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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367710

RESUMO

A metal-oxide material (indium zinc oxide [IZO]) device with near-infrared (NIR) laser annealing was demonstrated on both glass and bendable plastic substrates (polycarbonate, polyethylene, and polyethylene terephthalate). After only 60 s, the sheet resistance of IZO films annealed with a laser was comparable to that of thermal-annealed devices at temperatures in the range of 200-300 °C (1 h). XPS, ATR, and AFM were used to investigate the changes in the sheet resistance and correlate them to the composition and morphology of the thin film. Finally, the NIR-laser-annealed IZO films were demonstrated to be capable of detecting changes in humidity and serving as a highly sensitive gas sensor of hydrogen sulfide (in ppb concentration), with room-temperature operation on a bendable substrate.

2.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 162: 112230, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392152

RESUMO

Solid-state zinc ion sensor is developed with high enough resolution and reproducibility for the potential application in brain injury monitoring. An optical diffuser is incorporated into the zinc ion sensor based on optical fiber and hydrogel doped with the fluorescent zinc ion probe molecule meso-2,6-Dichlorophenyltripyrrinone (TPN-Cl2). The diffuser transforms the high-peak-intensity excitation light near the fiber end into a broad light with moderate local intensity to reduce the degradation of the probe molecule. Reversible detection can be reached for 1, 2, and 5 µM (10-6 Molar), with slopes 0.3, 0.6, and 0.8 respectively. This is the pathophysiological concentration range after brain injury. The sensor is applied to neuron-glial cultures and macrophage under the stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), KCl and oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) that reflect inflammation, depolarization and ischemia respectively, mimicking events after brain injury. The zinc ion level is raised to 4-5 µM after LPS treatment, and then reduced to <3 µM after the co-treatment with the herbal drug silymarin. The results suggest the conditions of the neural cells under stress can be monitored.

3.
J Breath Res ; 14(3): 036002, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015218

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that breath ammonia (breath-NH3) concentration is associated with blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. However, interindividual variations in breath-NH3 concentrations were observed. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the effect of oral cavity conditions on breath-NH3 concentration and to validate whether the measurement of breath-NH3 concentration is feasible in clinical settings. A total of 125 individuals, including patients with stage 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD3-5), those on dialysis, and healthy participants, were recruited. A nanostructured sensor was used to detect breath-NH3 concentrations. Pre- and post-gargling as well as pre- and post-hemodialysis (HD) breath-NH3, salivary pH, and salivary urea levels were measured. Breath-NH3, salivary urea, salivary pH, and BUN levels were positively correlated to each other. Breath-NH3 concentrations were associated with BUN levels (r = 0.43, p < 0.001) and were significantly higher in CKD3-5 (p < 0.005) and dialysis patients (p < 0.001) than in healthy participants. Higher correlation coefficients were noted between breath-NH3 concentrations and BUN levels during follow-up (r = 0.59-0.94, p < 0.05). When the cutoff value of breath-NH3 was set at 523.65 ppb, its sensitivity and specificity in predicting CKD (BUN level >24 mg dl-1) were 87.6% and 80.9%, respectively. Breath-NH3 concentrations decreased after HD (p < 0.001) and immediately after gargling (p < 0.01). Breath-NH3 concentration, which was affected by gargling, was correlated to BUN level. The measurement of breath-NH3 concentration using the nanostructured device may be used as a tool for CKD detection and personalized point-of-care for CKD and dialysis patients. The current study had a small sample size. Thus, further studies with a larger cohort must be conducted to validate the effect of oral factors on breath-NH3 concentration and to validate the benefit of breath-NH3 measurement.

4.
ACS Sens ; 4(4): 1023-1031, 2019 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892019

RESUMO

Point-of-care (POC) application for monitoring of breath ammonia (BA) in hemodialysis (HD) patients has emerged as a promising noninvasive health monitoring approach. In this context, many organic gas sensors have been reported for BA detection. However, one of the major challenges for its integration with affordable household POC application is to achieve stable performance for accuracy and high operational current at low voltage for low-cost read-out circuitry. Herein, we exploited the stability of the Donor-Acceptor polymer on the cylindrical nanopore structure to realize the sensors with a high sensitivity and stability. Then, we proposed a double active layer (DL) strategy that exploits an ultrathin layer of Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) to serve as a work function buffer to enhance the operational current. The DL sensor exhibits a sustainable enhanced operational current of microampere level and a stable sensing response even with the presence of P3HT layer. This effect is carefully examined with different aspects, including vertical composition profile of DL configuration, lifetime testing on different sensing layer, morphological analysis, and the versatility of the DL strategy. Finally, we utilize the DL sensor to conduct a tracing of BA concentration in two HD patients before and after HD, and correlate it with the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. A good correlation coefficient of 0.96 is achieved. Moreover, the feasibility of DL sensor integrated into a low-cost circuitry was also verified. The results demonstrate the potential of this DL strategy to be used to integrate organic sensor for affordable household POC devices.


