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1.
Clin Genet ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497877

RESUMO

Crisponi/cold-induced sweating syndrome (CS/CISS) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by hyperthermia, camptodactyly, feeding and respiratory difficulties often leading to sudden death in the neonatal period. The affected individuals who survived the first critical years of life, develop cold-induced sweating and scoliosis in early childhood. The disease is caused by variants in the CRLF1 or in the CLCF1 gene. Both proteins form a heterodimeric complex that acts on cells expressing the ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor (CNTFR). CS/CISS belongs to the family of "CNTFR-related disorders" showing a similar clinical phenotype. Recently, variants in other genes, including KLHL7, NALCN, MAGEL2 and SCN2A, previously linked to other diseases, have been associated with a CS/CISS-like phenotype. Therefore, retinitis pigmentosa and Bohring-Optiz syndrome-like (KLHL7), Congenital contractures of the limbs and face, hypotonia, and developmental delay syndrome (NALCN), Chitayat-Hall/Schaaf-Yang syndrome (MAGEL2), and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy-11 syndrome (SCN2A) all share an overlapping phenotype with CS/CISS, especially in the neonatal period. This review aims to summarize the existing literature on CS/CISS, focusing on the current state of differential diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment concepts in order to achieve an accurate and rapid diagnosis. This will improve patient management and enable specific treatments for the affected individuals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(9): 1691-1702, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) phenotype usually mitigates with age and data on adulthood are limited. Our study aims at reporting phenotype evolution and health issues in adulthood. METHODS: 34 patients (16 males), aged 18-58 years (mean 28.5) with BWS were enrolled. RESULTS: 26 patients were molecularly confirmed, 5 tested negative, and 3 were not tested. Final tall stature was present in 44%. Four patients developed Wilms' Tumor (2, 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively); one hepatoblastoma (22 years); one acute lymphoblastic leukemia (21 years); one adrenal adenoma and testicular Sertoli cell tumor (22 and 24 years, respectively); and three benign tumors (hepatic haemangioma, uterine myoma, and mammary fibroepithelioma). Surgery for BWS-related features was required in 85%. Despite surgical correction several patients presented morbidity and sequelae of BWS pediatric issues: pronunciation/swallow difficulties (n = 9) due to macroglossia, painful scoliosis (n = 4) consistent with lateralized overgrowth, recurrent urolithiasis (n = 4), azoospermia (n = 4) likely consequent to cryptorchidism, severe intellectual disability (n = 2) likely related to neonatal asphyxia and diabetes mellitus (n = 1) due to subtotal pancreatectomy for intractable hyperinsulinism. Four patients (two males) had healthy children (three physiologically conceived and one through assisted reproductive technology). CONCLUSIONS: Adult health conditions in BWS are mostly consequent to pediatric issues, underlying the preventive role of follow-up strategies in childhood. Malignancy rate observed in early adulthood in this small cohort matches that observed in the first decade of life, cumulatively raising tumor rate in BWS to 20% during the observation period. Further studies are warranted in this direction.

3.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(5): 809-817, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177572

RESUMO

The first step in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism is catalyzed by the two BCAA transferase isoenzymes, cytoplasmic branched-chain amino acid transferase (BCAT) 1, and mitochondrial BCAT2. Defects in the second step of BCAA catabolism cause maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a condition which has been far more extensively investigated. Here, we studied the consequences of BCAT2 deficiency, an ultra-rare condition in humans. We present genetic, clinical, and functional data in five individuals from four different families with homozygous or compound heterozygous BCAT2 mutations which were all detected following abnormal biochemical profile results or familial mutation segregation studies. We demonstrate that BCAT2 deficiency has a recognizable biochemical profile with raised plasma BCAAs and, in contrast with MSUD, low-normal branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) with undetectable l-allo-isoleucine. Interestingly, unlike in MSUD, none of the individuals with BCAT2 deficiency developed acute encephalopathy even with exceptionally high BCAA levels. We observed wide-ranging clinical phenotypes in individuals with BCAT2 deficiency. While one adult was apparently asymptomatic, three individuals had presented with developmental delay and autistic features. We show that the biochemical characteristics of BCAT2 deficiency may be amenable to protein-restricted diet and that early treatment may improve outcome in affected individuals. BCAT2 deficiency is an inborn error of BCAA catabolism. At present, it is unclear whether developmental delay and autism are parts of the variable phenotypic spectrum of this condition or coincidental. Further studies will be required to explore this.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1319-1324, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058421

