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1.
Genomics ; 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135297

RESUMO

Adipose tissue is the largest metabolic organ because of adipogenesis controlled by numerous miRNAs. MiR-145 is classified into the same cluster with famous miR-143. However, few studies have investigated the role of miR-145 in adipogenesis. In the current study, we observed that the expression of miR-145 was downregulated during bovine adipogenesis in vivo and in vitro. The results of RNA-Seq analysis showed that miR-145 mainly disturb the PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways in bovine preadipocytes. MiR-145 inhibited bovine preadipocyte differentiation and downregulated phosphorylation level of Akt and ERK1/2 proteins. Furthermore, insulin, as a powerful inducer initiating adipogenesis and an activator of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways, was able to rescue the downregulation of Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation levels caused by miR-145. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-145 is a potent inhibitor of adipogenesis that may function by reducing the activity of PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways.

2.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(3)2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168744

RESUMO

In this review, we highlight information on microRNA (miRNA) identification and functional characterization in the beef for muscle and carcass composition traits, with an emphasis on Qinchuan beef cattle, and discuss the current challenges and future directions for the use of miRNA as a biomarker in cattle for breeding programs to improve meat quality and carcass traits. MicroRNAs are endogenous and non-coding RNA that have the function of making post-transcriptional modifications during the process of preadipocyte differentiation in mammals. Many studies claim that diverse miRNAs have an impact on adipogenesis. Furthermore, their target genes are associated with every phase of adipocyte differentiation. It has been confirmed that, during adipogenesis, several miRNAs are differentially expressed, including miR-204, miR-224, and miR-33. The development of mammalian skeletal muscle is sequentially controlled by somite commitment into progenitor cells, followed by their fusion and migration, the proliferation of myoblasts, and final modification into fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers. It has been reported that miRNA in the bovine MEG3-DIO3 locus has a regulatory function for myoblast differentiation. Likewise, miR-224 has been associated with controlling the differentiation of bovine adipocytes by targeting lipoprotein lipase. Through the posttranscriptional downregulation of KLF6, miR-148a-3p disrupts the proliferation of bovine myoblasts and stimulates apoptosis while the miR-23a~27a~24-2 cluster represses adipogenesis. Additional to influences on muscle and fat, bta-mir-182, bta-mir-183, and bta-mir-338 represent regulators of proteolysis in muscle, which influences meat tenderness.

3.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003022

RESUMO

MicroRNAs are small, single stranded, and noncoding RNAs that have been proven to be potent regulators of adipogenesis. However, the role of bta-miR-149-5p in regulating bovine adipogenesis is still unclear. Expression profiling in different stages of adipogenesis revealed that bta-miR-149-5p was enriched in the proliferation stage, and also on Day 9 of differentiation in bovine adipocytes. Our gain of function study showed that bta-miR-149-5p can negatively regulate both bovine adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Overexpression of bta-miR-149-5p suppressed the expression of proliferation marker genes at both the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels, markedly decreased the percentage of S-phase cells, decreased the number of EdU-stained cells, and substantially reduced adipocyte proliferation vitality in the cell count assay. Collectively, these findings elucidated that bta-miR-149-5p inhibits adipocyte proliferation. Furthermore, overexpression of bta-miR-149-5p also suppressed the expression of adipogenic genes at both the mRNA and protein levels, inhibited lipid accumulation, and reduced the secretion of adiponectin in bovine adipocytes. Furthermore, a luciferase activity assay explored how bta-miR-149-5p targeted CRTCs (CRTC1 and CRTC2) directly. This targeting was further validated by the mRNA and protein level expression of CRTC1 and CRTC2, which were down regulated by bta-miR-149-5p overexpression. Moreover, bta-miR-149-5p indirectly targeted CRTC1 and CRTC2 through regulating their key transcription factors. Overexpression of bta-miR-149-5p suppressed the expression of SMAD3, while enriched the expression of NRF1, which are the key transcription factors and proven regulators of CRTC1. Overexpression of bta-miR-149-5p also repressed the expression of C/EBPγ, XBP1, INSM1, and ZNF263, which are the key regulators of CRTCs, at both the mRNA and protein levels. These findings suggest that bta-miR-149-5p is a negative regulator of CRTC1 and CRTC2 both at transcriptional and posttranscriptional level. Taken together, these findings suggest that bta-miR-149-5p can regulate adipogenesis, which implies that bta-miR-149-5p could be a target for increasing intramuscular fat in beef cattle.