Assuntos
Amônia/análise , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Diálise Renal , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Humanos , Nanoporos , Testes Imediatos , Polímeros/química , Polivinil/química , Tiofenos/química , Compostos de Estanho/química
5.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 132: 352-359, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897542

RESUMO

Salivary urea was reported to be a useful biomarker to reflect the blood urea nitrogen in chronic kidney disease patients. However, as a new biomarker, enormous clinical trials are required to define the intended-use and to verify the specification. In this report, we demonstrated a low-cost easy-operated real-time sensing system (optical fiber-urea-sensing, OFUS, system) to detect salivary urea. We aim to make the system easily reproduced by the community to stimulate abundant clinical tests worldwide. The OFUS system is composed of a simple three-dimensional printed tank to link with two optical fibers, one connecting with a commercial light-emitting diode to deliver the input light signal, the other connecting with a commercial cadmium sulfide photo-conductive cell to detect the sensing signal. To allow on-site detection without any sample pretreatment, only 1 µl saliva is needed to be mixed with 10 µl urease solution and 90 µl pH indicator solution in the reaction tank and the detection time is only 20 s. A stable and reproducible calibration curve can be easily built with a detection range as 24-300 mg/dL. The OFUS system successfully detected saliva with added synthetic urea and samples from chronic kidney disease patients. A good agreement between the OFUS system and the commercial kit was obtained. A good correlation between salivary urea and the blood urea nitrogen was also confirmed.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/instrumentação , Testes Imediatos , Saliva/química , Ureia/análise , Técnicas Biossensoriais/economia , Desenho de Equipamento , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/economia , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Testes Imediatos/economia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Urease/química
6.
Nanotechnology ; 30(9): 095501, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537687

RESUMO

We successfully demonstrated a simple and low-cost nitric oxide (NO) gas sensor to deliver parts-per-billion (ppb) regime detection at room temperature operation. A vertical-channel ZnO nanorods resistor is fabricated by putting silver nanowire electrode onto the hydrothermal ZnO nanorods film. With suitable process condition, the nanorods film exhibits a uniform morphology to enable the formation of gas-permeable nanowire top electrode while also the nanorods provide good surface-to-volume ratio to deliver strong reaction with NO gas. A detection limit to 10 ppb NO is observed while the sensing dynamic range from 10 ppb to 100 ppb is obtained. The sensor is reversible and the real-time sensing response is within 30 s. The results benefit the NO breath detection for patients with chronic inflammatory airway disease, such as asthma.

7.
Chempluschem ; 84(9): 1375-1383, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944041

RESUMO

The instability of the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) during operation can be attributed to the existence of point defects on the organic layers. In this work, the effect of mixed-host emissive layer and the thermal annealing treatment were investigated to eliminate defects and to boost the device performance. The mixed-host system includes 4,4',4''-tri (9-carbazoyl) triphenylamine (TCTA) and 2,7-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)-9, 9'-spirobi[fluorene] (SPPO13). The mixed-host emissive layer with thermal annealing treatment showed low roughness and few pinholes, and the devices fabricated from this emissive layer exhibited high efficiencies, high stabilities, and long lifetimes. The red and orange-red OLEDs exhibited efficiencies of 13.9 cd/A and 24.35 cd/A, respectively. The longest half-lifetime (L0 =500 cd/m2 ) of the red and orange-red OLEDs were 158 h and 180 h, respectively. Efforts were made to solve problems in large-area coating and to reduce the number of defects on in organic layer. Large-active-area (active area=3 cm×4 cm) red phosphorescent OLEDs (PhOLEDs) devices were realized with very high current efficiency up to 9 cd/A.