RESUMO

Proteus syndrome (PS) is an ultra-rare disease characterized by progressive, disproportionate, segmental overgrowth caused by a somatic gain-of-function mutation p.Glu17Lys in the oncogene AKT1. The disease has high morbidity and mortality rates due to the increased risk for patients to develop cancer and progressive overgrowth. A teenage patient with severe PS phenotype developed a pelvic recurrence of low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (LGSOC). Taking into consideration, recent results of the use of AKT inhibitors both in PS and AKT-mutant cancers, we treated the patient on a compassionate basis, with miransertib (ARQ 092), a potent, selective, allosteric AKT inhibitor. Targeted deep sequencing assay of PI3K/AKT pathway genes of the affected overgrowth lesion (cerebriform connective tissue nevus) and the tumor tissues detected the same activating AKT1 mutation in both. Treatment with miransertib led to a complete remission of the cancer and a significant improvement in the patients' everyday life. The treatment is still ongoing at 22 months. This is the first report showing the therapeutic effects of an AKT inhibitor on both benign and malignant tissues that harbor the same pathogenic AKT1 mutation. The present article showed that personalized medicine is feasible in ultra-rare diseases.

5.
Clin Genet ; 96(1): 102-103, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012097

RESUMO

PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) are overgrowth diseases involving mesenchymal tissues caused by postzygotic variants in the PIK3CA gene. Fibro-Adipose hyperplasia or Overgrowth (FAO) belongs to PROS. We reported the beneficial effect of oral low-dose sirolimus therapy in a child affected by progressive FAO in term of stabilization of the disease, good tolerability, and easy management.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 914-924, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982611

RESUMO

Glypicans are a family of cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans that regulate growth-factor signaling during development and are thought to play a role in the regulation of morphogenesis. Whole-exome sequencing of the Australian family that defined Keipert syndrome (nasodigitoacoustic syndrome) identified a hemizygous truncating variant in the gene encoding glypican 4 (GPC4). This variant, located in the final exon of GPC4, results in premature termination of the protein 51 amino acid residues prior to the stop codon, and in concomitant loss of functionally important N-linked glycosylation (Asn514) and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor (Ser529) sites. We subsequently identified seven affected males from five additional kindreds with novel and predicted pathogenic variants in GPC4. Segregation analysis and X-inactivation studies in carrier females provided supportive evidence that the GPC4 variants caused the condition. Furthermore, functional studies of recombinant protein suggested that the truncated proteins p.Gln506∗ and p.Glu496∗ were less stable than the wild type. Clinical features of Keipert syndrome included a prominent forehead, a flat midface, hypertelorism, a broad nose, downturned corners of mouth, and digital abnormalities, whereas cognitive impairment and deafness were variable features. Studies of Gpc4 knockout mice showed evidence of the two primary features of Keipert syndrome: craniofacial abnormalities and digital abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that GPC4 is most closely related to GPC6, which is associated with a bone dysplasia that has a phenotypic overlap with Keipert syndrome. Overall, we have shown that pathogenic variants in GPC4 cause a loss of function that results in Keipert syndrome, making GPC4 the third human glypican to be linked to a genetic syndrome.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(6): 940-947, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854769