4.
Biosci Rep ; 40(3)2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110807

RESUMO

The Src homology 2 B 2 (SH2B2) gene regulate energy balance and body weight at least partially by enhancing Janus kinase-2 (JAK2)-mediated cytokine signaling, including leptin and/or GH signaling. Leptin is an adipose hormone that controls body weight. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the association between body measurement traits and SH2B2 gene polymorphisms as responsible mutations. For this purpose, we selected four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SH2B2 gene, including two in intron 5 (g.20545A>G, and g.20570G>A, one synonymous SNP g.20693T>C, in exon 6 and one in intron 8 (g.24070C>A, and genotyped them in Qinchuan cattle. SNPs in sample populations were in medium polymorphism level (0.250A, g.20693T>C, and g.24070C>A, significantly (P < 0.05) associated with body length (BL) and chest circumference (CC) in Qinchuan cattle. In addition, H4H3 and H5H5 diplotype had highly significantly (P < 0.01) greater body length (BL), rump length (RL), and chest circumference (CC) than H4H2. Our investigation will not only extend the spectrum of genetic variation of bovine SH2B2 gene, but also provide useful information for the marker assisted selection in beef cattle breeding program.

5.
Physiol Genomics ; 52(3): 160-167, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036767

RESUMO

As a member of the Iroquois homeobox gene family, the IRX3 gene plays an important role in regulating the growth, development and fat deposition of chordates. In the present study, we found, using real-time PCR, that the bovine IRX3 gene was highly expressed in lung, kidney, heart, subcutaneous fat and longissimus dorsi muscle. We cloned the full-length sequence of the bovine IRX3 gene promoter and constructed eight series of 5' deletion promoter plasmid luciferase reporter assays and then transfected them to 3T3-L1 and C2C12 cell lines to detect its core promoter regions. The results showed that the core promoter of bovine IRX3 was located within a -292/-42 bp region relative to the transcriptional start site. Furthermore, sequence analysis identified eight CpG islands in the promoter region. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay in combination with site-directed mutation and siRNA interference demonstrated that SREBF2 and PPARG binding occurs in region -292/-42 and is essential in bovine IRX3 transcription. These results lay an important theoretical foundation for exploring the molecular regulation mechanism of the IRX3 gene in bovine fat deposition.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227254, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059009

RESUMO

The TORC2 gene is responsible for nutrient metabolism, gluconeogenesis, myogenesis and adipogenesis through the PI3K-Akt, AMPK, glucagon and insulin resistance signaling pathways. Sequencing of PCR amplicons explored three novel SNPs at loci g.16534694G>A, g.16535011C>T, and g.16535044A>T in the promoter region of the TORC2 gene in the Qinchuan breed of cattle. Allelic and genotypic frequencies of these SNPs deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) (P < 0.05). SNP1 genotype GG, SNP2 genotype CT and SNP3 genotype AT showed significantly (P <0.05) larger body measurement and improved carcass quality traits. Haplotype H1 (GCA) showed significantly (p<0.01) higher transcriptional activity (51.44%) followed by H4 (ATT) (34.13%) in bovine preadipocytes. The diplotypes HI-H3 (GG-CC-AT), H1-H2 (GG-CT-AT) and H3-H4 (GA-CT-TT) showed significant (P<0.01) associations with body measurement and improved carcass quality traits. Analysis of the relative mRNA expression level of the TORC2 gene in different tissues within two different age groups revealed a significant increase (P<0.01) in liver, small intestine, muscle and fat tissues with growth from calf stage to adult stage. We can conclude that variants mapped within TORC2 can be used in marker-assisted selection for carcass quality and body measurement traits in breed improvement programs of Qinchuan cattle.