8.
Adv Mater ; 30(51): e1805093, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318651

RESUMO

Metal oxides are an important class of materials for optoelectronic applications. In this context, developing simple and versatile processes for integrating these materials at the microscale and nanoscale has become increasingly important. One of the major remaining challenges is to control the microstructuration and electro-optical properties in a single step. It is shown here that near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation can be successfully used to prepare amorphous or crystallized TiO2 microstructures in a single step using a direct laser writing (DLW) approach from a TiO2 precursor thin film doped with a suitable dye. When laser writing is conducted under a nitrogen atmosphere, simultaneous to the crosslinking of the Ti-oxide precursor, the graphitization of the organic species embedded in the initial film is observed. In this case, a carbon network is generated within the TiO2 matrix, which significantly increases the conductivity. Moreover, the TiO2 /C nanocomposite exhibits piezoresistive behavior that is used in a pressure sensor device. Using this route, it is possible to use DLW to fabricate microsized pressure sensors.

9.
Adv Mater ; 30(50): e1800923, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30073719

RESUMO

Due to their transparency and tunable electrical, optical, and magnetic properties, metal oxide thin films and structures have many applications in electro-optical devices. In recent years, solution processing combined with direct-patterning techniques such as micro-/nanomolding, inkjet printing, e-jet printing, e-beam writing, and photopatterning has drawn much attention because of the inexpensive and simple fabrication process that avoids using capital-intensive vacuum deposition systems and chemical etching. Furthermore, practical applications of solution direct-patterning techniques with metal oxide structures are demonstrated in thin-film transistors and biochemical sensors on a wide range of substrates. Since direct-patterning techniques enable low-cost fabrication of nanoscale metal oxide structures, these methods are expected to accelerate the development of nanoscale devices and systems based on metal oxide components in important application fields such as flexible electronics, the Internet of Things (IoT), and human health monitoring. Here, a review of the fabrication procedures, advantages, limitations, and applications of the main direct-patterning methods for making metal oxide structures is presented. The goal is to highlight the examples with the most promising perspective from the recent literature.

10.
ChemSusChem ; 11(14): 2429-2435, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766668

RESUMO

Interfacial engineering plays an important role in determining the performance and stability of polymer solar cells (PSCs). In this study, thermally stable highly efficient PSCs are fabricated by incorporating a solution-processed cathode interfacial layer (CIL), including 4,4'-({[methyl(4-sulfonatobutyl)ammonio]bis(propane-3,1-diyl)}bis(dimethylammoniumdiyl))bis(butane-1-sulfonate) (MSAPBS) and polyethylenimine (PEI). For PSCs based on blends of poly{4,8-bis[5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl]benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-[4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate-2,6-diyl]} (PBDTTT-EFT) and [6,6]-phenyl C71 -butyric acid methyl ester (PC71 BM), the maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of inverted PSCs reaches 8.1 % and 7.2 % for MSAPBS and PEI CILs, respectively. The inverted PEI devices exhibit remarkable stability (lifetime >6000 h) under accelerated thermal aging (at 80 °C in ambient environment), which is much superior to that of the device with commonly used LiF CIL (lifetime≈33 h). This stability represents the best result reported for PSCs. The promising results based on this strategy can stimulate further work on the development of novel CILs for PSCs and pave the way towards the realization of commercially viable PSCs with high performance and long-term stability.

11.
ACS Sens ; 2(12): 1788-1795, 2017 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29124925

RESUMO

In this work, a TFB (poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(4,4'-(N-(4-s-butylphenyl)diphenylamine)]) sensor with a cylindrical nanopore structure exhibits a high sensitivity to ammonia in ppb-regime. The lifetime and sensitivity of the TFB sensor were studied and compared to those of P3HT (poly(3-hexylthiophene)), NPB (N,N'-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine), and TAPC (4,4'-cyclohexylidenebis[N,N-bis(4-methylphenyl) benzenamine]) sensors with the same cylindrical nanopore structures. The TFB sensor outstands the others in sensitivity and lifetime and it shows a sensing response (current variation ratio) of 13% to 100 ppb ammonia after 64 days of storage in air. A repeated sensing periods testing and a long-term measurement have also been demonstrated for the test of robustness. The performance of the TFB sensor is stable in both tests, which reveals that the TFB sensor can be utilized in our targeting clinical trials. In the last part of this work, we study the change of ammonia concentration in the breath of hemodialysis (HD) patients before and after dialysis. An obvious drop of breath ammonia concentration can be observed after dialysis. The reduction of breath ammonia is also correlated with the reduction of blood urea nitrogen (BUN). A correlation coefficient of 0.82 is achieved. The result implies that TFB sensor may be used as a real-time and low cost breath ammonia sensor for the daily tracking of hemodialysis patients.