RESUMO

Pain in individuals with RASopathies is a neglected topic in literature. In this article, we assessed prevalence and profile of pain in a sample of 80 individuals affected by RASopathies. The study sample included individuals with Noonan syndrome (N = 42), Costello syndrome (N = 17), and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (N = 21). A set of standardized questionnaires and scales were administered (VAS/numeric scale, r-FLACC, Wang-Baker scale, NPSI, BPI, NCCPC-R) to detect and characterize acute and chronic pain and to study the influence of pain on quality of life (PEDs-QL, SF-36) and sleeping patterns (SDSC); revision of past medical history and multisystemic evaluation was provided. Available clinical data were correlated to the presence of pain. High prevalence of acute (44%) and chronic (61%) pain was documented in the examined sample. Due to age and intellectual disability, acute pain was localized in 18/35 individuals and chronic pain in 33/49. Muscle-skeletal and abdominal pain was more frequently reported. The intensity of acute and chronic pain interfered with daily activities in 1/3 of the sample. Pain negatively impacted on QoL and sleeping patterns. This work documents that pain is highly prevalent in RASopathies. Future studies including subjective and objective measures of pain are required to discriminate a somatosensory abnormality from an abnormal elaboration of painful stimuli at a central level.

8.
Lymphat Res Biol ; 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to examine the hypothesis that cystic hygroma (CH) with normal karyotype can manifest as a Mendelian inherited trait, and that a genetic similitude with hereditary lymphedema exists. To reach this goal, we investigated the prevalence of genetic variants in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis genes in a cohort of euploid fetuses with CH that almost resolved before delivery. A short review of cases from literature is also reported. METHODS AND RESULTS: Five fetuses were screened using a next-generation sequencing approach by targeting 33 genes known to be associated with vascular and lymphatic malformations. The genetic evaluation revealed two novel variants in KDR and KRIT1 genes. CONCLUSION: A review of the literature to date revealed that an association exists between CH and hereditary lymphedema and, similar to lymphedema, CH can be inherited in autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant manner, with the latter most likely associated with a better prognosis. About KDR and KRIT1 genes, no other similar associations are reported in the literature and caution is needed in their interpretation. In conclusion, we thought that a genetic test for the outcome of familial CH could be of enormous prognostic value.

9.
Am J Med Genet A ; : e40632, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30302932

RESUMO

This report summarizes and highlights the fifth International RASopathies Symposium: When Development and Cancer Intersect, held in Orlando, Florida in July 2017. The RASopathies comprise a recognizable pattern of malformation syndromes that are caused by germ line mutations in genes that encode components of the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Because of their common underlying pathogenetic etiology, there is significant overlap in their phenotypic features, which includes craniofacial dysmorphology, cardiac, cutaneous, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal and ocular abnormalities, neurological and neurocognitive issues, and a predisposition to cancer. The RAS pathway is a well-known oncogenic pathway that is commonly found to be activated in somatic malignancies. As in somatic cancers, the RASopathies can be caused by various pathogenetic mechanisms that ultimately impact or alter the normal function and regulation of the MAPK pathway. As such, the RASopathies represent an excellent model of study to explore the intersection of the effects of dysregulation and its consequence in both development and oncogenesis.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(4): 621-630, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290154

RESUMO

Aberrant activation or inhibition of potassium (K+) currents across the plasma membrane of cells has been causally linked to altered neurotransmission, cardiac arrhythmias, endocrine dysfunction, and (more rarely) perturbed developmental processes. The K+ channel subfamily K member 4 (KCNK4), also known as TRAAK (TWIK-related arachidonic acid-stimulated K+ channel), belongs to the mechano-gated ion channels of the TRAAK/TREK subfamily of two-pore-domain (K2P) K+ channels. While K2P channels are well known to contribute to the resting membrane potential and cellular excitability, their involvement in pathophysiological processes remains largely uncharacterized. We report that de novo missense mutations in KCNK4 cause a recognizable syndrome with a distinctive facial gestalt, for which we propose the acronym FHEIG (facial dysmorphism, hypertrichosis, epilepsy, intellectual disability/developmental delay, and gingival overgrowth). Patch-clamp analyses documented a significant gain of function of the identified KCNK4 channel mutants basally and impaired sensitivity to mechanical stimulation and arachidonic acid. Co-expression experiments indicated a dominant behavior of the disease-causing mutations. Molecular dynamics simulations consistently indicated that mutations favor sealing of the lateral intramembrane fenestration that has been proposed to negatively control K+ flow by allowing lipid access to the central cavity of the channel. Overall, our findings illustrate the pleiotropic effect of dysregulated KCNK4 function and provide support to the hypothesis of a gating mechanism based on the lateral fenestrations of K2P channels.