7.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 681: 108260, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926163

RESUMO

Preadipocyte differentiation and lipid synthesis are critical steps for intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition and lipid metabolism homeostasis. IMF content of beef not only determines the ratio of muscle to adipose, but also determines the beef quality, flavor, and sensory characteristics. Maintaining lipid metabolism homeostasis is the key means of preventing and treating diabetes, obesity, and other metabolic diseases. SIRT6, which is an ADP-ribosyltransferase and NAD+-dependent deacetylase of acetyl and long-chain fatty acyl groups, playing central roles in lipid and glucose metabolism, is closely related to the occurrence of diabetes and obesity caused by overnutrition and aging. This study was based on bovine preadipocyte differentiation and an obese mice model, and comprehensively used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and morphological identification methods to explore the effects of inhibition of SIRT6 on differentiation and lipid synthesis, and related molecular mechanisms. Additionally, the feedback synergistic regulation of SIRT5 and SIRT6 on differentiation and lipid deposition was analyzed. The results showed that in the differentiation process of bovine preadipocytes, inhibition of SIRT5 significantly promoted SIRT6 expression. In addition, SIRT6 inhibited bovine preadipocyte differentiation and lipid synthesis, cooperating with SIRT5 to decrease lipid deposition, and repressed cell cycle arrest of preadipocytes. Moreover, in vivo verification experiments also obtained consistent results. Furthermore, SIRT6 inhibited preadipocyte differentiation and lipid deposition by activating the adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) pathway. The above results provided a novel approach for understanding the functions of SIRT6 in regulating bovine adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism, as well as a new target for the treatment of diabetes and obesity in a clinical setting.

8.
Genomics ; 112(3): 2282-2290, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901374

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of ELOVL6 (elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 6) and its underlying mechanism on lipid metabolism in bovine adipocytes. The ELOVL6 gene was overexpressed in bovine adipocytes by adenoviruses, and RNA sequencing was performed. Overexpression of ELOVL6 showed reduced proportions of C14:0 (Myristic) and C16:0 (palmitate) fatty acids and increased proportions of C18.0 (stearate) and C20:4n6 (arachidonic) fatty acids in adipocytes. In addition, a total of 2170 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found, containing 1802 up-regulated and 368 down-regulated genes. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the down-regulated genes were linked with the regulation of lipolysis and the Wnt signaling pathway. The up-regulated genes were mainly involved in the FoxO signaling pathway; the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway; and the cAMP signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results suggest that ELOVL6 could affect the fatty acid composition in bovine adipocytes. We identified numerous related DEGs and pathways, which may provide a basis for studying the function and molecular mechanism of the ELOVL6 gene in regulating lipid metabolism.

9.
Carbohydr Polym ; 231: 115673, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888839

RESUMO

Atomic force microscopy investigation and viscosity measurements were applied on pectin solution. Single fiber lengths of both high-methoxyl and low-methoxyl pectin in 0.005 mg/ml were in the range of 19.22-312.11 nm while width was reduced 9.94 % after base catalyzed de-esterification. With adding calcium ions, the viscosity of 0.5 mg/ml low-methoxyl pectin continued growing from 1.30mPa∙s while high-methoxyl pectin solution viscosity stabled at the initial level of 1.26mPa∙s. Comparation of binding behaviors of calcium ions with pectin and alginate revealed the structural influence on inducing force. The formation of dimers was followed by lateral aggregation of dimers when calcium ions were added to low-methoxyl pectin. The lack of third step occurred in alginate where aggregations broken by excessive calcium ions were attributed to the side chains of pectin. Large numbers of esterified galacturonic acid residues limited aggregation of high-methoxyl pectin in intra-molecular interactions which induced by combination of nonspecific hydrophic interactions and hydrogen bonds.

10.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 680: 108236, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893525

RESUMO

Low intramuscular adipose tissue (marbling) continues to be challenge for improving beef quality in Chinese cattle. Highly marbled meat is very desirable; hence, methods to increase IMF content have become a key aspect of improving meat quality. Therefore, research on the mechanism of adipogenesis provides invaluable information for the improvement of meat quality. This study investigated the effect of TORC2 and its underlying mechanism on lipid metabolism in bovine adipocytes. The TORC2 gene was downregulated in bovine adipocytes by siRNA, and RNA sequencing was performed. Downregulation of TORC2 negatively affected bovine adipocyte differentiation. In addition, a total of 577 DEGs were found, containing 146 up-regulated and 376 down-regulated genes. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the DEGs were linked with neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway, calcium signaling pathway, cAMP pathway, chemokine signaling pathway and Wnt signaling pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) term analysis of the DEGs showed that down-regulation of TORC2 gene significantly suppressed the genes regulating important GO terms of adipogenesis-related processes in bovine adipocytes, especially regulation of biological activity, regulation of primary metabolic process, regulation of multicellular organismal process, cell adhesion, lipid metabolic process, secretion, chemical homeostasis, regulation of transport, cell-cell signaling, cAMP metabolic process, cellular calcium ion homeostasis, fat cell differentiation, and cell maturation. In conclusion, our results suggest that TORC2 at least in part regulates lipid metabolism in bovine adipocytes. The results of this study provide a basis for studying the function and molecular mechanism of the TORC2 gene in regulating adipogenesis.

