indices of myocardial performance, global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS), and global radial strain (GRS) were obtained. On multivariable analysis, GWI was significantly correlated with GLS (standardized beta-coefficient = -0.23, P < 0.001), ejection fraction (EF) (standardized beta-coefficient = 0.15, P = 0.02), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (standardized beta-coefficient = 0.56, P < 0.001) and GRS (standardized beta-coefficient = 0.19, P = 0.004), while GCW was correlated with GLS (standardized beta-coefficient = -0.55, P < 0.001), SBP (standardized beta-coefficient = 0.71, P < 0.001), GRS (standardized beta-coefficient = 0.11, P = 0.02), and GCS (standardized beta-coefficient = -0.10, P = 0.01). GWE was directly correlated with EF and inversely correlated with Tei index (standardized beta-coefficient = 0.18, P = 0.009 and standardized beta-coefficient = -0.20, P = 0.004, respectively), the opposite occurred for GWW (standardized beta-coefficient =--0.14, P = 0.03 and standardized beta-coefficient = 0.17, P = 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSION: The non-invasive MW indices show a good correlation with traditional 2DE parameters of myocardial systolic function and myocardial strain.

16.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 35(9): 1627-1636, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041633

RESUMO

Intraventricular velocity distribution reflects left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and can be measured non-invasively by flow mapping technologies. We designed our study to compare intraventricular velocities and gradients, obtained by vector flow mapping (VFM) technology during early diastole in consecutive patients diagnosed with mild and advanced diastolic dysfunction at echocardiography and a control group with a purpose to validate the hypothesis of relationship between new parameters and severity of diastolic dysfunction and conventional markers of elevated LV filling pressure. Two-dimensional streamline fields were obtained using VFM technology in 121 subjects (57 with normal diastolic function, 38 with mild diastolic dysfunction and 26 with advanced diastolic dysfunction). We measured several velocities and calculated a gradient along the selected streamline, which we compared between groups and correlated them with conventional echocardiographic parameters. Apical intraventricular velocity gradient (GrIV) was the lowest in control group, followed by mild and advanced diastolic dysfunction groups (5.3 ± 1.9 vs. 6.8 ± 2.5 vs. 13.6 ± 5.0/s, p < 0.001) and showed good correlation with E/e' (r = 0.751, p < 000.1). GrIV/e' ratio was the strongest single predictor of severity of diastolic dysfunction. Different degrees of diastolic dysfunction affect the Intraventricular velocity behavior during early diastole obtained by VFM. GrIV could discriminate between groups with different levels of diastolic dysfunction and was closely associated with classical echocardiographic indices of elevated LV filling pressure. GrIV/e' ratio has a potential to become a single parameter needed to assess left ventricular diastolic function.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores/métodos , Ecocardiografia Doppler de Pulso/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Pressão Ventricular , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diástole , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Dados Preliminares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
17.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 72(5): 398-406, mayo 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-4371

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: Analizar el coste-efectividad del edoxabán frente al acenocumarol en la prevención del ictus y la embolia sistémica en pacientes con fibrilación auricular no valvular (FANV) en España. Métodos: Modelo de Markov, adaptado a España desde la perspectiva del Sistema Nacional de Salud, que simula la evolución de una cohorte hipotética de pacientes con FANV a lo largo de toda su vida a partir de diferentes estados de salud: ictus, hemorragias y otras complicaciones cardiovasculares. Los datos de eficacia y seguridad se obtuvieron a partir de la evidencia clínica disponible (principalmente del estudio en fase III ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48). Los costes del tratamiento de la FANV y sus complicaciones se obtuvieron de fuentes españolas. Resultados: El edoxabán resultó en 0,34 años de vida ajustados por calidad (AVAC) adicionales en comparación con el acenocumarol. El coste incremental con el edoxabán fue de 3.916 euros, derivado principalmente de un mayor coste farmacológico, que se compensa parcialmente por los menores costes de la monitorización del tratamiento y del tratamiento de eventos y complicaciones de la FANV. Se obtuvo un coste por AVAC de 11.518 euros, dentro de los umbrales comúnmente considerados coste-efectivos en España (25.000-30.000 euros/AVAC). Los diferentes análisis de sensibilidad realizados confirmaron la robustez de los resultados. Conclusiones: El edoxabán es una alternativa coste-efectiva frente al acenocumarol en la prevención del ictus y la embolia sistémica en pacientes con FANV en España


Introduction and objectives: To assess the cost-effectiveness of edoxaban versus acenocoumarol in the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in Spain. Methods: Markov model, adapted to the Spanish setting from the perspective of the National Health System, stimulating the progression of a hypothetical cohort of patients with NVAF throughout their lifetime, with different health states: stroke, hemorrhage, and other cardiovascular complications. Efficacy and safety data were obtained from the available clinical evidence (mainly from the phase III ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 study). The costs of managing NVAF and its complications were obtained from Spanish sources. Results: Edoxaban use led to 0.34 additional quality-adjusted life years (QALY) compared with acenocoumarol. The incremental cost with edoxaban was €3916, mainly because of higher pharmacological costs, which were partially offset by lower costs of treatment monitoring and managing NVAF events and complications. The cost per QALY was €11 518, within the thresholds commonly considered cost-effective in Spain (€25 000-€30 000/QALY). The robustness of the results was confirmed by various sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Edoxaban is a cost-effective alternative to acenocoumarol in the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with NVAF in Spain