12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(2): 409-414, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29193639

RESUMO

Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a rare chromosomal disorder caused by a partial deletion of chromosome 4 (4p16.3p16.2). We describe a case of a male 9 years old children with WHS proteinuria and hypertension. Laboratory data showed creatinine 1.05 mg/dl, GFR 65.9 ml/min/1.73 m2 , cholesterol 280 mg/dl, triglyceride 125 mg/dl with electrolytes in the normal range. Urine collection showed protein 2.72 g/L with a urine protein/creatinine ratio (UP /UCr ratio) of 4.2 and diuresis of 1,100 ml. Renal ultrasound showed reduced kidney dimensions with diffusely hyperechogenic cortex and poorly visualized pyramids. Renal biopsy showed oligonephronia with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis associated with initial tubulointerstitial sclerotic atrophy. The child began therapy with Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-inhibitors) to reduce proteinuria and progression of chronic kidney disease. In the literature the anomalies of number of glomeruli oligonephronia and oligomeganephronia (OMN) are described in two forms, one without any associated anomalies, sporadic, and solitary and the other with one or more anomalies. Our review of the literature shows that the pathogenesis of this anomaly is unknown but the role of chromosome 4 is very relevant. Many cases of OMN are associated with anomalies on this chromosome, in the literature cases series we observed this association in 14/48 cases (29.2%) and in 7 of these 14 cases with WHS. Our case and the review of literature demonstrate how periodic urinalysis and renal ultrasound monitoring is recommended in patients affected by WHS and the renal biopsy must be performed when there is the onset of proteinuria.

13.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 22(1): 170-177, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29037749

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by short stature, skeletal and haematological/lymphatic defects, distinctive facies, cryptorchidism, and a wide spectrum of congenital heart defects. Recurrent features also include variable cognitive deficits and behavioural problems. Recent research has been focused on the assessment of prevalence, age of onset and characterization of psychiatric features in this disorder. Herein, we evaluated the prevalence of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety and depressive symptoms and syndromes in a cohort of individuals with clinical and molecular diagnosis of NS. METHODS: The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS PL) has been used for the assessment of psychiatric disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) have been assessed for the evaluation of anxiety and depressive symptoms and syndromes, whereas Conners Teacher and Parent Rating Scales-long version (CRS-R) have been used to evaluate ADHD. RESULTS: The study included 27 individuals (67% males) with an average age of 10.4 years (range 6-18 years) receiving molecular diagnosis of NS or a clinically related condition, evaluated and treated at the Neuropsychiatric Unit of Children's Hospital Bambino Gesù and at the Center for Rare Diseases of Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, in Rome. Twenty individuals showed mutations in PTPN11, five in SOS1 and two in SHOC2. The mean IQ was 94 (Standard Deviation = 17, min = 56, max = 130). Seventy percent of the individuals (n = 19; 95% Confidence Interval = 52-85%) showed ADHD features, with six individuals reaching DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD disorder, and thirteen showing subsyndromal traits. Symptoms or syndrome of anxiety were present in 37% of the cohort (n = 10; 95% Confidence Interval = 19-56%), with two individuals showing anxiety disorder and eight cases exhibiting subsyndromal traits. CONCLUSION: Our results show individuals with NS do present a very high risk to develop psychiatric disorders or symptoms during paediatric age. Based on these findings, preschool assessment of inattentive, hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety/depressive symptoms is recommended in order to plan a personalized treatment for psychological/psychiatric issues in affected individuals. Dedicated prospective studies are required to confirm the present data and better characterize the psychopathological profile in NS.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Noonan/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Criança , Comorbidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
14.
Neuroradiology ; 59(10): 1031-1041, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28819680