11.
Genomics ; 112(2): 1065-1076, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816429

RESUMO

SIRT5 (sirtuin 5) is located in the mitochondria and plays an important role in biological processes such as maintaining the balance of lipid metabolism and promoting fatty acid oxidation mobilization. In this study, the bovine preadipocyte differentiation and obese mouse models were constructed; combined with transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and morphological identification, the regulatory and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of SIRT5 on bovine preadipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism were studied. The results reveal that during the differentiation of preadipocytes, SIRT5 inhibited the expression of key genes that promote lipid formation and differentiation in fatty acid biosynthesis and PPAR pathways. SIRT5 significantly activated the adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and repressed the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Eventually, SIRT5 significantly inhibited the differentiation of bovine preadipocytes and simultaneously inhibited lipid synthesis and lipid deposition in adipocytes. The verification experiments performed using obese mice also yielded consistent results in vivo.

12.
Genomics ; 112(1): 831-836, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145994

RESUMO

Copy number variation (CNV) refers to a kind of structural variation, having functional and evolutionary effects on phenotypes. Thus far, further elucidation of the CNVs in different Chinese indigenous cattle breeds by whole genome sequencing have yet not been done. In this study, a comprehensive genomic analysis was performed on 75 cattle individuals including six Chinese indigenous cattle breeds and two non-native specialized beef cattle breeds. Based on the 11,486 CNVRs discovered, population analysis was performed, showed that all the cattle breeds clustered in to three clades, consistent with their lineages Bos taurus, Bos taurus × Bos indicus and Bos indicus. Importantly, a set of CNVRs related genes were found to be associated with the traits of interest, which include meat production or quality (CAST, ACTC1, etc.), adaption (BLA-DQB, EGLN2, etc.) and coat color (KIT, MITF, etc.). These results provide valuable full genome variation resources for Chinese bovine genome research and would be helpful for cattle breeding and selection programs in the future.

13.
Genomics ; 112(1): 423-431, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880114

RESUMO

Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) genes plays a significant role in the regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation and muscle development. The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic variation and the haplotype combination of the KLF6 gene in Qinchuan cattle and verify its contribution to bovine carcass traits and body measurements. The data were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to detect the expression profile of the KLF6 gene in the various tissues of Qinchuan cattle. PCR amplicons sequencing explored three novel SNPs at loci 3332C > G; 3413C > T and 3521G > A in the 2nd exon region of the KLF6 gene. The expression of KLF6 in the liver, kidney and lung was greater than that of other tissues. Allelic and genotypic frequencies of these SNPs were found to be in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05). In SNP1, genotype CC, in SNP2, genotype CT and in SNP3 genotype GG were associated (P < 0.05) with larger body and carcass measurements. Association analysis results indicated that individuals with the Hap1/4 diplotype had a longer body and rump, were taller at the withers, and were wider at the hip than the other combinations. In terms of ultrasound carcass measures, Hap1/4 was associated with a larger muscle area and more intramuscular fat than other combinations. The bioinformatics study of the KLF6 protein showed a high degree of conservation in different mammalian species. The above results suggest that the KLF6 gene can used as potential candidate markers gene for the beef breed improvement through marker assisted selection of Qinchuan cattle.

14.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(12)2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810209

RESUMO

Tumor protein p53 inducible nuclear protein 2 (TP53INP2) is a key positive regulator of autophagy, and it has been shown to modulate adipocyte differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism involved in autophagy regulation during adipocyte differentiation has not been clarified. Our experiments were intended to investigate whether TP53INP2 is involved in the regulation of autophagy during bovine adipocyte differentiation and how TP53INP2 affects the differentiation of bovine adipocytes. In our research, using RT-qPCR and Western blot methods, we found that the overexpression of TP53INP2 resulted in the upregulation of adipogenesis and autophagy-related genes, and autophagy flux and the degree of differentiation were detected by LipidTOX™ Deep Red Neutral Lipid staining and dansylcadaverine staining, respectively. The knockdown of TP53INP2 produced results that were the inverse of those produced by the overexpression of TP53INP2. Overall, our results suggested that TP53INP2 can activate autophagy during the early stage of differentiation in bovine adipocytes and positively regulate adipocyte differentiation by affecting autophagy. Additionally, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) also contributed to the function of TP53INP2 in modulating adipocyte differentiation.