Assuntos
Amônia/análise , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Fluorenos/química , Polímeros/química , Diálise Renal , Idoso , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Testes Respiratórios/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nanoporos
12.
ACS Sens ; 2(4): 531-539, 2017 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28723177

RESUMO

In this work, we successfully demonstrate a fast method to determine the fish freshness by using a sensing system containing an ultrasensitive amine gas sensor to detect the volatile amine gas from the raw fish meat. When traditional titration method takes 4 h and complicated steps to test the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) as a worldwide standard for fish freshness, our sensor takes 1 min to deliver an electrical sensing response that is highly correlated with the TVB-N value. When detecting a fresh fish with a TVB-N as 18 mg/100 g, the sensor delivers an effective ammonia concentration as 100 ppb. For TVB-N as 28-35 mg/100 g, a well-accepted freshness limit, the effective ammonia concentration is as 200-300 ppb. The ppb-regime sensitivity of the sensor and the humidity control in the sensing system are the keys to realizing fast and accurate detection. It is expected that the results in this report enable the development of on-site freshness detection and real-time monitoring in a fish factory.

13.
ChemSusChem ; 10(13): 2778-2787, 2017 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28516516

RESUMO

Here, we report that long-term stable and efficient organic solar cells (OSCs) can be obtained through the following strategies: i) combination of rapid-drying blade-coating deposition with an appropriate thermal annealing treatment to obtain an optimized morphology of the active layer; ii) insertion of interfacial layers to optimize the interfacial properties. The resulting devices based on poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate-2,6-diyl)] (PBDTTT-EFT):[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71 BM) blend as the active layer exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 9.57 %, which represents the highest efficiency ever reported for blade-coated OSCs. Importantly, the conventional structure devices based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend can retain approximately 65 % of their initial PCE for almost 2 years under operating conditions, which is the best result ever reported for long-term stable OSCs under operational conditions. More encouragingly, long-term stable large-area OSCs (active area=216 cm2 ) based on P3HT:PCBM blend are also demonstrated. Our findings represent an important step toward the development of large-area OSCs with high performance and long-term stability.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Energia Solar , Polímeros/química , Temperatura
14.
Opt Express ; 24(2): A414-23, 2016 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26832593

RESUMO

In this work, we investigate blade-coated organic interlayers at the rear surface of hybrid organic-silicon photovoltaics based on two small molecules: Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminium (Alq(3)) and 1,3-bis(2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-5-yl) benzene (OXD-7). In particular, soluble Alq(3) resulting in a uniform thin film with a root-mean-square roughness < 0.2nm is demonstrated for the first time. Both devices with the Alq(3) and OXD-7 interlayers show notable enhancement in the open-circuit voltage and fill-factor, leading to a net efficiency increase by over 2% from the reference, up to 11.8% and 12.5% respectively. The capacitance-voltage characteristics confirm the role of the small-molecule interlayers resembling a thin interfacial oxide layer for the Al-Si Schottky barrier to enhance the built-in potential and facilitate charge transport. Moreover, the Alq(3) interlayer in optimized devices exhibits isolated phases with a large surface roughness, in contrast to the OXD-7 which forms a continuous uniform thin film. The distinct morphological differences between the two interlayers further suggest different enhancement mechanisms and hence offer versatile functionalities to the advent of hybrid organic-silicon photovoltaics.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(34): 18899-903, 2015 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26278552

RESUMO

We demonstrated a large-area nanopatterning technique with the help of a non-close-packed PS sphere layer over a large-area substrate. The non-close-packed PS sphere layer is fabricated by blade coating method. It was demonstrated that non-close-packed PS spheres can be achieved within an area of 18 cm × 25 cm on a rigid glass substrate and within an area of 10 cm × 10 cm on a flexible substrate. We also demonstrated that the blade-coated non-close-packed PS sphere layer was suitable for the mass production of vertical organic transistors over a large area.