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We propose an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based quantitative morphovolumetric approach to the posterior cranial fossa (PCF) and craniocervical junction (CCJ) changes in achondroplastic patients investigating possible associations with ventriculomegaly and medullary compression. METHODS: We analyzed MRI of 13 achondroplastic children not treated by surgery. 3D FSPGR T1-weighted images were used to analyze (1) PCF synchondroses; (2) PCF volume (PCFV), PCF brain volume (PCFBV), PCFV/PCFBV ratio, cerebellar volume, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces volume, and IV ventricle volume; (3) PCF (clivus, supraocciput, exocciput lengths, tentorial angle) and CCJ (AP and LL diameters of foramen magnum (FM)) morphometry; (4) measurements of FM and jugular foramina (JF) areas; and (5) supratentorial ventricular volume. RESULTS: All patients showed synostosis of spheno-occipital synchondroses, eight showed synostosis of intra-occipital synchondroses, nine showed CCJ impingement on the cervical cord but only three had cervical myelopathy. Compared to controls, clivus and exocciput lengths, LL and AP diameters of FM, FM area and JF area were significantly reduced, supraocciput length, tentorial angle, PCFV, PCFBV, cerebellar volume, supratentorial ventricular system volume were significantly increased. A correlation was found between clivus length and supratentorial ventricular volume, premature closure of intra-occipital synchondroses and FM area while a trend was found between FM area and supraocciput length. CONCLUSION: Our analysis demonstrates a relationship between the shortening of the clivus and the ventriculomegaly. On the other hand the premature closure of PCF synchondroses, the shape, and the growth direction of supraocciput bone contribute to reduce the FM area, causing in some patients medullary compression.


Assuntos
Acondroplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Atlas Cervical/anormalidades , Atlas Cervical/diagnóstico por imagem , Fossa Craniana Posterior/anormalidades , Fossa Craniana Posterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Tridimensional , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
15.
Hum Mutat ; 38(4): 451-459, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28074573

RESUMO

Germline mutations in PTPN11, the gene encoding the Src-homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP2), cause Noonan syndrome (NS), a relatively common, clinically variable, multisystem disorder. Here, we report on the identification of five different PTPN11 missense changes affecting residues Leu261 , Leu262 , and Arg265 in 16 unrelated individuals with clinical diagnosis of NS or with features suggestive for this disorder, specifying a novel disease-causing mutation cluster. Expression of the mutant proteins in HEK293T cells documented their activating role on MAPK signaling. Structural data predicted a gain-of-function role of substitutions at residues Leu262 and Arg265 exerted by disruption of the N-SH2/PTP autoinhibitory interaction. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested a more complex behavior for changes affecting Leu261 , with possible impact on SHP2's catalytic activity/selectivity and proper interaction of the PTP domain with the regulatory SH2 domains. Consistent with that, biochemical data indicated that substitutions at codons 262 and 265 increased the catalytic activity of the phosphatase, while those affecting codon 261 were only moderately activating but impacted substrate specificity. Remarkably, these mutations underlie a relatively mild form of NS characterized by low prevalence of cardiac defects, short stature, and cognitive and behavioral issues, as well as less evident typical facial features.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Síndrome de Noonan/patologia , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/química , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/metabolismo , Domínios de Homologia de src
16.
Ophthalmic Genet ; 38(1): 83-87, 2017 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27054527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the cytokine receptor-like factor 1 (CRLF1) gene are responsible for Crisponi/Cold-induced Sweat Syndrome, an extremely rare autosomal-recessive multisystem disorder. The protein encoded is a soluble cytokine receptor, involved in the ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor (CNTFR) pathway. The ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promotes corneal wound healing and patients with Crisponi/CISS1 syndrome suffer from recurrent keratitis. The aim of the study was to report and discuss the corneal alterations in Crisponi/CISS1 rare disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the cornea of both eyes in four Crisponi/CISS1 patients to provide a detailed description of slit-lamp biomicroscopy findings. Corneal sensitivity, tears functionality and blinking video recording at rest were also assessed in all patients. Two patients were also evaluated with in vivo confocal microscopy, completed with a needle electromyography of their orbicularis muscles. RESULTS: None of the patients presented a tears dysfunction and video recording documented a prolonged lid excursion in all patients. Slit lamp examination revealed a chronic epithelial impairment in all cases. Needle electromyography of the orbicularis oculi showed a dystonic pattern. The confocal microscopy confirmed the biomicroscopic observed lesions and documented unusual findings of the corneal nerve plexus. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of microscopic cornea alterations explored with confocal imaging in Crisponi/CISS1 patients. The observed corneal findings suggest a possible direct correlation to the CNTFR pathway defect and the blinking imbalance could exacerbate the compromised epithelial wound healing. Topical administrations of lubricating eye drops are strongly recommended in these patients.