15.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(12)2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795267

RESUMO

The gene family with sequence similarity 13 member A (FAM13A) has recently been identified as a marker gene in insulin sensitivity and lipolysis. In this study, we first analyzed the expression patterns of this gene in different tissues of adult cattle and then constructed a phylogenetic tree based on the FAM13A amino acid sequence. This showed that subcutaneous adipose tissue had the highest expression in all tissues except lung tissue. Then we summarized the gene structure. The promoter region sequence of the gene was successfully amplified, and the -241/+54 region has been identified as the core promoter region. The core promoter region was determined by the unidirectional deletion of the 5' flanking promoter region of the FAM13A gene. Based on the bioinformatics analysis, we examined the dual luciferase activity of the vector constructed by the mutation site, and the transcription factors ACSL1 and ASCL2 were found as transcriptional regulators of FAM13A. Moreover, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) further validated the regulatory role of ACSL1 and ASCL2 in the regulation of FAM13A. ACSL1 and ASCL2 were finally identified as activating transcription factors. Our results provide a basis for the function of the FAM13A gene in bovine adipocytes in order to improve the deposition of fat deposition in beef cattle muscle.

16.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(12)2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835509

RESUMO

Neudesin neurotrophic factor (NENF) is a secreted protein that is essential in multiple biological processes, including neural functions, adipogenesis, and tumorigenesis. In our previous study, NENF was significantly inhibited in the bovine adipocytes-myoblasts co-culture system. However, studies on NENF regulation of bovine muscle development and involvement in the cross-talk between adipose tissue and skeletal muscle have not been reported. Hence, the aim of this study was to clarify the functional roles of NENF in bovine preadipocytes and myoblasts. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to examine the spatial expression patterns of NENF in different tissues, and the results showed that NENF was highly expressed in the muscle of four-day-old and 24-month-old Qinchuan cattle. Compared with four-day-old Qinchuan cattle, the expression level of NENF was significantly up-regulated in 24-month-old bovine adipose tissue. To explore the roles of NENF in bovine myoblast and preadipocyte differentiation, small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the NENF gene were transfected into bovine preadipocytes and myoblasts to knock down the expression of the NENF gene. The results showed that the knockdown of NENF in differentiating adipocytes attenuated lipid accumulation, decreased the mRNA expression of adipogenic key marker genes PPARγ, CEBPα, CEBPß, FASN, and SCD1, and decreased the protein expression of PPARγ, CEBPα, and FASN. The formation of myotubes was significantly accelerated, and the mRNA expression levels of myogenic marker genes MYOD1, MYF5, MYF6, MEF2A, MEF2C, and CKM, and the protein expression levels of MYOD1, MYF6, MEF2A, and CKM were up-regulated in myoblasts where NENF was knocked down. In short, the knockdown of NENF inhibited preadipocyte differentiation and promoted myoblast myogenesis.

17.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0214559, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622349

RESUMO

Rumen is an organ for supplying nutrients for the growth and production of bovine, which might function differently under grass-fed and grain-fed regimens considering the association of gene expression, DNA methylation, and microRNA expression. The objective of this study was to explore the potential mechanism influencing rumen function of grass-fed and grain-fed animals. Methylated DNA binding domain sequencing (MBD-Seq) and microRNA-Seq were respectively utilized to detect the DNA methylation and microRNA expression in rumen tissue of grass-fed and grain-fed Angus cattle. Combined analysis revealed that the expression of the differentially expressed genes ADAMTS3 and ENPP3 was correlated with the methylation abundance of the corresponding differentially methylated regions (DMRs) inside these two genes, and these two genes were reported to be respectively involved in biosynthesis and regulation of glycosyltransferase activity; the differentially expressed microRNA bta-mir-122 was predicted to possibly target the differentially expressed genes OCLN and RBM47, potentially affecting the rumen function; the microRNA bta-mir-655 was exclusively detected in grain-fed group; its targets were significantly enriched in insulin and TGF-beta signaling pathways, which might worked together to regulate the function of rumen, resulting in different characteristics between grass-fed and grain-fed cattle. Collectively, our results provided insights into understanding the mechanisms determining rumen function and unraveled the biological basis underlying the economic traits to improve the productivity of animals.