16.
Sci Rep ; 5: 10490, 2015 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26014902

RESUMO

Deep-UV (DUV) laser was used to directly write indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) precursor solution and form micro and nanoscale patterns. The directional DUV laser beam avoids the substrate heating and suppresses the diffraction effect. A IGZO precursor solution was also developed to fulfill the requirements for direct photopatterning and for achieving semi-conducting properties with thermal annealing at moderate temperature. The DUV-induced crosslinking of the starting material allows direct write of semi-conducting channels in thin-film transistors but also it improves the field-effect mobility and surface roughness. Material analysis has been carried out by XPS, FTIR, spectroscopic ellipsometry and AFM and the effect of DUV on the final material structure is discussed. The DUV irradiation step results in photolysis and a partial condensation of the inorganic network that freezes the sol-gel layer in a homogeneous distribution, lowering possibilities of thermally induced reorganization at the atomic scale. Laser irradiation allows high-resolution photopatterning and high-enough field-effect mobility, which enables the easy fabrication of oxide nanowires for applications in solar cell, display, flexible electronics, and biomedical sensors.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(1): 232-40, 2015 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25485556

RESUMO

In this work, we demonstrate sputtered amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) with a record high effective field-effect mobility of 174 cm(2)/V s by incorporating silver nanowire (AgNW) arrays to channel electron transport. Compared to the reference counterpart without nanowires, the over 5-fold enhancement in the effective field-effect mobility exhibits clear dependence on the orientation as well as the surface coverage ratio of silver nanowires. Detailed material and device analyses reveal that during the room-temperature IGZO sputtering indium and oxygen diffuse into the nanowire matrix while the nanowire morphology and good contact between IGZO and nanowires are maintained. The unchanged morphology and good interfacial contact lead to high mobility and air-ambient-stable characteristics up to 3 months. Neither hysteresis nor degraded bias stress reliability is observed. The proposed AgNW-mediated a-IGZO TFTs are promising for development of large-scale, flexible, transparent electronics.

18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 14(9): 16287-95, 2014 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25184492

RESUMO

In this study, we investigate the keys to obtain a sensitive ammonia sensor with high air stability by using a low-cost polythiophene diode with a vertical channel and a porous top electrode. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and air-stable poly(5,5'-bis(3-dodecyl-2-thienyl)-2,2'-bithiophene) (PQT-12) are both evaluated as the active sensing layer. Two-dimensional current simulation reveals that the proposed device exhibits numerous connected vertical nanometer junctions (VNJ). Due to the de-doping reaction between ammonia molecules and the bulk current flowing through the vertical channel, both PQT-12 and P3HT VNJ-diodes exhibit detection limits of 50-ppb ammonia. The P3HT VNJ-diode, however, becomes unstable after being stored in air for two days. On the contrary, the PQT-12 VNJ-diode keeps an almost unchanged response to 50-ppb ammonia after being stored in air for 25 days. The improved storage lifetime of an organic-semiconductor-based gas sensor in air is successfully demonstrated.


Assuntos
Amônia/análise , Condutometria/instrumentação , Gases/análise , Compostos Organosselênicos/química , Semicondutores , Tiofenos/química , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Transdutores
19.
Anal Chem ; 85(6): 3110-7, 2013 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23394145

RESUMO

We successfully demonstrate the first solid-state sensor to have reliable responses to breath ammonia of rat. For thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatopathy rats, we observe that the proposed sensor can detect liver that undergoes acute-moderate hepatopathy with a p-value less than 0.05. The proposed sensor is an organic diode with vertical nanojunctions produced by using low-cost colloidal lithography. Its simple structure and low production cost facilitates the development of point-of-care technology. We also anticipate that the study is a starting point for investigating sophisticated breath-ammonia-related disease models.


Assuntos
Amônia/química , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/diagnóstico , Nanoestruturas , Animais , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Feminino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tioacetamida/toxicidade
20.
Adv Mater ; 24(26): 3509-14, 2012 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22678659

RESUMO

An effective approach to reduce defects and increase electron mobility in a-IGZO thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) is introduced. A strong reduction layer, calcium, is capped onto the back interface of a-IGZO TFT. After calcium capping, the effective electron mobility of a-IGZO TFT increases from 12 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) to 160 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). This high mobility is a new record, which implies that the proposed defect reduction effect is key to improve electron transport in oxide semiconductor materials.


Assuntos
Gálio/química , Índio/química , Transistores Eletrônicos , Óxido de Zinco/química , Transporte de Elétrons
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