Assuntos
Doenças da Córnea/diagnóstico , Epitélio Anterior/patologia , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/diagnóstico , Hiperidrose/diagnóstico , Trismo/congênito , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Córnea/inervação , Morte Súbita , Eletromiografia , Facies , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Humanos , Hiperidrose/genética , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Músculos Oculomotores/fisiologia , Lâmpada de Fenda , Doenças do Nervo Trigêmeo/diagnóstico , Trismo/diagnóstico , Trismo/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(1): 236-45, 2016 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27392078

RESUMO

Crisponi syndrome (CS)/cold-induced sweating syndrome type 1 (CISS1) is a very rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by a complex phenotype with high neonatal lethality, associated with the following main clinical features: hyperthermia and feeding difficulties in the neonatal period, scoliosis, and paradoxical sweating induced by cold since early childhood. CS/CISS1 can be caused by mutations in cytokine receptor-like factor 1 (CRLF1). However, the physiopathological role of CRLF1 is still poorly understood. A subset of CS/CISS1 cases remain yet genetically unexplained after CRLF1 sequencing. In five of them, exome sequencing and targeted Sanger sequencing identified four homozygous disease-causing mutations in kelch-like family member 7 (KLHL7), affecting the Kelch domains of the protein. KLHL7 encodes a BTB-Kelch-related protein involved in the ubiquitination of target proteins for proteasome-mediated degradation. Mono-allelic substitutions in other domains of KLHL7 have been reported in three families affected by a late-onset form of autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Retinitis pigmentosa was also present in two surviving children reported here carrying bi-allelic KLHL7 mutations. KLHL7 mutations are thus associated with a more severe phenotype in recessive than in dominant cases. Although these data further support the pathogenic role of KLHL7 mutations in a CS/CISS1-like phenotype, they do not explain all their clinical manifestations and highlight the high phenotypic heterogeneity associated with mutations in KLHL7.


Assuntos
Alelos , Autoantígenos/genética , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/complicações , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Hiperidrose/complicações , Hiperidrose/genética , Mutação , Retinite Pigmentosa/complicações , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Trismo/congênito , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Autoantígenos/química , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Morte Súbita , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Síndrome , Trismo/complicações , Trismo/genética
18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(10): 2698-705, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27312461