18.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(9)2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533236

RESUMO

This review considers the unique characteristics of Chinese cattle and intramuscular fat content (IMF) as factors influencing meat quality, including tenderness, flavor, and juiciness of meat. Due to its nutritional qualities, meat contributes to a healthy and balanced diet. The intramuscular fat content and eating quality of beef are influenced by many factors, which can generally be divided into on-farm and pre-slaughter factors (breed, sex of cattle, age at slaughter, housing system, diet, and pre-slaughter handling) and postmortem factors (post-slaughter processing, chilling temperature, and packaging). Meat quality traits can also be influenced by the individual genetic background of the animal. Worldwide, the function of genes and genetic polymorphisms that have potential effects on fattening of cattle and beef quality have been investigated. The use of DNA markers is recognized as a powerful and efficient approach to achieve genetic gain for desirable phenotypic characteristics, which is helpful for economic growth. The polymorphisms of the SIRT4, SIRT6, SIRT7, CRTC3, ABHD5, KLF6, H-FABP, and ELOVL6 genes for body and growth characteristics of cattle, and also for beef quality, are considered with the aim of highlighting the significance of beef intramuscular fat content, and that growth, body, and meat quality characteristics are polygenically regulated.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Carne Vermelha/normas , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/normas , Polimorfismo Genético , Padrões de Referência
19.
Mol Cell Probes ; 48: 101443, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487539

RESUMO

ANGPTL4 (angiopoietin-like 4) is a secreted protein involved in triacylglycerol homeostasis. It is a key enzyme in lipolysis, which stimulates the oxidation of fatty acids and inhibits fat accumulation by inhibiting the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Using quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) to investigate the mRNA expression pattern of the bovine ANGPTL4 gene in different tissues and organs, we found that bovine ANGPTL4 had the highest expression level in the liver followed by subcutaneous adipose tissue. To clarify the molecular mechanism involved in the regulation of bovine ANGPTL4, we identified the transcriptional start site (TSS) of the ANGPTL4 gene and obtained 2011 bp of the 5' regulatory region. A series of 5' deletion promoter luciferase reporter assays revealed that the minimum functional promoter region of bovine ANGPTL4 was located at -568 bp to -261 bp relative to TSS. Two transcription factors, GR and Foxa1, were identified and considered as important transcriptional activators of ANGPTL4 by mutational analysis and RNA interference assays in combination with electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) in bovines. In conclusion, GR and Foxa1 were determined to be responsible for the regulation of ANGPTL4 transcription. Our results may provide a basis for further investigation of ANGPTL4 regulation and a reference for improvement of beef quality in cattle.

20.
J Anim Sci ; 97(9): 3823-3831, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278739

RESUMO

Milk fat is a main nutritional component of milk, and it has become one of the important traits of dairy cow breeding. Recently, there is increasing evidence that microRNAs (miRNA) play significant roles in the process of milk fat synthesis in the mammary gland. Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) were harvested from midlactation cows and cultured in DMEM/F-12 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum, 100 units/mL penicillin, 100 µg/mL streptomycin, 5 µg/mL bovine insulin, 1 µg/mL hydrocortisone, and 2 µg/mL bovine prolactin. We found that miR-34b mimic transfection in BMEC reduced the content of intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) and lipid droplet accumulation via triacylglycerol assay and Oil Red O staining; meanwhile, overexpression of miR-34b inhibited mRNA expression of lipid metabolism-related genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), fatty acid synthase (FASN), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), and CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα). Whereas miR-34b inhibitor resulted in completely opposite results. Furthermore, q-PCR and western blot analysis revealed the mRNA and protein expression levels of DCP1A were downregulated in miR-34b mimic transfection group and upregulated in miR-34b inhibitor group. Moreover, luciferase reporter assays verified that DCP1A was the direct target of miR-34b and DCP1A gene silencing in BMEC-inhibited TAG accumulation and suppressed lipid droplet formation. In conclusion, these findings revealed a novel miR-34b-DCP1A axis that has a significant role in regulating milk fat synthesis and suggested that miR-34b may be used to improve the beneficial ingredients in milk.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Glicolipídeos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Leite/química , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Endorribonucleases/genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Inativação Gênica , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
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