18.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 72(5): 398-406, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31007166

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the cost-effectiveness of edoxaban vs acenocoumarol in the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in Spain. METHODS: Markov model, adapted to the Spanish setting from the perspective of the National Health System, stimulating the progression of a hypothetical cohort of patients with NVAF throughout their lifetime, with different health states: stroke, haemorrhage, and other cardiovascular complications. Efficacy and safety data were obtained from the available clinical evidence (mainly from the phase III ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 study). The costs of managing NVAF and its complications were obtained from Spanish sources. RESULTS: Edoxaban use led to 0.34 additional quality-adjusted life years (QALY) compared with acenocoumarol. The incremental cost with edoxaban was 3916€, mainly because of higher pharmacological costs, which were partially offset by lower costs of treatment monitoring and managing NVAF events and complications. The cost per QALY was 11 518€, within the thresholds commonly considered cost-effective in Spain (25 000-30 000 €/QALY). The robustness of the results was confirmed by various sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Edoxaban is a cost-effective alternative to acenocoumarol in the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with NVAF in Spain.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Piridinas/economia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tiazóis/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos de Medicamentos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Inibidores do Fator Xa , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Espanha , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico
19.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 32(6): 744-754.e1, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal atrioventricular delay (AVD) achieves maximum cardiac output in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Nonoptimal AVD decreases left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume and causes loss of flow momentum prior to LV ejection. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the potential role of energy dissipation (ED) in these changes in cardiac output through the study of intraventricular flow. We hypothesized that short and long AVD increases ED when compared with optimal AVD by altering the physiologic flow mechanics that preserve kinetic energy in the LV. METHODS: Forty-four patients under CRT underwent echocardiographic LV flow analysis under optimal, short, and long AVD. LV ED and vortical flow in the inflow-outflow tract were studied during the end-diastolic and early systolic period, and paired comparisons were obtained between optimal and nonoptimal values. RESULTS: ED in the left ventricle was minimal in optimal AVD and significantly increased with nonoptimal values (79.1 ± 27.5 J/m·sec in optimal AVD vs 96.5 ± 34.7 J/m·sec in short AVD; n = 18, P = .006; 123.3 ± 67.6 J/m·sec in optimal AVD vs 292.4 ± 202.5 J/m·sec in long AVD; P < .001). Increase in ED occurred due to inadequate flow redirection toward the outflow tract in short AVD and due to both turbulence and prolonged ineffective flow rotation in long AVD. CONCLUSIONS: Optimal AVD in resynchronization therapy favors physiological vortex flow patterns in the left ventricle during the end-diastolic and early systolic period. These patterns are altered when nonoptimal values are programmed, increasing ED.

20.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 35(6): 1055-1065, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706353

RESUMO

Left atrium (LA) size has an important role in determining prognosis and risk stratification in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking (CMR-FT) is a novel technique for the quantification of LA function. Our aim was first to evaluate LA function by CMR-FT and volumetric analysis in patients with HCM; and secondly we sought to determine the association of LA-longitudinal strain (LA-LS) with major cardiovascular outcomes, particularly all cause mortality and heart failure. 75 patients with HCM and 75 control subjects underwent a conventional CMR study including assessment of LA function by CMR-FT (LA-LS) and volumetric analysis. A primary endpoint of all-cause mortality and secondary combined endpoint of hospital admission related to heart failure, lethal ventricular arrhythmias or cardiovascular death were defined. Compared to controls, LA-LS and all volumetric indices of LA function were significantly impaired in HCM even in patients with normal LA volume and normal LV filling pressures. LA-LS showed moderate-high correlation with LA-emptying fraction (total, active and passive LA-EF, r = 0.68, r = 0.67, r = 0.31, p < 0.001 for all) and with parameters of diastolic function (E/é, r = 0.4, p < 0.001). The age, minimum LA volume and % of LGE were independent predictors of LA-LS (p < 0.01 for all). During a mean follow-up of 3.3 ± 1.2 years LA-LS was associated with the primary (HR: 0.85 (0.73-0.98), p = 0.02) and the secondary end-point (HR: 0.88 (0.82-0.96), p = 0.003). LA-LS by CMR-FT provides accurate measurements of LA function in HCM patients. LA-LS may become a novel potential predictor of poor cardiac outcomes, particularly cardiovascular mortality and HF.


Assuntos
Função do Átrio Esquerdo , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico por imagem , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Idoso , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/mortalidade , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Admissão do Paciente , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
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