RESUMO

Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is an early onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by paroxystic episodes of alternating hemiplegia, variable degrees of intellectual disability, and dystonic movements. The main causative gene, ATP1A3, is also responsible for other neurodevelopmental disorders. While the neurological profile of this condition is well defined, the question whether a recognizable pattern of physical anomalies does exist in this condition is still open. We performed a morphological evaluation of 30 patients at different ages. All patients were evaluated independently by each author and evaluation sheets were compared, discussed, and agreed afterwards. This study started before the identification of ATP1A3 as the causative gene, and the patients were selected upon their neurological picture. Four of these 30 patients tested negative for ATP1A3 mutations and were excluded from the present work. On physical ground, almost all patients shared a similar physical phenotype consisting of hypotonia, long face, thin eyebrows, strabismus, hypertelorism, long palpebral fissures, downturned mouth, and slender habitus. Such phenotype is sufficiently typical to generate a recognizable gestalt. We also evaluated patients photographs taken from the parents in early childhood (6-20 months) to delineate a clinical profile possibly recognizable before the neurological signs suggest the diagnosis. Our data suggest that the typical early gestalt is sufficient to advise the molecular analysis of ATP1A3, even in absence of the pathognomonic neurological signs. Finally, since a number of patients is now adult, some information can be drawn on the phenotypic evolution of the facial appearance of patients with alternating hemiplegia of childhood. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Facies , Hemiplegia/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Pré-Escolar , Códon , Feminino , Hemiplegia/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética
19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(9): 2389-93, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27320412

RESUMO

Wiedemann-Steiner Syndrome (WSS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertrichosis, short stature, intellectual disability, developmental delay, and facial dysmorphism. Since the original reports by Wiedemann and co-workers, and Steiner and Marques, only a few cases have been described. Recently, the clinical variability of the disorder has more precisely been characterized by Jones and co-workers, who also identified heterozygous KMT2A mutations as the molecular defect underlying this condition. Here, we report on a boy with a complex phenotype overlapping WSS but exhibiting epilepsy, feeding difficulties, microcephaly, and congenital immunodeficiency with low levels of immunoglobulins as additional features. Whole exome sequencing allowed identifying a previously unreported de novo KMT2A missense mutation affecting the DNA binding domain of the methyltransferase. This finding expands the clinical phenotype associated with KMT2A mutations to include immunodeficiency and epilepsy as clinically relevant features for this disorder. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/genética , Fenótipo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Eletroencefalografia , Facies , Estudos de Associação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Síndrome
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(6): 1471-8, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27007857

RESUMO

Auriculo-Condylar Syndrome (ACS) is a craniofacial malformation syndrome characterized by external ear anomalies, hypoplasia of the mandibular condyle, temporomandibular joint abnormalities, micrognathia, and microstomia. Glossoptosis, masticatory abnormalities, orthodontic problems, and malocclusion occur in a majority of affected subjects. The clinical diagnosis is usually suggested by the pathognomonic ear appearance ("question mark ear"), consisting of a variable degree of clefting between the helix and earlobe. The genetic mechanisms underlying ACS have recently been identified. Both autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance of mutations in phospholipase C, beta 4 (PLCB4) and endothelin 1 (EDN1) have been reported along with autosomal dominant mutations in guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) α inhibiting activity polypeptide 3 (GNAI3). We report 6 years of follow-up of a child with a clinical phenotype consistent with ACS due to a homozygous frameshift mutation in PLCB4. The baby presented feeding difficulties associated with failure to thrive and a complex sleep-related respiratory disorder, characterized by central and obstructive apnoeas. Our observations of this case further delineate the phenotype of ACS associated with autosomal recessive PLCB4 loss-of-function mutations, underscoring gastrointestinal dysfunction and severe sleep-related breathing abnormalities as additional features when compared to patients with heterozygous mutations with a presumed dominant negative effect. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Otopatias/genética , Otopatias/fisiopatologia , Orelha/anormalidades , Estudos de Associação Genética , Homozigoto , Mutação , Fenótipo , Fosfolipase C beta/genética , Criança , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Orelha/fisiopatologia , Otopatias/diagnóstico , Facies , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Cariótipo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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